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Fiatal felnőttek egészségcéljainak vizsgálata: A cél megközelítő-elkerülő orientációjának személyes kontextusa és a célokhoz társuló szubjektív tapasztalatok

Health goals in emerging adulthood: the personal context of approach-avoidance goal orientation and subjective experiences accompanying these goals

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Sára Imola Csuka, Orsolya Rosta-Filep, Viola Sallay, and Tamás Martos

Háttér és célkitűzések

Egészséggel kapcsolatos céljaink szoros összefüggést mutatnak egészség-magatartásunkkal, így ennek vizsgálata fiatal felnőtteknél kiemelten fontos, mivel a fiatal ekkor alakítja ki saját életstílusát. A megközelítő célok egy kívánt állapot elérésére, az elkerülő célok valamilyen kellemetlen állapottól való megszabadulásra vonatkoznak. Kutatásunk két fő irányát egyrészt a megközelítő egészségcélok személyes kontextusa, másrészt a céllal kapcsolatos kedvező tapasztalatot övező kontextuális tényezők azonosítása határozta meg.

Módszer

Keresztmetszeti és kérdőíves vizsgálatunk mintáját 191 fiatal felnőtt alkotta. A célok mérésére a Személyes tervek (Little, 1993; Sheldon és Elliot, 1998; Martos, 2009b) kérdőívet alkalmaztuk. Ennek során a résztvevők maguk sorolták fel három egészséggel kapcsolatos személyes céljukat, majd ezek közül kellett egyet kiválasztaniuk és előre megadott szempontok (pozitív és negatív érzelmek, énkonkordancia, énhatékonyság) szerint értékelniük. Ezt követően történt a célok megközelítő/elkerülő kategóriákba sorolása. A megközelítő célorientáció előrejelzőinek vizsgálatára bináris regresszióelemzést, a célértékeléseket előrejelző kontextuális tényezők meghatározásához pedig három hierarchikus regressziós modellt építettünk fel. Eredmények: A cél személyes kontextusát képező tényezők közül a BMI kategória (túlsúlyos és elhízott) és a dohányzás (ritkán dohányzó és dohányzó) jelzik előre fordítottan a megközelítő egészségcél választásának nagyobb valószínűségét. A céllal együtt járó kedvező tapasztalatokkal (pozitív érzelmek magasabb és negatív érzelmek alacsonyabb gyakorisága, cél magasabb énkonkordanciája, énhatékonyság) a cél megközelítő jellege következetesen együtt jár az egyéb tényezők hatásának kontrollálása mellett is.

Következtetések

Az eredmények afelé mutatnak, hogy a megközelítő orientáció alacsonyabb testtömegindexszel és kevesebb dohányzással jár együtt. Mindezek mellett a célokkal kapcsolatos szubjektív tapasztalatok egyedi összefüggéseket mutatnak a kontextuális tényezőkkel. Eredményeink különféle egészséggel kapcsolatos, fiatal felnőttek számára kialakított intervencióknak is alapjául szolgálhatnak.

Background and aims

As our health goals show significant correspondence to our health behaviour investigation into these goals in emerging adulthood has unique importance as young adults establish their own lifestyle at that age. Approach goals refer to accomplishing a desired state, while avoidance goals refer to disposing an unpleasant state. Our research was built upon two main research questions: exploring the personal context of approach health goals and identifying possible contextual factors predicting advantageous experiences concerning the goal.

Methods

The sample of our questionnaire study consisted of 191 emerging adults. For capturing the goals the Personal Projects Questionnaire (Little, 1993, Sheldon & Elliot, 1998, Martos, 2009b) was used. In the course of assessment, participants formulated their three goals concerning their health, then they had to choose one of these and rate it along some predefined aspects (positive and negative emotions, self-concordance and self-efficacy). Sequentially these goals were categorised into approach/avoidance categories. For predicting approach goal orientation binary logistic regression analysis was used and then three hierarchical regression analyses were built for identifying contextual factors which can be possible predictors of goal evaluations.

Results

Among factors framing the personal context of the goal BMI category (overweight and obese) and smoking (rarely and regular) predicted the odds of chosing an approach goal. Favourable experiences (higher levels of positive and lower levels of negative emotions, higher self-concordance, self-efficacy) accompanying these goals are associated with the approach nature of the goal consistently besides controlling for other factors.

Conclusions

Results indicate that approach orientation is accompanied by lower BMI index and less frequent smoking. Besides these subjective experiences concerning the goals show unique associations with contextual factors. Our findings can serve as starting-points of health-promoting interventions for young adults.

Open access

Abstract

Trauma exposure across the lifespan produces risks for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, as well as global disability in functioning. This retrospective clinical chart review is the first of its kind to assess the utility of sublingual ketamine-assisted body-centered psychotherapy in trauma-exposed patients in a real world clinic setting. De-identified clinical records data on self-reported symptom measures were retrospectively analyzed for patients (N = 18; M age = 45.22, SD = 12.90) entering ketamine-assisted psychotherapy treatment in an outpatient clinic between 2018 and 2020. Patients who completed six sessions of ketamine therapy reported meaningful (e.g., medium effect size) improvements in PTSD symptoms (P = 0.058; d = −0.48) and global disability in functioning (P = 0.050; d = −0.52) and statistically significant and meaningful improvements in depression (P = 0.019; d = −0.53). There were no improvements in anxiety symptoms. Sublingual ketamine-assisted psychotherapy was associated with heterogenous clinical utility among patients with trauma-exposure in an outpatient setting. This study was underpowered and unrepresentative of the population of ketamine patients in the United States. Replication of these findings is needed with larger and more diverse patient samples.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Linda Lemón, Fernando Fernández-Aranda, Susana Jiménez-Murcia, and Anders Håkansson

Abstract

Background and aims

Theoretical background and previous data provide some similarities between problematic gambling and eating behaviors, and a theoretically increased clinical severity in individuals suffering from both conditions. However, large datasets are lacking, and therefore, the present study aimed to study, in a nationwide register material, psychiatric comorbidity, age and gender in gambling disorder (GD) patients with or without eating disorder (ED).

Methods

Diagnostic data from a nationwide register were used, including all individuals with a GD diagnosis in specialized health care in Sweden, in the years 2005–2016 (N = 2,099). Patients with GD and an ED diagnosis (n = 57) were compared to GD patients without ED.

Results

Patients with GD+ED were significantly more likely than other GD patients to also have a diagnosis of drug use disorder, depressive disorders, bipolar disorders, other mood disorder, anxiety disorders, personality disorders, and neuropsychiatric disorders, when controlling for gender. In logistic regression, a comorbid ED in GD was associated with female gender, younger age, depressive disorder and personality disorders.

Discussion and conclusion

In nationwide register data, despite the low number of GD+ED patients, GD patients with ED appear to have a more severe psychiatric comorbidity than GD patients without ED. The combined GD+ED conditions may require particular screening and clinical attention, as well as further research in larger and longitudinal studies.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Lorenzo Moccia, Maria Quintigliano, Delfina Janiri, Valentina De Martin, Guyonne Rogier, Gabriele Sani, Luigi Janiri, Patrizia Velotti, Vittorio Gallese, Anna Maria Speranza, and Marco Di Nicola

Abstract

Background and aims

Gambling Disorder (GD) entails maladaptive patterns of decision-making. Neurophysiological research points out the effect of parasympathetic arousal, including phasic changes in heart rate variability (HRV), and interoceptive accuracy (IA, i.e., the ability to track changes in bodily signals), on decision-making. Nevertheless, scarce evidence is available on their role in GD. This is the first study exploring the impact in GD of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), an index of HRV, and IA on decision-making, as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT).

Methods

Twenty-two patients experiencing problems with slot-machines or video lottery terminals gambling and 22 gender- and age-matched healthy controls (HC) were recruited. A resting ECG was performed before and after the completion of the IGT. IA was assessed throughout the heartbeat detection task. We conducted a MANCOVA to detect the presence of significant differences between groups in RSA reactivity and IA. A linear regression model was adopted to test the effect of factors of interest on IGT scores.

Results

Patients with GD displayed significantly decreased RSA reactivity (P = 0.002) and IA (P = 0.024) compared to HCs, even after controlling for affective symptoms, age, smoking status, and BMI. According to the linear regression model, cardiac vagal reactivity and IA significantly predict decision-making impairments on the IGT (P = 0.008; P = 0.019).

Discussion and conclusions

Although the exact pathways linking HRV and IA to impaired decision-making in GD remain to be identified, a broader exploration relying upon an embodiment-informed framework may contribute to shed further light on the clinical phenomenology of the disorder.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

In the current study we have sought to clarify the contribution of metacognitions concerning smartphone use relative to smartphone use expectancies in the relationship between well-established predisposing psychological factors and problematic smartphone use (PSU). We tested a model where psychological distress, impulsivity, and proneness to boredom predict metacognitions about smartphone use and smartphone use expectancies, which in turn predict PSU.

Methods

A sample of 535 participants (F = 71.2%; mean age = 27.38 ± 9.05 years) was recruited.

Results

The model accounted for 64% of the PSU variance and showed good fit indices (χ 2 = 16.01, df = 13, P = 0.24; RMSEA [90%CI] = 0.02 [0–0.05], CFI = 0.99; SRMR = 0.03). We found that: (i) when it comes to psychological distress and boredom proneness, negative metacognitions, and both positive and negative expectancies play a mediating role in the association with PSU, with negative metacognitions showing a dominant role; (ii) there is no overlap between positive expectancies and positive metacognitions, especially when it comes to smartphone use as a means for socializing; (iii) impulsivity did not show a significant effect on PSU Direct effects of the predictors on PSU were not found.

Discussion and conclusions

The current study found additional support for applying metacognitive theory to the understanding of PSU and highlight the dominant role of negative metacognitions about smartphone in predicting PSU.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Personal investors decrease their stock market investment returns by trading frequently, which the behavioral finance literature has primarily explained via investors' overconfidence and low levels of financial literacy. This study investigates whether problem gambling can help account for frequent trading in a sample of active gambler/investors, as suggestive of frequent trading being in part driven by a behavioral addiction to gambling-like activities.

Methods

A retrospective cross-sectional study of 795 US-based participants, who reported both being active gamblers and holding stock market investments. Recollected stock trading activity (typical portfolio size, purchases and sales of stocks) was compared with scores on the Problem Gambling Severity Index, a financial literacy scale, and a measure of overconfidence.

Results

Self-reported relative stock portfolio turnover was positively associated with problem gambling scores. This association was robust to controls for financial literacy, overconfidence, and demographics, and occurred equally among investors of all self-reported portfolio sizes.

Discussion and conclusions

This study provides support for the hypothesis that behavioral addiction to gambling-like activities is associated with frequent stock market trading. New investment products that increase the ease of trading may therefore be detrimental to some investors.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Vietnam implemented numerous measures to reduce the transmission of COVID-19 among school students, including study-at-home/self-quarantine. During the study-at-home period, adolescents may engage in more video gaming than usual, potentially contributing to gaming disorder. However, the regionally-representative prevalence of gaming disorder and its association with parenting practice and discipline practice have not been described. We assessed the prevalence of gaming disorder among Vietnamese adolescents during the initial 6 months of the COVID-19 pandemic and the associations between gaming disorder and parenting practice and discipline practice.

Methods

We conducted a school-based, self-administered cross-sectional survey of 2,084 students in Hanoi, Vietnam (response rate = 97.1%). The survey included standardized instruments translated from English to Vietnamese. We performed multilevel logistic regressions to assess the associations between parenting practice, discipline practice, and gaming disorder.

Results

The prevalence of gaming disorder among the respondents was 11.6%. Healthy parent-child relationship was protective against gaming disorder (Adj OR = 0.36; 95% CI = 0.21, 0.62). Non-supervision, non-discipline, violent discipline were positively associated with gaming disorder.

Discussion and Conclusions

We found associations between gaming disorder and parent-child relationship, parental supervision, and parental discipline. Future interventional studies should consider assessing the effect of fostering healthy parent-child relationships and appropriate discipline on the occurrence or prognosis of gaming disorders.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Perfectionism, a focused self-concept, and erroneous beliefs have been implicated in the development and maintenance of various disordered behaviors. However, researchers have yet to examine how these factors combine to explain different disordered behaviors. Herein, we addressed this gap and hypothesized a moderated-mediation model whereby perfectionism fosters the development of disordered behaviors through a focused self-concept. Critically, the effect of a focused self-concept on disordered behaviors is specific to people with erroneous beliefs about their disordered behaviors. The model was tested in the contexts of disordered gambling and disordered eating, particularly dietary restraint.

Method

In Study 1, participants were community members who gamble (N = 259). In Study 2, participants were university women (N = 219). In both studies, participants completed self-report measures of all constructs that are both reliable and valid.

Results

In Study 1, as expected, there was a positive association between perfectionism and disordered gambling, which was mediated by financially focused self-concept. This mediation was only observed among participants who scored high on illusion of control and belief in luck. Likewise, in Study 2, there was a positive association between perfectionism and dietary restraint, which was mediated by appearance focused self-concept. The mediation effect was only observed among participants who believed that maladaptive dietary restraint behaviors were safe and efficacious.

Discussion and Conclusions

The findings support the transdiagnostic utility of our model, which may help explain an array of disordered behaviors, including other addictive behaviors as well as behaviors that involve rigid adherence to rules and control.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Małgorzata Draps, Guillaume Sescousse, Mateusz Wilk, Katarzyna Obarska, Izabela Szumska, Weronika Żukrowska, Aleksandra Majkowska, Ewelina Kowalewska, Julia Szymanowska, Urszula Hamerska, Magda Trybuś, Karolina Golec, Iwona Adamska, Karol Szymczak, and Mateusz Gola

Abstract

Background and aims

Despite the inclusion of the Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder (CSBD) in the International Classification of Diseases, very little is known about the underlying affective and cognitive processes. To fill this gap, we compared CSBD subjects and Healthy-Controls (HC) across negative/positive valence, cognitive and sensorimotor systems, as proposed by the Research Domain Criteria framework.

Methods

74 heterosexual CSBD and 66 matched HC males were studied with 10 questionnaires and 8 behavioral tasks. Analyses were conducted with frequent and Bayesian statistics.

Results

CSBD individuals showed significantly higher (than HC) punishment sensitivity, anxiety, depression, compulsivity, and impulsivity symptoms. Frequentist statistical analysis revealed significant interaction between subject group and condition in Incentive Delay Task, concerning the strength of motivation and hedonic value of erotic rewards. Bayesian analysis produced evidence for the absence of group differences in Facial Discrimination Task, Risk-Ambiguity Task, and Learning Task. Also, Bayesian methods provided evidence for group differences in the Emotional Stroop Task and the Incentive Delay Task. Sexual Discounting Task, Attentional Network Task, and Stop Signal Task produced mixed results.

Conclusions

Higher punishment sensitivity and impulsivity among CSBD subjects, along with significant interaction between these groups and erotic vs. non-erotic reward processing is in line with previous findings on negative/positive valence alterations in CSBD patients. This result shows that there are similarities to substance and behavioral addictions. The absence of group differences and mixed results related to cognitive and sensorimotor systems raise concerns to what extent CSBD resembles a wide spectrum of impairments observed in disorders, and demand further research.

Open access