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Az elmúlt 20 év a rákgyógyászat kiemelkedő időszaka: felismertük, hogy az emberi papillomavírusok némelyike rákkeltő, és kifejlesztettünk ellenük védőoltást. Az emberi papillomavírus elleni védőoltás orvostörténeti esemény, a jövő egyik legjelentősebb fegyvere a rák elleni küzdelemben. Jelentősége felbecsülhetetlen, mert az emberi papillomavírus okozta fertőződés népbetegség, az általa keletkezett rákos megbetegedések meghaladják az egymilliót is évente világszerte (az összes rák >5%-a), és ezek 35–50%-a végzetes. A méhnyakrákok csaknem kivétel nélkül az emberi papillomavírus fertőzéseinek következményei, a végbélnyílás rákjainak ~95%-a, a szeméremtestrákok ~40%-a, a hüvelyrákok 60%-a, a hímvesszőrákok ~40%-a, valamint a száj- és garatüregi rákok 65%-a szintén; ezeknek 60–90%-át a 16-os vírus fertőzése okozza. Ha csak 50–60%-ban előzzük meg a védőoltással ezeket a daganatokat, az oltás jelentősége akkor is óriási, de ehhez jönnek még az emberi papillomavírus okozta rákelőző elváltozások, a függölyök, a megmaradó fertőződések és az úgynevezett kiújuló gégeszemölcsösség (recurrent respiratory papillomatosis). A védőoltással ezek túlnyomó többsége is kivédhető. Az emberi papillomavírus elleni oltásnak két fajtája terjedt el a világban: a két (Cervarix) és a négy (Gardasil) támadáspontú; mindegyik a 16-os és a 18-as fajtájú vírus 1-es késői fehérjéjét tartalmazza; az utóbbiban még a 6-os és a 11-es vírus 1-es késői fehérjéje is benne van. A védőoltással lassan egy évtizednyi tapasztalat gyűlik össze. Megállapítható, hogy a védőoltás biztonságos, mellékhatásai elhanyagolhatók, erős immunhatású, és megakadályozza az emberi papillomavírus fertőzéseinek és azok jó- és rosszindulatú következményeinek a nagy többségét. A leghatásosabb az emberi papillomavírussal még nem fertőződötteknél. Európában eddig 22 országban vezették be a népesség (9–12 éves lányok) beoltását állami támogatással. Az oltás hazai népegészségügyi felkarolása nem halasztható tovább, késleltetése egészségszervezési rövidlátás, pénzhiánnyal nem menthető. Az oltás valóban drága, de 10–15 év után a költségek sokszorosan megtérülnek. Az oltás bevezetése szakmai, népegészségügyi és nem gazdasági kérdés, az emberi szenvedésnek gátat vetni minden nemzet egészségpolitikájának alapvető kötelessége, akkor is, ha az eredmény 15–20 év távlatában válik nyilvánvalóvá. Orv. Hetil., 2013, 154, 603–618.

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