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  • 1 Pécsi Tudományegyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar Élettani Intézet és MTA Neurofiziológiai Kutató Csoport Pécs
  • 2 Louvaini Katolikus Egyetem, Pszichológiai és Neveléstudományi Kar Érzelem, Kogníció és Egészségpszichológiai Intézet Louvain-la-Neuve
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A kontinuummodell szerint az evészavarok elhelyezhetőek egy olyan folyamatos spektrumon, aminek az egyik végén a restriktív anorexia, a másik végén a stabil obesitas kórképe található. Számos vizsgálat bizonyítja továbbá azt, hogy a hangulati (depresszió, kóros szorongás és alexitímia), illetve a kognitív zavarok a testkép észlelésének problémájával együtt jelentkeznek az evészavarokban. Ennek ellenére az obesitast még mindig csupán testsúlykezelési problémaként tartják számon a klinikumban. Célkitűzés: Azon érzelmi, kognitív, illetve testképzavarok feltárása restriktív anorexiában és túlevés okozta stabil obesitasban, amelyek a kontinuummodell érvényességét igazolhatják, továbbá amelyek az evészavarok patológiájának közös alapját képezhetik. Módszerek: Neuropszichológiai tesztekkel vizsgáltuk a kognitív zavarokat, pszichológiai kerdőívekkel a hangulati zavart és az explicit testképértékelést, továbbá affektív priming paradigmát használtunk az implicit attitűdök feltárására. Eredmények: A neuropszichológiai tesztek figyelmi problémát mutattak ki mind anorexiában, mind obesitasban. Mind a gyerek-, mind a felnőttobesitasban megjelent a mentális rigiditás és a stratégiaváltás problémája, ami a frontális lebeny végrehajtórendszerének zavarát igazolta. Az elhízott betegek lassabban kategorizálták a szomorúságot kifejező arcokat, míg az anorexiások a mosolygós arcokat. Az elhízott csoport pozitív implicit attitűdöt, az anorexiás csoport negatív attitűdöt mutatott a túlsúlyos, de nem kövér testkép iránt. Anorexiások nem mutattak preferenciát a nagyon vékony testalak iránt. Következtetések: Az eredményeink szerint a restriktív anorexia több közös tünetet mutat a szorongásos kórképekkel, míg az elhízás a szenvedélybetegségek sajátosságait mutatta. Így a vizsgálatok nem igazolták egyértelműen a modell érvényességét.

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