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Abstract

Background and aim

Subjective symptoms of Internet addiction (IA), such as interpersonal and health-related problems (IH-RP), do not correlate with objective physiological parameters. This study aimed to investigate the cardiovascular reactivity after physical exercise in 15–16-year-old adolescents showing different severities of symptoms of health-related problems due to Internet overuse.

Methods

This study included 20 healthy adolescents (boys, 15–16 years) with different risks of IA (by the Chen internet addiction scale [CIAS]). The physical exercise test was to perform a standing broad jump three times. The arterial blood pressures and heart rates were recorded before, immediately after, and at 4 minutes of rest after exercise.

Results and discussion

The total sample of adolescents was divided into two groups, that is, those with IH-RP scores of 12 or less (Group I, n = 12) and those scoring more than 12 points (Group II, n = 8). The diastolic blood pressure significantly increased after exercise in group II, whereas it remained stable in group I. The heart rate in group I tended to increase, but the changes were not statistically significant. Group II adolescents showed significant increases in heart rate, and at rest, this parameter was significantly higher than the baseline value.

Conclusions

Adolescents with a risk of IA and severe symptoms of interpersonal and health-related problems had increased sympathetic activity during and after speed-strength physical exercise compared to those without the aforementioned symptoms.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Chang Liu, Kristian Rotaru, Rico S. C. Lee, Jeggan Tiego, Chao Suo, Murat Yücel, and Lucy Albertella

Abstract

Background

Researchers are only just beginning to understand the neurocognitive drivers of addiction-like eating behaviours, a highly distressing and relatively common condition. Two constructs have been consistently linked to addiction-like eating: distress-driven impulsivity and cognitive inflexibility. Despite a large body of addiction research showing that impulsivity-related traits can interact with other risk markers to result in an especially heightened risk for addictive behaviours, no study to date has examined how distress-driven impulsivity interacts with cognitive inflexibility in relation to addiction-like eating behaviours. The current study examines the interactive contribution of distress-driven impulsivity and cognitive inflexibility to addiction-like eating behaviours.

Method

One hundred and thirty-one participants [mean age 21 years (SD = 2.3), 61.8% female] completed the modified Yale Food Addiction Scale, the S-UPPS-P impulsivity scale, and a cognitive flexibility task. A bootstrap method was used to examine the associations between distress-driven impulsivity, cognitive inflexibility, and their interaction with addiction-like eating behaviours.

Results

There was a significant interaction effect between distress-driven impulsivity and cognitive flexibility (P = 0.03). The follow-up test revealed that higher distress-driven impulsivity was associated with more addiction-like eating behaviours among participants classified as cognitively inflexible only.

Conclusion

The current findings shed light on the mechanisms underlying addiction-like eating behaviours, including how traits and cognition might interact to drive them. The findings also suggest that interventions that directly address distress-driven impulsivity and cognitive inflexibility might be effective in reducing risk for addiction-like eating and related disorders.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Problematic smartphone use (PSU) is growing rapidly among teens. It has similar presentations as other behavioral addictions in terms of excessive use, impulse control problems, and negative consequences. However, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms remain undiscovered. We hypothesized that structural changes in the striatum might serve as an important link between alteration in glutamate signaling and development of PSU.

Methods

Among 88 participants, twenty (F:M, 12:8; age 16.2 ± 1.1) reported high scores in the smartphone addiction proneness scale (SAPS) with a cut-off score of 42; the other 68 (F:M, 19:49; age 15.3 ± 1.7) comprised the control group. Sociodemographic data and depression, anxiety, and impulsivity traits were measured. Striatal volumes (caudate, putamen, and nucleus accumbens) were estimated from T1 imaging data. Serum glutamate levels were estimated from peripheral blood samples. Group comparisons of each data were performed after controlling for age and gender. Mediation analyses were conducted to test the indirect effects of glutamate level alteration on PSU through striatal volumetric alteration.

Results

The PSU group showed a decrease in both caudate volumes than the control group. Left caudate volume was positively correlated with serum glutamate level, and negatively with impulsivity traits and SAPS scores. The mediation model revealed a significant indirect effect of serum glutamate on SAS scores through the reduced left caudate volume.

Discussion and conclusions

This study suggests that altered glutamatergic neurotransmission may be associated with PSU among teens, possibly through reduced left caudate volume. Current findings might support neural mechanisms of smartphone addiction.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Philip Nielsen, Maxwell Christensen, Craig Henderson, Howard A Liddle, Marina Croquette-Krokar, Nicolas Favez, and Henk Rigter

Abstract

Background and aims

Social variables including parental and family factors may serve as risk factors for Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) in adolescents. An IGD treatment programme should address these factors. We assessed two family therapies – multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) and family therapy as usual (FTAU) – on their impact on the prevalence of IGD and IGD symptoms.

Methods

Eligible for this randomised controlled trial comparing MDFT (N = 12) with FTAU (N = 30) were adolescents of 12–19 years old meeting at least 5 of the 9 DSM-5 IGD criteria and with at least one parent willing to participate in the study. The youths were recruited from the Centre Phénix-Mail, which offers outpatient adolescent addiction care in Geneva. Assessments occurred at baseline and 6 and 12 months.

Results

Both family therapies decreased the prevalence of IGD across the one-year period. Both therapies also lowered the number of IGD criteria met, with MDFT outperforming FTAU. There was no effect on the amount of time spent on gaming. At baseline, parents judged their child’s gaming problems to be important whereas the adolescents thought these problems were minimal. This discrepancy in judgment diminished across the study period as parents became milder in rating problem severity. MDFT better retained families in treatment than FTAU.

Discussion and Conclusions

Family therapy, especially MDFT, was effective in treating adolescent IGD. Improvements in family relationships may contribute to the treatment success. Our findings are promising but need to be replicated in larger study.

Trial registration number

ISRCTN 11142726.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Romina Miranda-Olivos, Trevor Steward, Ignacio Martínez-Zalacaín, Gemma Mestre-Bach, Asier Juaneda-Seguí, Susana Jiménez-Murcia, José A. Fernández-Formoso, Nuria Vilarrasa, Misericordia Veciana de las Heras, Nuria Custal, Nuria Virgili, Rafael Lopez-Urdiales, José M. Menchón, Roser Granero, Carles Soriano-Mas, and Fernando Fernandez-Aranda

Abstract

Background and aims

Increased delay discounting is associated with obesity and binge eating disorder (BED). Although BED and obesity frequently co-occur, the neural mechanisms underlying delay discounting in these conditions remain poorly understood.

Methods

Thirtyfive women with obesity, including 10 participants with obesity and BED and 31 controls completed a monetary delay discounting task during functional magnetic resonance imaging.

Results

We identified that increased discounting rates were associated with decreased activity in the left anterior insula in participants with obesity compared to controls when choosing immediate rewards over delayed rewards (P FWE < 0.05). An exploratory analysis comparing the BED subsample to the other groups did not detect significant differences.

Discussion and conclusions

Our findings suggest decreased activity in the anterior insula may underlie heightened delay discounting in individuals with obesity, contributing the probability of choosing immediate rewards over delayed rewards based on emotional states. Future studies including larger, more diverse samples are required to confirm these effects.

Open access

A Bizonytalanságintolerancia Skála rövidített változatának magyar nyelvű adaptációja

Hungarian Adaptation of the short version of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale

Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika
Authors: Zsidó N. András, Arató Nikolett, Inhóf Orsolya, Budai Timea, Stecina T. Diána, and Labadi Beatrix

Bevezetés: A bizonytalanságintolerancia egy egyén alapvető képtelenségét jelenti a negatív események előfordulásának, valamint az ilyen események be nem jósolhatóságának elvi­ selésére. Az ebből fakadó állandósult stressz és túlzott aggodalom súlyos fizikai és men­ tális problémákhoz vezethet. Korábbi tanulmányok eredményei szerint a jelenség a szo­ rongásos és a depresszív pszichiátriai zavarok alapja lehet. Célkitűzés: A jelen tanulmány célja a Bizonytalanságintolerancia Skála rövidített változatának pszichometriai elemzése egy megfelelően nagy és az életkor szempontjából diverz magyar anyanyelvű mintán. Módszer: A keresztmetszeti kutatás keretében összesen 1297 fő (300 férfi és 993 nő, 4 fő nem válaszolt) töltötte ki a kérdőívcsomagot. A résztvevők átlagéletkora 44,6 év (SD = 22,44 év; terjedelem: 18–83 év). A rövidített Bizonytalanságintolerancia Skála mellett a résztve­ vők kitöltötték a World Health Organization Jól-lét Indexet, valamint a Beck Depresszió Leltár és a Spielberger-féle Vonásszorongás Skála rövidített változatát. A Bizonytalanság­ intolerancia Skála pszichometriai mutatóit klasszikus és modern tesztelméleti mód­ szerekkel is ellenőriztük. Eredmények: A Bizonytalanságintolerancia Skála megfelelő pszichometriai mutatókkal rendelkezik a vizsgált magyar mintán (McDonald­ω = 0,82 és 0,84). A kérdőív tételei jól diszkriminálnak a látens változó különböző szintjeivel rendel­ kező kitöltők között, és a kérdőív összességében megbízhatóan mér meglehetősen nagy szórástartományban (±2 szórás); tehát a bizonytalanságtűrés képességéről a populáció hozzávetőlegesen 95%-án képes információt szolgáltatni. A kérdőív skálái és összpontszáma az elvártak szerint összefüggést mutatnak rokon konstruktumokkal, mint pl. szorongás (r = 0,22–0,36; p < 0,001) és depresszió (r = 0,26–0,40; p < 0,001). Következtetések: Összességében a Bizonytalanságintolerancia Skála rövid változata magyar mintán is megbízható és érvényes kérdőív. Alkalmazható lehet a mentális egészség fejlesztése, a szorongás és a depresszió prevenciójára, valamint terápiás hatékonyságvizsgálat so­ rán is.

Introduction: Intolerance of uncertainty refers to an individual’s fundamental inability to tolerate the occurrence of negative events as well as the unpredictability of such events. The resulting constant stress and excessive worry can lead to severe physical and mental problems. Previous studies suggest that it can serve as the root of anxiety and depression related psychiatric disorders. Aim: The aim of the present study was to present the psychometric properties of the short version of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale in a sufficiently large and age­diverse Hungarian sample. Method: A total of 1297 respondents (300 men and 993 women, 4 chose not to answer) completed the survey. The mean age of the participants was 44.63 years (SD = 22.44 years; range = 18–83 years). In addition to the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale, participants completed the World Health Organization Well-Being Index, and the short versions of the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Spielberger Trait Anxiety Scale. The psychometric properties of the shortened Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale were tested using classical and modern test theory methods. Results: The shortened Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale has appropriate psychometric indicators on a Hungarian sample (McDonald’s ω = 0.82 and 0.84). The items of the questionnaire discriminated well between respondents with different levels of the latent variable, and the questionnaire measured well over a large deviation of scores (±2 SD); thus, it is able to provide information on the ability to tolerate uncertainty in approximately 95% of the population. The subscales and total score of the questionnaire correlated with related constructs as we previously expected, for instance anxiety (r = 0.22–0.36, p < 0.001) and depression (r = 0.26–0.40, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Overall, the short version of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale is also a reliable and valid questionnaire for the Hungarian sample. It can be used for efficacy testing of mental health promotion, anxiety and depression prevention, or therapeutic intervention.

Open access

Ideálok testközelből – A fehérneműreklámok megítélése a saját testtel való elégedettség és az életkor tükrében

Ideals up close – Female judgement of lingerie advertisements corresponding to body image and age

Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika
Authors: Németh Adrienn Réka, Jambrik Máté, Franczia Nóra, John Balázs, Horváth Julia, Hámornik Balázs Péter, Illés Eszter, Pintér Gabriella Márta Anna, Szirtes Lili, Tóth Ágnes, Zákányi Zsófia, and Csenki Laura

Elméleti háttér: Fogyasztói kultúránkat jelentős mértékben meghatározza, hogy az emberi testnek központi szerepet tulajdonít. Ezen túlmenően a fiatalságot és szépséget tekinti az ideális és kívánt állapotnak. A női test kitüntetett helyet foglal el ebben a rendszerben. A fehérneműreklámokban jellemzően egysíkú nőábrázolással találkozhatunk, amely figyelmen kívül hagyja a fogyasztók életkori heterogenitását, eltérő életciklusát, testalkatát és igényeit. Azt, hogy kire milyen módon hatnak a reklámok, számos tényező befolyásolja. Cél: A 20 és 65 év közötti nők fehérneműreklámokhoz fűződő asszociációinak vizsgálata, továbbá annak körüljárása, hogy a fehérneműmodellek megítélése hogyan függ össze a nők saját testükkel kapcsolatos elégedettségével. Módszer: A feltáró kutatásban 95 nő (átlagéletkor: 40,9 [SD = 12,6] év) vett részt, a népességi adatoknak megfelelő korosztályi arányban. A papír-ceruza teszteken túl a résztvevőkkel készült fehérneműreklámokról szóló interjúkat és reklámképekre adott reakcióikat tartalomelemzéses módszerrel értékeltük. Eszközök: Emberalakrajzok Tesztje, Sziluett-teszt, Képasszociációs feladat, Szituációs feladat, gondolattérkép készítése. Eredmények: A nők 66,3%-a utalt rá, hogy az átlagos nőktől eltérőek a fehérneműreklámokban szereplő modellek. Jelentős együttjárás van abban, hogy milyen testalkatot tartanak a nők ideálisnak saját maguk és a fehérneműmodellek számára (r = 0,56; p < 0,001). A testtömegindex bejósló hatású (ß = –0,16; p < 0,001) a saját testtel (centrális területtel) való elégedettségre. A legtöbben (59%) a bokájukkal voltak elégedettek, míg a legnagyobb számban (37%-ban) a csípőjükkel kapcsolatban fejezték ki elégedetlenségüket. A megkérdezett nők 53,7%-a fejezte ki aktuális testalkatával való elégedettségétől, életkorától, iskolázottságától függetlenül, hogy változatosabb testalkatú nők megjelenítésére vágyik a fehérneműreklámokban. Jelentős arányban (41,1%) jelent meg a változatosabb életkorú modellek megjelenítésére való igény is. A modell testalkatának változására vonatkozó igényt előre jelzi a diszkrepancia élményének kifejezése (OR = 1,95; p = 0,003), a modell életkorának változására vonatkozó igény mértéke, továbbá bejósolható a válaszadó életkora (OR = 1,05; p = 0,008), illetve a diszkrepancia említésének gyakorisága alapján (OR = 1,71; p = 0,009). A modell változatosabb testalkata iránti igény jelentősen összefügg a modell életkorának változását sürgető válaszokkal (rs = 0,58; p < 0,001). Következtetés: A nők jelentős százaléka szóvá teszi, hogy különbséget lát a modellek és a hétköznapi nők testalkata között. A résztvevők nagyobb része nem tartja ideálisnak jelenlegi testalkatát. Többen voltak teljesen elégedettek a „perifériás” testrészeikkel, mint a „centrális” területekkel. A modellek és a hétköznapi nők ideális testalkatának együttjárása utalhat arra is, hogy a modellek által megjelenített testideál fontos a nők saját ideális testalkatának meghatározásában, de az is lehetséges, hogy a nők testalkat tekintetében magukhoz hasonló modelleket szeretnének viszontlátni a reklámokban. A résztvevők jelentős része kifejezte igényét a reklámokban megjelenő fehérneműmodellek változatosabb megjelenítésére mind a testalkatot, mind az életkort tekintve, ami a fehérneműreklámokban megjelenített nőkép újragondolásának igényére hívja fel a figyelmet, különös tekintettel az ideáltól való eltérés esetleges negatív pszichés következményeire.

Background: Our consumer culture is largely defined by the central role it attributes to the human body. Moreover, it views youth and beauty as the ideal and desirable state. Female bodies play a prominent role in this system. Representation of women in lingerie advertisements typically ignores the heterogeneous ages, life stages, body types, and needs of women. How individuals are affected by advertising is influenced by multiple factors. Purpose: Examining the associations of women between the ages of 20 and 65 on lingerie advertisements, and exploring the interaction between the judgement of lingerie models, and women’s body satisfaction. Methods: The pilot study had 95 female participants (mean age: 40.9 [SD = 12.6] years) whose ages reflect a similar age distribution to that of the broader population of Hungary. In addition to analysis of questionnaires, content analysis was applied to interviews and reactions to advertisements. Measures: Fallon-Rozin body shape figure scale (1985), Silhouette-test, Picture association exercise, Situational exercise, Mind Map. Results: 66.3% of women indicated that models featured in lingerie advertisements do not reflect average women. The body size that women saw as ideal for themselves and for lingerie models correlate significantly (r = 0.56, p < 0.001). Body mass index is predictive (ß = –0.16, p < 0.001) of satisfaction with the central areas of the body. Most participants were satisfied with their ankle (59%), and dissatisfaction with hips was most common (37%). 53.7% of participants expressed a desire to have more diverse body types featured in lingerie advertisements. This is independent of their current body satisfaction, body mass index, age or level of education. A significant amount (41.1%) of participants expressed their demand for more diversity in the age of models as well. The frequency of mentioning the demand for changing the body type of models can be predicted based on the expression of discrepancy (OR = 1.95; p = 0.003), and the extent of the demand for changing the age of models can be predicted based on the age of the participant (OR = 1.05, p = 0.008) and the frequency of referring to the discrepancy between models and other women (OR = 1.71, p = 0.009). The demand for more diverse body types strongly correlate with the responses demanding a change of the age of lingerie models (rs = 0.58, p < 0.001). Discussion: A considerable percentage of women point out perceiving a difference between the body types of models and everyday women. Most participants do not regard their current body type as ideal. More women were satisfied with their ‘peripheral’ than their ‘central’ areas. The correlation between the ideal body type that women identify for themselves and for models may indicate that the body ideal represented by models is important in defining women’s body ideals, but it is also possible that women are expressing a wish to see models that are more similar to themselves. A significant number of women expressed a need for more diversity among lingerie models regarding both body type and age, which highlights a need to reconsider the image of women represented in lingerie advertising, especially considering the potential adverse psychological effects of differing from the ideal.

Open access

Kognitív epidemiológia – Az intelligenciaszint prospektív összefüggése a szomatikus és pszichiátriai betegségrizikóval

Cognitive epidemiology – the prospective relationship between intelligence and somatic/psychiatric disease risk

Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika
Author: Ujma Przemyslaw Péter

A kognitív epidemiológia az intelligencia és az egészségi állapot összefüggésének tudo- mánya. A modern, sokszor több százezer fős, teljes populációkon végzett kognitív epide- miológiai vizsgálatok eredményei alapján a magasabb premorbid intelligencia gya- korlatilag valamennyi mentális betegség, illetve pszichiátriai probléma alacsonyabb kockázatával függ össze. A magasabb premorbid intelligencia a halálozás, a szív- és ér- rendszeri betegségek, a metabolikus betegségek, a rossz egészség-magatartás és számos kisebb népegészségügyi jelentőségű betegség előfordulásával is negatívan függ össze; a légzőszervi betegségekkel és a dohányzáshoz nem köthető daganatokkal azonban gyen- ge vagy hiányzik az összefüggés. A mentális betegségekkel való összefüggést nem, a szo- matikus betegségekkel és a mortalitással való összefüggést azonban részben mediálják a felnőttkori szocioökonómiai státusz mutatói. A speciális vizsgálati elrendezések – úgymint ikerkontroll-vizsgálatok, pszeudoexperimentális vizsgálatok, valamint a mendeli ran- domizáció módszerét használó molekuláris genetikai vizsgálatok – eredményei arra utal- nak, hogy az intelligencia és az egészség közötti kapcsolat jelentős részét genetikai ténye- zők közvetítik, de a szomatikus egészségre a magasabb intelligencia következményeként elérhető jobb szocioökonómiai státusz is szerény hatást gyakorol.

Cognitive epidemiology is the science of the relationship between intelligence and health. Modern studies of cognitive epidemiology, often with samples of several hundreds of thousands of individuals, have revealed that higher premorbid intelligence is associated with a lower risk of virtually all of mental illnesses and psychiatric problems. Higher premorbid intelligence is also associated negatively with the incidence of mortality, circulatory illness, metabolic illness, poor health behavior and many diseases of lower epidemiological significance, but its relationship to respiratory illness and non-smoking related cancers is weaker or non-existent. Indicators of adult socioeconomic status do not mediate the association between intelligence and mental illness, but they do partially mediate the relationship with somatic illness and mortality. Studies with special designs -twin control studies, pseudo-experimental studies and molecular genetic studies using Mendelian randomization – suggest that the relationship between intelligence and health is heavily mediated by genetic factors, but somatic health may be modestly but causally improved by better social status as a consequence of higher intelligence.

Open access
Journal of Psychedelic Studies
Authors: Cody Sykes Gilbert, Mitch Earleywine, Maha N. Mian, and Brianna R. Altman

Abstract

Background

Ayahuasca's effects on symptoms of depression have generated considerable optimism. Clients frequently report more concern about some symptoms than others, and available treatments alter symptoms differentially. Few studies address the symptom specificity of this psychoactive brew.

Aims

We examined self-reported effects of ayahuasca on the individual symptoms of depression assessed by the 10-item short-form of Center for Epidemiological Studies of Depression (CESD-10).

Methods

We asked over 120 participants to complete a retrospective assessment of CESD-10 symptoms one month before and one month after using ayahuasca.

Results

Participants indicated that ayahuasca had a larger influence on affective symptoms like hope, depressed mood, and happiness, than cognitive, interpersonal, and somatic symptoms like restless sleep, loneliness, and difficulty focusing.

Conclusions

Potential clients might appreciate identifying if different treatments provide more relief for some depressive symptoms than others. We examined retrospective reports of ayahuasca's potential for differential impact. Those eager to alter hope, happiness, and other affective symptoms will likely find ayahuasca more helpful than those who want an intervention for restless sleep, loneliness, or trouble focusing. This symptom specificity parallels the effects of serotonergic antidepressant medications, suggesting that psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy using ayahuasca might have considerable appeal for those who seek comparable relief but would rather not use prescription serotonergic medications. Jumpstarting psychotherapy with the rapid onset of ayahuasca-induced relief also appears to have potential.

Open access
Journal of Psychedelic Studies
Authors: Henrik Børsting Jacobsen, Audun Stubhaug, Bjørn Holmøy, Tor Morten Kvam, and Silje Endresen Reme

Abstract

Background

Psilocybin is emerging as a promising therapeutic agent for a wide range of psychiatric conditions, and clinical trials on psilocybin-assisted treatment are forthcoming in Scandinavian countries. However, little is known about attitudes towards this psychedelic compound among the general public in Nordic countries. This might represent a confound, and reduce the validity of research findings or the overall feasibility of conducting high-quality clinical trials.

Aims

The main objective of this study is to address the knowledge gap surrounding use and attitudes towards psilocybin in Norway.

Methods

We asked a representative sample of the Norwegian population (N = 1,078) if they have ever tried psilocybin and if they would be willing to do so as part of medical treatment. These questions were part of a larger online survey on a variety personal preferences and attitudes, and the survey was not presented as a study on psilocybin.

Results

Of the 1,078 respondents, 8% reported previous psilocybin use and 51% were willing to try psilocybin in medical treatment.

Conclusions

Psilocybin use is more common in Norway than the authors hypothesized, and the general public is relatively open to using psilocybin in a medical context. The latter is interpreted as promising with regards to the feasibility of conducting rigorous clinical trials on potential effects and side effects of psilocybin-assisted treatment in Norway.

Open access