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  • 1 Felsődobsza, Thököly u. 1., 3847
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Egyre inkább felismerjük, hogy az asthma bronchiale heterogén entitás, amely különböző fenotípusokat ölel fel. A hatásosabb, személyre szabott terápia kulcsa a specifikus fenotípus azonosítása. Az asthma-fenotipizálás legkorábbi kísérleteként ajánlották extrinszik és intrinszik típusba sorolását. A klinikai asthmát elsődlegesen allergiás (atopiás) és nem allergiás (nem atopiás) asthmára oszthatjuk. Más fenotípusok a kiváltó tényezőkön alapulnak. Később a fenotipizálást a gyulladás domináló sejtes típusára alapozták. Ez lehet eosinophil vagy noneosinophil. A noneosinophil asthma lehet neutrophil, kevert vagy paucigranulocytás. Az IgE felfedezése nagy áttörést jelentett az asthmakutatásban. Az IgE egy immunglobulin, amelynek központi szerepe van a patomechanizmusban. Később újabb immunfenotípusokat azonosítottak: T helper-2 magas és T helper-2 alacsony altípus. A neutrophil asthma elsődlegesen T helper-17 indukálta mechanizmuson alapul. A fenotípusok azonosítására fokozódó mértékben alkalmazzák a klaszterelemzést. Az új adatok molekuláris utakat tártak fel. Azonban az asthma fenotipizálása komplex, mivel a különböző fenotípusok átfedik egymást. Ezért a kérdés további kutatásokat igényel. Biomarkerek, mint a vér és köpet eosinophilszintje, a kilégzett nitrogén-oxid-frakció, a szérum-immunglobulin-E, szérumperiostin azonosít különböző asthmafenotípusokat. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(13), 491–498.

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