Membrane filtration has a promising advantage in the processing of egg products. In this study, liquid egg whites (LEW) were separately concentrated by using reverse osmosis (RO) and ultrafiltration (UF) techniques. The first aim of this research was to determine the effects of the concentration pre-treatments on the physico-chemical quality criteria (pH, relative whipping capacity, foaming stability, water holding capacity-WHC, colour) and the rheological behaviour (viscosity, oscillation) of LEW samples. The second aim of this research was to investigate the impact of the membrane pre-treatment on meringue's functional quality attributes such as meringue batter density and meringue batter colour values (L*, a*, b*). The average dry matter of LEW was increased from 12% to 23% by the concentration pre-treatment process (RO and UF), and water was removed from the LEW. In addition, the batter density of meringue cookie samples was 0.37 ± 0.01 g mL−1 in UF and RO. The differences between the pH and dry matter values of the ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis treated groups were found to be statistically similar, and it was observed that the elastic modulus (G′) increased with the increase in frequency in the rheological measurements. It has been determined that G′ is higher than G″ in all samples. An elastic/solid-like (G′ > G″) structural behaviour was determined while increasing the frequency value. It was determined that the WHC of LEW treated with RO was higher than of the group treated with UF. The results of the study showed that while reducing transportation and storage costs, the water content of >80% of LEW (raw material-the treated liquid egg white) removed by UF and RO applications can be suitable to produce meringue batter cookies (semi-finished product).
For a long time, olive oil has been considered for formulation of biopharmaceuticals and received a prestigious place in cuisine for its unique organoleptic and nutritional properties. Nevertheless, oxidation of fatty acids in olive oil provides short shelf-life and undesirable organoleptic properties. Thus, microencapsulation of olive oil is a considerable promising approach to maintain its quality and biological activities. The objective of this investigation was to prepare extra virgin olive oil microcapsule by sequential technologies, such as water emulsification of olive oil with wall material (matrix) and freeze drying of emulsion. The effect of wall material composition was examined to prepare microcapsule of extra virgin olive oil. Different ratios of wall materials such as maltodextrin (MD), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), and gum arabic (GA) were used. Furthermore, effects of emulsification technologies, such as homogenisation with rotor–stator homogeniser (RSH) and cross-flow membrane emulsification (CFME) were investigated. The stability of emulsion was higher when emulsion was prepared by RSH; however, the droplet mean diameter (D32) was lower in case of RSH compared to CFME. The highest encapsulation efficiency (EE) was found as 68.96 ± 2.6% when CFME was adopted and composition of wall materials was 15 g MD, 15 g GA, and 5 g CMC.
The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been reported as pandemy and the number of patients continues to rise. Based on recent data, cardiac injury is a prominent feature of the disease, leading to increased morbidity and mortality. In the present study we aimed to evaluate myocardial dysfunction using transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.
Methods and Results
We recruited 30 patients (56.7% male, 55.80 ± 14.949 years) who were hospitalized with the diagnosis COVID-19 infection. We analyzed left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) conventional and TDI parameters at the time of hospitalization and during the course of the disease. Patients without any cardiac disease and with preserved LV ejection fraction (EF) were included. TTE examination was performed and all the variables were recorded and analyzed retrospectively.
We observed that both LV and RV conventional echocardiographic parameters were similar when the day of admission to the hospital was compared to the 5th day of the disease. Regarding TDI analysis, we demonstrated significant impairment in LV septal and lateral deformation (P < 0.001). In the correlation analysis no marked correlation was observed between impairment in LV deformation and inflammation biomarkers.
Cardiac involvement is an important feature of the COVID-19 infection but the exact mechanism is still undefined. Echocardiography is an essential technique to describe myocardial injury and provide new concepts for the possible definitions of cardiac dysfunction.
With special focus on free speech, as well as on classroom surveillance (proliferating in the Covid-pandemic digital learning environment), the paper aims to identify contextual dimensions for academic freedom as a matured legal concept – and one to be assessed via a business and human rights approach, due to its peculiar position between the public and private spheres. The project is triggered by the fact that despite its widespread usage in international documents and domestic constitutions, academic freedom remains underdeveloped in terms of conceptual tools, operationalizing mechanisms, monitoring methods and benchmarking schemes. There are also competing notions on how to best conceptualize it: as an individual right, a set of requirements for autonomous institutional design, a field to be regulated for market service providers or public commodities, a tool for international policy making, or academic ranking – not to mention the challenge of how to incorporate challenges brought by social justice movements. These considerations all require different policy tools and adjacent legal targeting.
Investigating disadvantaged children is a priority area concerning education and health. However, little attention has been paid to pandemic-specific research in recent years. In the present study, we aim to explore the attitudes toward distance education in a sample (N = 305) of 7–8th grade students studying in disadvantaged settlements concerning the first wave of the coronavirus pandemic. Attitudes towards distance education were measured using a 16-item tool. Factor analysis was applied to detect the factors of attitudes towards distance education. Variables influencing these factors were measured by linear regression analysis including well-being, perceived stress and support, academic achievement, and sociodemographic background. The results indicate that four factors (learning difficulties, poor health, time saving and safety, and distance learning preference) can be distinguished. The effects of gender, type of settlement, deprivation and objective financial status is significant regarding distance learning preference and perceptions of poor health. Regarding health indicators, a protective role of support from teachers and a hindering role of stress indicators were found. The role academic performance was insignificant. Overall, the factors influencing attitudes towards distance education partly follow the trends of the factors influencing perceptions of traditional education. However, it is necessary to stress the crisis nature of the pandemic.
Rye is an important raw material of bread due to tradition and its favourable nutritional and technological qualities. Despite the beneficial fibre composition, a special group of short-chain carbohydrates, the so called FODMAPs (fermentable oligo-, di-, monosaccharides and polyols) may cause problems for patients with irritable bowel syndrome. The aim of our work was to investigate the non-starch carbohydrate (dietary fibre compounds, short-chain carbohydrates) composition of rye varieties, and of their novel milling fractions obtained from industrial milling trials and test loaves made from them. Regarding fibre and short chain carbohydrate composition, rye varieties did not show significant differences. In new subfractions, fibre and FODMAP composition were described, among profiles most of them differ from commonly used flours, independently from variety. The yeast fermentation and baking caused a decrease in water-extractable arabinoxylan content, at the same time increased the substitution pattern of water-extractable arabinoxylans. Furthermore, breadmaking process decreased the fructan content, and therefore increased the fructose level, thus modifying the short-chain carbohydrate composition. Based on our knowledge, this research is among the first ones investigating the fibre and short-chain composition of rye from the seeds to the consumable final products.
In 2005 the Hungarian school-leaving examination system underwent a significant transformation. In case of history the aim was to give a greater role to the development of students' knowledge acquisition and source analysis skills by more focusing on students' work with historical sources in classes. However, it was clear that the achievement of these goals would also depend on the new exam tasks. Those determine whether the reform will be able to get real change. So I carefully examined those tasks of the past fifteen years exams that contained primary sources. I wanted to give an accurate picture of which types of tasks were most frequent and how they could be assessed in terms of the original objectives of the reform and the competency requirements of the school leaving examination. Based on the conclusions drawn from the results of the investigation, I formulate proposals for changing the composition of the exam tasks and preparing for writing the tasks.