View More View Less
  • 1 Faculty of Sciences Semlalia, Marrakesh, Cadi Ayyad University Environmental Microbiology and Toxicology Unit, Laboratory of Biology and Biotechnology of Microorganisms P.O. Box 2390 Marrakesh 40 000 Morocco
  • | 2 Faculty of Sciences Semlalia, Cadi Ayyad University Microbial Ecology and Biotechnology Unit, Laboratory of Biology and Biotechnology of Microorganisms P.O. Box 2390 Marrakesh 40 000 Morocco
Restricted access

The dynamic and antibiotic resistance of faecal coliforms, faecal streptococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa , isolated by standard membrane filtration methods from suburban and rural untreated groundwater supplies, were scrutinized in this study. The annual average densities of these bacteria were respectively 1891 colony forming units (c.f.u.)/100 mL, 1246 c.f.u./100 mL and 206 c.f.u./100 mL. The total occurrence of faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci during the period of study was 94%. Detectable P. aeruginosa was present in 88% of samples. A total of 320 faecal coliforms, 338 faecal streptococci and 208 P. aeruginosa strains, were examined for their resistance to eighteen antibiotics. The overall resistance (resistance to at least one antibiotic) of these bacteria was 100%. The multiresistance (resistance to at least two antibiotics) of faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci was 94%, whereas 100% of P. aeruginosa strains were multiresistant. The monoresistance (resistance to one antibiotic) of faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci strains was 5%, but the monoresistance was not expressed among P. aeruginosa strains. Faecal coliforms were most commonly resistant towards sulfamethoxazole (91%), cephalothin (88%) and ampicillin (84%). Faecal streptococci isolates were resistant to polymyxin (87%), to sulfamethoxazole (86%) and to nalidixic acid (85%). The highest prevalence of resistance was noted among P. aeruginosa isolates. More than 90% of these strains were resistant to cephalothin (95%), cephotaxim (93%) and polymyxin (92%). The occurrence of faecal pollution bacteria and the presence of high levels of multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria in rural and suburban groundwaters used by local populations, without previous treatment, may have important public health implications.

  • Ezzati, M., Lopez, A. D., Rodgers, A., Vander, H. S., Murray, C. J.: Selected major risk factors and global and regional burden of disease. Lancet, 2002, 360 , 1347–1360.

    Murray C. J. , 'Selected major risk factors and global and regional burden of disease ' (2002 ) 360 Lancet : 1347 -1360.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Guilbert, J. J.: The world health report 2002 – reducing risks, promoting healthy life. Educational Health, 2003, 16 , 230.

    Guilbert J. J. , 'The world health report 2002 – reducing risks, promoting healthy life ' (2003 ) 16 Educational Health : 230 -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Craun, G. F., Berger, P. S., Calderon, R. L.: Coliform bacteria and water borne disease outbreaks. J. Am. Water Works Assoc., 1997, 89 , 96–104.

    Calderon R. L. , 'Coliform bacteria and water borne disease outbreaks ' (1997 ) 89 J. Am. Water Works Assoc. : 96 -104.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Amundsen, D., Lindholm, C., Goyal, S. M., Robinson, R. A.: Microbial pollution of well water in south-eastern Minnesota. J. Environ. Sc. Health, 1988, 23 , 453–468.

    Robinson R. A. , 'Microbial pollution of well water in south-eastern Minnesota ' (1988 ) 23 J. Environ. Sc. Health : 453 -468.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • El-Zanfaly, H. T., Hosny, I., Fayez, M., Shaban, A. M.: Incidence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in under-ground water. Environ. Internat., 1988, 14 , 391–394.

    Shaban A. M. , 'Incidence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in under-ground water ' (1988 ) 14 Environ. Internat. : 391 -394.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • McKeon, M. D., Calabrese, J. P., Bissonnette, G. K.: Antibiotic resistant gram-negative bacteria in rural groundwater supplies. Water Res., 1995, 29 , 1902–1908.

    Bissonnette G. K. , 'Antibiotic resistant gram-negative bacteria in rural groundwater supplies ' (1995 ) 29 Water Res. : 1902 -1908.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Witte, W.: Medical consequences of antibiotic use in agriculture. Science, 1998, 279 , 996–997.

    Witte W. , 'Medical consequences of antibiotic use in agriculture ' (1998 ) 279 Science : 996 -997.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Prescott, J. F., Baggot, J. D., Walker, R. D. (eds): Antimicrobial therapy in veterinary epidemiology. 2000, 3rd ed. Iowa State University Press, Ames.

    '', in Antimicrobial therapy in veterinary epidemiology , (2000 ) -.

  • Mezrioui, N., Oufdou, K.: Abundance and antibiotic resistance of non-O1 Vibrio cholerae strains in domestic wastewater before and after treatment in stabilization ponds in an arid region (Marrakesh, Morocco). FEMS Microbiol. Ecol., 1996, 21 , 277–284.

    Oufdou K. , 'Abundance and antibiotic resistance of non-O1 Vibrio cholerae strains in domestic wastewater before and after treatment in stabilization ponds in an arid region (Marrakesh, Morocco) ' (1996 ) 21 FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. : 277 -284.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Trevors, J. T.: Survival of Escherichia coli donor, recipient, and transconjugant cells in soil. Wat., Air, Soil Pollut., 1987, 34 , 409–414.

    Trevors J. T. , 'Survival of Escherichia coli donor, recipient, and transconjugant cells in soil ' (1987 ) 34 Wat., Air, Soil Pollut. : 409 -414.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Timoney, J. F., Port, J., Giles, J., Spanier, J.: Heavy-metal and antibiotic resistance in the bacterialflora of sediments of New York Bight. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 1978, 36 , 465–472.

    Spanier J. , 'Heavy-metal and antibiotic resistance in the bacterialflora of sediments of New York Bight ' (1978 ) 36 Appl. Environ. Microbiol. : 465 -472.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hassani, L., Imziln, B., Boussaid, A., Gauthier, M. J.: Antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli from wastewater before and after treatment in stabilization ponds in the arid region of Marrakesh, Morocco. Lett. Appl. Microbiol., 1992, 15 , 228–231.

    Gauthier M. J. , 'Antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli from wastewater before and after treatment in stabilization ponds in the arid region of Marrakesh, Morocco ' (1992 ) 15 Lett. Appl. Microbiol. : 228 -231.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Oufdou, K., Mezrioui, N., Ait Melloul, A., Barakate, M., Ait alla, A.: Effects of sunlight and Synechocystis sp. (picocyanobacterium) on the incidence of antibiotic resistance in waste water enteric bacteria. World J. Microbiol. Biotech., 1999, 15 , 553–559.

    Ait alla A. , 'Effects of sunlight and Synechocystis sp. (picocyanobacterium) on the incidence of antibiotic resistance in waste water enteric bacteria ' (1999 ) 15 World J. Microbiol. Biotech. : 553 -559.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sayah, S. R., Kaneene, B. J., Johnson, C., Miller, R. A.: Patterns of antimicrobial resistance observed in Escherichia coli isolates obtained from domestic- and wild-animal faecal samples, human septage, and surface water. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2005, 71 , 1394–1404.

    Miller R. A. , 'Patterns of antimicrobial resistance observed in Escherichia coli isolates obtained from domestic- and wild-animal faecal samples, human septage, and surface water ' (2005 ) 71 Appl. Environ. Microbiol. : 1394 -1404.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Armstrong, J. L., Shigeno, D. S., Calomiris, J. J., Seidler, R. J.: Antibiotic-resistant bacteria in drinking water. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 1981, 42 , 277–83.

    Seidler R. J. , 'Antibiotic-resistant bacteria in drinking water ' (1981 ) 42 Appl. Environ. Microbiol. : 277 -83.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Boulanouar, M., Yacoubi-Khebiza, M., Messouli, M., Coineau, N.: Un nouveau Microcharbon (Isopoda, Janiroidea) du Maroc-Origine et biogéographie historique. Contrib. Zool., 1995, 65 , 53–64.

    Coineau N. , 'Un nouveau Microcharbon (Isopoda, Janiroidea) du Maroc-Origine et biogéographie historique ' (1995 ) 65 Contrib. Zool. : 53 -64.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hakkou, R., Wahbi, M., Bachnou, A., Elamari, K., Hanich, L., Hibti, M.: Impact de la décharge publique de Marrakech (Maroc) sur les ressources en eau. Bull. Eng. Geol. Env., 2001, 60 , 325–336.

    Hibti M. , 'Impact de la décharge publique de Marrakech (Maroc) sur les ressources en eau ' (2001 ) 60 Bull. Eng. Geol. Env. : 325 -336.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • El Omari, L.: Note géothermique concernant le périmètre urbain de Marrakech et ses environs. Rap. SRG/ MAR / N° 36 Min. du Comm. de l’ind. des Mines et de la Mar. March. 1975, Dactyl., 9p + 5 cartes H. T.

  • Costerton, J. W., Stewart, P. S., Greenberg, E. P.: Bacterial biofilms: a common cause of persistent infections. Sci., 1999, 284 , 1318–1322.

    Greenberg E. P. , 'Bacterial biofilms: a common cause of persistent infections ' (1999 ) 284 Sci. : 1318 -1322.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kelch, W. J., Lee, J. S.: Antibiotic resistance patterns of gram-negative bacteria isolated from environmental sources. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 1978, 36 , 450–456.

    Lee J. S. , 'Antibiotic resistance patterns of gram-negative bacteria isolated from environmental sources ' (1978 ) 36 Appl. Environ. Microbiol. : 450 -456.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Fars, S., Oufdou, K., Nejmeddine, A., Hassani, L., Ait Melloul, A., Bousselhaj, K., Amahmid, O., Bouhoum, K., Lakmichi, H., Mezrioui, N.: Antibiotic resistance and survival of faecal coliforms in activated sludge system in a semi-arid region (Beni Mellal, Morocco). World J. Microbiol. Biotech., 2005, 21 , 493–500.

    Mezrioui N. , 'Antibiotic resistance and survival of faecal coliforms in activated sludge system in a semi-arid region (Beni Mellal, Morocco) ' (2005 ) 21 World J. Microbiol. Biotech. : 493 -500.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Schwartz, D.: Méthodes statistiques à l’usage des Médecins et des Biologistes. 3ème édition. 1963, Paris: Flammarion Médecine-Sciences. ISBN 2-257-10326-2.

    Schwartz D. , '', in Méthodes statistiques à l’usage des Médecins et des Biologistes , (1963 ) -.

  • World Health Organization (WHO): Guidelines for drinking water quality. 1993, Geneva.

  • Bahlaoui, M. A., Baleux, B., Troussellier, M.: Dynamics of pollution-indicator and pathogenic bacteria in high-rate oxidation wastewater treatment ponds. Water Res., 1997, 31 , 630–638.

    Troussellier M. , 'Dynamics of pollution-indicator and pathogenic bacteria in high-rate oxidation wastewater treatment ponds ' (1997 ) 31 Water Res. : 630 -638.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • De Victorica, J., Galvan, M.:Pseudomonas aeruginosa as an indicator of health risk in water for human consumption. Water Sci. Technol., 2001, 43 , 49–52.

    Galvan M. , 'Pseudomonas aeruginosa as an indicator of health risk in water for human consumption ' (2001 ) 43 Water Sci. Technol. : 49 -52.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Howard, I., Espigares, E., Lardelli, P., Martin, J. L., Espigares, M.: Evaluation of Microbiological and Physicochemical Indicators for Wastewater Treatment. Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). 2004, Doi 10.1002/tox. 20016

  • Olivieri, V. P.: Bacterial indicators of pollution. In: Pipes W. O. (ed.): Bacterial indicators of pollution. Boca Raton (FL), CRC Press, 1982, 21–41.

    Olivieri V. P. , '', in Bacterial indicators of pollution , (1982 ) -.

  • Fransolet, G., Delavalentina, D. J., Masschelein, W. J.: Influence of temperature on bacterial development in water. Ozone Sci., 1985, 7 , 205–227.

    Masschelein W. J. , 'Influence of temperature on bacterial development in water ' (1985 ) 7 Ozone Sci. : 205 -227.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Elmanama, A. A., Ishaq Fahd, M., Afifi, S., Abdallah, S., Bahr, S.: Microbiological beach sand quality in Gaza Strip in comparison to seawater quality. Environ. Res., 2005, 99 , 1–10.

    Bahr S. , 'Microbiological beach sand quality in Gaza Strip in comparison to seawater quality ' (2005 ) 99 Environ. Res. : 1 -10.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Maurines-Carboneill, C., Morin, L., Pernelle, J. J., Derlet, N., Sachon, G., Leblon, G.: Reviviscence of aerobic chemoheterotrophic bacteria in an activated sludge pilot plant after a prolonged absence of oxygen. Water Res., 1998, 32 , 2211–2219.

    Leblon G. , 'Reviviscence of aerobic chemoheterotrophic bacteria in an activated sludge pilot plant after a prolonged absence of oxygen ' (1998 ) 32 Water Res. : 2211 -2219.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bell, J. B., Elliott, G. E., Smith, D. W.: Influence of sewage treatment and urbanization on selection of multiple resistance in faecal coliform populations. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 1983, 46 , 227–232.

    Smith D. W. , 'Influence of sewage treatment and urbanization on selection of multiple resistance in faecal coliform populations ' (1983 ) 46 Appl. Environ. Microbiol. : 227 -232.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Van Elsas, J. D., Fry, J., Hirsch, P., Mollin, S.: Ecology of plasmid transfer and spread. In: Thomas, C. M. (ed.): The Horizontal Gene Pool. Amsterdam, Harwood, 2000, 200 p.

    Mollin S. , '', in The Horizontal Gene Pool , (2000 ) -.

  • Mezrioui, N., Baleux, B.: Resistance patterns of E. coli strains isolated from domestic sewage before and after treatment in both aerobic lagoon and activated sludge. Water Res., 1994, 28 , 2399–2406.

    Baleux B. , 'Resistance patterns of E. coli strains isolated from domestic sewage before and after treatment in both aerobic lagoon and activated sludge ' (1994 ) 28 Water Res. : 2399 -2406.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Jain, R. K., Sayler, G. S., Wilson, J. T., Houston, L., Pacia, D.: Maintenance and stability of introduced geno-types in groundwater aquifer material. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 1987, 53 , 996–1002.

    Pacia D. , 'Maintenance and stability of introduced geno-types in groundwater aquifer material ' (1987 ) 53 Appl. Environ. Microbiol. : 996 -1002.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Griffiths, R. P., Moyer, C. L., Caldwell, B. A., Ye, C., Morita, R. Y.: Long-term starvation-induced loss of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Microbial Ecol., 1990, 19 , 251–257.

    Morita R. Y. , 'Long-term starvation-induced loss of antibiotic resistance in bacteria ' (1990 ) 19 Microbial Ecol. : 251 -257.

    • Search Google Scholar

Hungarian Medical Journal
Language English
Size  
Year of
Foundation
2007
Publication
Programme
ceased
Volumes
per Year
 
Issues
per Year
 
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 1788-6139 (Print)
ISSN 1789-0403 (Online)

Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
Jun 2021 2 0 0
Jul 2021 1 0 0
Aug 2021 2 0 0
Sep 2021 6 0 0
Oct 2021 0 0 0
Nov 2021 1 0 0
Dec 2021 0 0 0