Authors:
János Fehér Semmelweis University 2nd Department of Medicine Szentkirályi u. 46 H-1088 Budapest Hungary

Search for other papers by János Fehér in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Gabriella Lengyel Semmelweis University 2nd Department of Medicine Szentkirályi u. 46 H-1088 Budapest Hungary

Search for other papers by Gabriella Lengyel in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
György Szabó Primary Care Service Enese Hungary

Search for other papers by György Szabó in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

At history-taking, the assessment of the amount of regular alcohol consumption means data to be recorded on the basis of the patient’s self-report. In many cases, however, patients do not genuinely inform their physician on the extent of their alcohol consumption, and in certain cases they simply conceal it. In order to prove the diagnosis in diseases of alcoholic origin (e.g. hepatic disease), an objective parameter may often be needed to demonstrate concealed alcohol consumption. An objective marker of alcohol consumption is also required in other cases, as at taking out a life insurance policy or when forming a medical expert opinion in forensic medicine. The amount of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin may be such an indicator.The authors review the pathomechanism of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin formation, the methods of determination, the importance of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin in the diagnostics of diseases caused by alcohol consumption, as well as its role in confirming alcohol consumption in life insurance and in forensic medicine.

  • Appenzeller, B. M. R., Schneider, S., Yegles, M. et al.: Drugs and chronic alcohol abuse in drivers. Forensic Sci. Inter., 2005, 155 , 83–90.

    Yegles M. , 'Drugs and chronic alcohol abuse in drivers ' (2005 ) 155 Forensic Sci. Inter. : 83 -90 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bortolotti, F., De Paoli, G., Tagliaro, F.: Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) as a marker of alcohol abuse: A critical review of the literature 2001–2005. J. Chromatography B., 2006, in press.

  • Stibler, H., Kjellin, K. G.: Isoelectric focusing and electrophoresis of the CSF proteins in tremor of different origins. J. Neur. Sci., 1976, 30 , 269–285.

    Kjellin K. G. , 'Isoelectric focusing and electrophoresis of the CSF proteins in tremor of different origins ' (1976 ) 30 J. Neur. Sci. : 269 -285 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Arndt, T.: Carbohydrate deficient transferrin as a marker of chronic alcohol abuse: a critical review of preanalysis, analysis, and interpretetion. Clin. Chem., 2001, 47 , 13–27.

    Arndt T. , 'Carbohydrate deficient transferrin as a marker of chronic alcohol abuse: a critical review of preanalysis, analysis, and interpretetion ' (2001 ) 47 Clin. Chem. : 13 -27 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Martensson, O., Harlin, A., Brandt, R. et al.: Transferrin isoforms distribution: gender and alcohol consumption. Alcohol Clin. Exp. Res., 1997, 21 , 1710–1715.

    Brandt R. , 'Transferrin isoforms distribution: gender and alcohol consumption ' (1997 ) 21 Alcohol Clin. Exp. Res. : 1710 -1715 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Mundle, G., Ackerman, K., Munkes, J. et al.: Influence of age, alcohol consumption and abstinence on the sensitivity of carbohydrate deficient transferrin, gamma-glutamyltransferase and mean corpuscular volume. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 1999, 34 , 760–766.

    Munkes J. , 'Influence of age, alcohol consumption and abstinence on the sensitivity of carbohydrate deficient transferrin, gamma-glutamyltransferase and mean corpuscular volume ' (1999 ) 34 Alcohol and Alcoholism : 760 -766 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Fleming, M., Mundt, M.: Carbohydrate deficient transferrin: Validity of new alcohol biomarker in a sample of patients with diabetes and hypertension. J. Am. Board Fam. Pract., 2004, 17 , 247–255.

    Mundt M. , 'Carbohydrate deficient transferrin: Validity of new alcohol biomarker in a sample of patients with diabetes and hypertension ' (2004 ) 17 J. Am. Board Fam. Pract. : 247 -255 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sillanaukee, P., Massot, N., Jousilahti, P. et al.: Enhanced clinical utility of gamma-CDT in a general population. Alcohol Clin. Exp. Res., 2000, 24 , 1202–1206.

    Jousilahti P. , 'Enhanced clinical utility of gamma-CDT in a general population ' (2000 ) 24 Alcohol Clin. Exp. Res. : 1202 -1206 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sillanaukee, P., van der Gaag, M. S., Sierksma, A. et al.: Effect of type of alcoholic beverages on carbohydrate-deficient transferrin, sialic acid, and liver enzymes. Alcohol Clin. Exp. Res., 2003, 27 , 57–60.

    Sierksma A. , 'Effect of type of alcoholic beverages on carbohydrate-deficient transferrin, sialic acid, and liver enzymes ' (2003 ) 27 Alcohol Clin. Exp. Res. : 57 -60 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sillanaukee, P., Olsson, U.: Improved diagnostic classification of alcohol abusers by combining carbohydrate-deficient transferrin and gamma-glutamyltransferase. Clin. Chem., 2001, 47 , 681–685.

    Olsson U. , 'Improved diagnostic classification of alcohol abusers by combining carbohydrate-deficient transferrin and gamma-glutamyltransferase ' (2001 ) 47 Clin. Chem. : 681 -685 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Searashi, Y., Yanmauchi, M., Sakamoto, M. et al.: Acetaldehyde-induced growth retardation and micro-heterogeneity of the sugar chain in transferrin synthesized by HepG2 cells. Alcohol Clin. Exp. Res., 2002, 26 (8 Suppl) , 32S–37S.

    Sakamoto M. , 'Acetaldehyde-induced growth retardation and micro-heterogeneity of the sugar chain in transferrin synthesized by HepG2 cells ' (2002 ) 26 Alcohol Clin. Exp. Res. : 32S -37S .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Welker, M. W., Printz, H., Hackler, R. et al.: Identification of elevated carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) serum level as transferrin (Tf)-D-variant by means of isoelectric focusing [Article in German]. Z. Gastroenterol., 2004, 42 , 1049–1054.

    Hackler R. , 'Identification of elevated carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) serum level as transferrin (Tf)-D-variant by means of isoelectric focusing [Article in German] ' (2004 ) 42 Z. Gastroenterol. : 1049 -1054 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Tagliaro, F., Crivellente, F., Manetto, G. et al.: Optimized determination of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin isoforms in serum by capillary zone electrophoresis. Electrophoresis, 1998, 19 , 3033–3039.

    Manetto G. , 'Optimized determination of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin isoforms in serum by capillary zone electrophoresis ' (1998 ) 19 Electrophoresis : 3033 -3039 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Chrostek, L., Cylwik, B., Szmikowski, M. et al.: The diagnostic accuracy of carbohydrate deficient transferrin, sialic acid and commonly used markers of alcohol abuse during abstinence. Clin. Chim. Acta, 2006, 364 , 167–171.

    Szmikowski M. , 'The diagnostic accuracy of carbohydrate deficient transferrin, sialic acid and commonly used markers of alcohol abuse during abstinence ' (2006 ) 364 Clin. Chim. Acta : 167 -171 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Jeppsson, J. O., Kristensson, H., Fimiani, C.: Carbohydrate deficient transferrin quantified by HPLC to determine heavy consumption of alcohol. Clin. Chem., 1993, 39 , 2115–2120.

    Fimiani C. , 'Carbohydrate deficient transferrin quantified by HPLC to determine heavy consumption of alcohol ' (1993 ) 39 Clin. Chem. : 2115 -2120 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Helander, A., Bergström, J. P.: Determination of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin in human serum using Bio-Rad %CDT by HPLC test. Clin. Chim. Acta, 2006, in press.

  • Myrick, H., Henderson, S., Anton, R. F.: Utility of a new assay for carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (BIORAD %CDT TIA) to monitor abstinence during treatment outcome study. Alcohol Clin. Exp. Res., 2001, 25 , 1330–1334.

    Anton R. F. , 'Utility of a new assay for carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (BIORAD %CDT TIA) to monitor abstinence during treatment outcome study ' (2001 ) 25 Alcohol Clin. Exp. Res. : 1330 -1334 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Anton, R. F., Dominick, C., Bigelow, M. et al.: Comparison of Bio-Rad %CDT TIA and CDTect as laboratory markers of heavy alcohol use and their relationships with gamma-glutamyltransferase. Clin. Chem., 2001, 47 , 1769–1775.

    Bigelow M. , 'Comparison of Bio-Rad %CDT TIA and CDTect as laboratory markers of heavy alcohol use and their relationships with gamma-glutamyltransferase ' (2001 ) 47 Clin. Chem. : 1769 -1775 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Stibler, H., Borg, S., Joustra, M.: Micro anion exchange chromatography of carbohydrate deficient transferrin in serum in relation to alcohol consumption (Swedish Patent 8400587-5). Alcohol Clin. Exp. Res., 1986, 10 , 535–544.

    Joustra M. , 'Micro anion exchange chromatography of carbohydrate deficient transferrin in serum in relation to alcohol consumption (Swedish Patent 8400587-5) ' (1986 ) 10 Alcohol Clin. Exp. Res. : 535 -544 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Figlie, N. B., Benedito-Silva, A. A., Monteiro, M. G. et al.: Biological markers of alcohol consumption in nondrinkers, drinkers, and alcohol-dependent Brazilian patients. Alcohol Clin. Exp. Res., 2002, 26 , 1062–1069.

    Monteiro M. G. , 'Biological markers of alcohol consumption in nondrinkers, drinkers, and alcohol-dependent Brazilian patients ' (2002 ) 26 Alcohol Clin. Exp. Res. : 1062 -1069 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Golka, K., Sondermann, R., Reich, S. E. et al.: Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) as a biomarker in persons suspected of alcohol abuse. Toxicol. Lett., 2004, 151 , 235–241.

    Reich S. E. , 'Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) as a biomarker in persons suspected of alcohol abuse ' (2004 ) 151 Toxicol. Lett. : 235 -241 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Cylwik, B., Chrostek, L., Jakimiuk, B. et al.: Serum level of sialic acid (SA) and carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT) in type 2 diabetes mellitus with microvascular complications. J. Clin. Lab. Anal., 2006, 20 , 68–73.

    Jakimiuk B. , 'Serum level of sialic acid (SA) and carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT) in type 2 diabetes mellitus with microvascular complications ' (2006 ) 20 J. Clin. Lab. Anal. : 68 -73 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ohtsuka, T., Tsutsumi, N., Fukumura, A. et al.: Use of serum carbohydrate-deficient trransferrin values to exclude alcoholic hepatitis from non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: a pilot study. Alcohol Clin. Exp. Res., 2005, 29 (12 Suppl.) , 236–239.

    Fukumura A. , 'Use of serum carbohydrate-deficient trransferrin values to exclude alcoholic hepatitis from non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: a pilot study ' (2005 ) 29 Alcohol Clin. Exp. Res. : 236 -239 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Steiskal, D., Ruzicka, V., Fanfrdlova, G. et al.: High adiponectin and TNF-alfa levels in moderate drinkers suffering from liver steatosis: comparison with non-drinkers suffering from similar hepatopathy. Biomed. Papers, 2005, 149 , 93–99.

    Fanfrdlova G. , 'High adiponectin and TNF-alfa levels in moderate drinkers suffering from liver steatosis: comparison with non-drinkers suffering from similar hepatopathy ' (2005 ) 149 Biomed. Papers : 93 -99 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Berkowicz, A., Wallerstedt, S., Wall, K. et al.: Analysis of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) in vitreous humour as a forensic tool for detection of alcohol misuse. Forensic Sci. Int., 2003, 137 , 119–124.

    Wall K. , 'Analysis of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) in vitreous humour as a forensic tool for detection of alcohol misuse ' (2003 ) 137 Forensic Sci. Int. : 119 -124 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Koch, H., Meerkerk, G. J., Zaat, J. O. M. et al.: Accuracy of carbohydrate deficient transferrin in the detection of excessive alcohol consumption: A systematic rewiev. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 2004, 39 , 75–85.

    Zaat J. O. M. , 'Accuracy of carbohydrate deficient transferrin in the detection of excessive alcohol consumption: A systematic rewiev ' (2004 ) 39 Alcohol and Alcoholism : 75 -85 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Collapse
  • Expand

Hungarian Medical Journal
Language English
Size  
Year of
Foundation
2007
Publication
Programme
ceased
Volumes
per Year
 
Issues
per Year
 
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 1788-6139 (Print)
ISSN 1789-0403 (Online)