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Bár a testdiszmorfiás zavar jelentős szenvedéssel, a pszichoszociális funkciók súlyos romlásával és veszélyes kockázatokkal járó betegség, a hazai szakirodalomban szinte alig említik. Így a szerző célkitűzése, hogy részletes áttekintést adjon erről a kevéssé ismert, de nem ritka betegségről. A tünettan középpontjában a saját test észlelésének súlyos zavara áll, ami szociális izolációhoz, szorongáshoz, depresszióhoz és kényszeres megnyilvánulásokhoz vezet. A betegségbelátás hiánya miatt a betegséget gyakran nem ismerik fel. Igen magas a komorbiditás az affektív zavarokkal, szorongásos zavarokkal, személyiségzavarokkal, evészavarokkal, az alkohol- és kémiai szerfüggőséggel. A betegek életminősége igen rossz, az öngyilkosság veszélye nagy, emellett a heteroagresszivitás sem ritka. A betegség kialakulásában mind biológiai, mind pszichológiai és szociokulturális tényezők is szerepet játszanak. Képalkotó vizsgálatokkal és neuropszichológiai módszerekkel jellegzetes eltéréseket mutattak ki. A betegség kialakulásában szerepet tulajdonítanak a gyermekkori visszaélésnek, illetve elhanyagolásnak, a külső megjelenéssel kapcsolatos megjegyzéseknek, a stresszoroknak és a média hatásának. A zavar pontprevalenciája az általános népességben 0,7–2,5%, a felsőoktatásban tanulók, pszichiátriai, bőrgyógyászati és plasztikai sebészeti betegek között ennél lényegesen magasabb a gyakoriság. A betegség jellemzően a serdülőkor elején kezdődik, és kezelés nélkül tartósan fennmarad, krónikus lefolyást mutat. Gyógyszeres kezeléssel és/vagy pszichoterápiával viszonylag rövid idő alatt tartós javulás, illetve gyógyulás érhető el. Orv. Hetil., 2010, 44, 1805–1815.

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