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  • 1 Semmelweis Egyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar II. Belgyógyászati Klinika Budapest Szentkirályi u. 46. 1088
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A szabadgyök-kutatás évtizedei alatt egyre közelebb kerültünk ahhoz a felismeréshez, hogy a szervezet szabad gyök–antioxidáns egyensúlyát alapvetően a genetikai háttér és a környezet határozza meg. A Janus-arcú oxigén-szabadgyökök a szignáltranszdukciós utak szekunder hírvivői és egyben a sejtek citotoxikus ágensei is. A szignáltranszdukciós fehérjék mérsékelt oxidációs hatásokra és fémionokra történő aktivációja még nem eléggé ismert. A szignáltranszdukció aktivátorai és inhibitorai közötti molekuláris mechanizmusok finoman kontrolláltak. A sejtek antioxidáns–prooxidáns egyensúlya visszavezethető a szabad szulfhidrilcsoportok és a diszulfidhidak koncentrációviszonyára. Az esszenciális és toxikus fémionok, valamint a szelén egyaránt szerepet játszanak a redox-homeosztázisban. Az egészséges szövetek bővelkednek antioxidánsokban, ezáltal biztosítják a szervezet szabad gyökökkel szembeni védelmét. A táplálékkal felvett antioxidáns vegyületek, mint például az A-, C-, E-vitaminok, polifenolok, antocianinok, flavonoidok, izotiocianátok és más bioaktív molekulák eredeti molekulaformájukban és derivátumaikban is képesek befolyásolni a redoxifolyamatokat. Napjaink molekuláris biológai kutatásainak eredményeképpen egyre több, táplálékkal felvehető vegyületről, illetve azok metabolitjairól bizonyosodik be, hogy génszinten is kifejtik hatásukat.

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