Effects of Meloidogyne incognita, Pseudomonas syringae pv. pisi and Rhizobium leguminosarum were studied on growth and biochemical parameters of pea (Pisum sativum L.) in three soil types. Plants grown in 20% fly ash attained higher plant growth, chlorophyll and carotenoid followed by loam soil and 20% sand. Inoculation of R. leguminosarum resulted in increased plant growth, nodulation, chlorophyll and carotenoid over control. Root nodulation and proline contents were high in plants grown in 20% sand and least in 20% fly ash. Inoculation of M. incognita prior to P. syringae pv. pisi resulted in a greater reduction in plant growth, nodulation, chlorophyll and carotenoid content and least where P. syringae pv. pisi was inoculated prior to M. incognita. Inoculation of pathogens increased proline contents. Galling and population of M. incognita was high in 20% sand followed by loam soil and fly ash amended soil. P. syringae pv. pisi and R. leguminosarum had adverse effect on galling and nematode population. The principal component analysis identifies interaction of pathogens and showed segregation of various treatments in the plots.
Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller, 1873) is one of the most damaging pests of potatoes in the world. Since the chemical pesticides play a key role in managing of potato tuber moth (PTM), the present study was conducted to assess the efficacy of Proteus®, Takumi®, Avaunt®, Dorsban®, Decis®, Consult® and Vertimec® against neonate larval penetration and one-day-old eggs of P. operculella. But adverse effects of chemical insecticides, actuated researchers to seek secure tools such as medicinal plants and biopesticides like Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner, 1715 for pest managements. Hence, we also examined toxicity of savory, ziziphora and cumin methanolic extracts against the pest under laboratory conditions. We also surveyed the synergistic/antagonistic interactions between the most effective insecticide and methanolic extract with Bt against PTM. Our results showed that both Vertimec® and savory synergized the performance of Bt against neonate larval penetration of P. operculella. Probit analysis of insecticides and methanolic extracts demonstrated that Vertimec® and Takumi® had high toxicities to the neonate larval penetration of PTM which exhibited LC50 values equivalent to 7.09 ppm and 0.008 g L−1, respectively. Savory was the most effective extract against larval penetration and hatching rate of the pest (LC50 = 440.36 and 635.93 ppm, respectively). Oviposition preference demonstrated that Vertimec® and Decis® exhibited inhibitory ovipositional effects against P. operculella.
Authors:Zsolt Kárpáti, Csengele Bognár, Erzsébet Voigt, Miklós Tóth, and Béla Péter Molnár
Three sawfly species (Hoplocampa minuta, Hoplocampa flava, Hoplocampa fulviicornis) have been monitored in plum orchards during the flowering period in three consecutive years at three different locations in Hungary using chromotropic white sticky traps. Black and yellow sawflies (H. minuta and H. flava) are one of the most important pests in plum orchards, however plum-fruit sawfly (Hoplocampa fulvicornis) has not yet been documented from plum orchards in Hungary. In almost all locations and years, H. minuta was the most dominant species, except in Cegléd, 2014, where H. flava was the most abundant one. In terms of sex ratio, in all three species, more males than females were caught in the traps except in 2016 at Érd, where more H. flava females flew into the traps.
Zygosaccharomyces species are among the most problematic food spoilage yeasts. The two most infamous species are Zygosaccharomyces balii and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, although they may also take a positive role during the production of some fermented foods. DNA sequence based yeast identification aided by freely available reference databases of barcoding DNA sequences has boosted the description rate of novel yeast species in the last two decades. The genus Zygosaccharomyces has been considerably expanded as well. Especially the number of the extremely osmotolerant Zygosaccharomyces species, related to Z. rouxii and regularly found in high-sugar foods, has enlarged. A brief account of recent developments in the taxonomy and biodiversity of this important food associated genus is given in this review.
Authors:Alexis Lacout, Marie Mas, Julie Pajaud, Véronique Perronne, Yannick Lequette, Michel Franck, and Christian Perronne
Ticks are frequently polyinfected and can thus transmit numerous microorganisms. A large number of bacteria, parasites and viruses are transmitted by tick bites and could cause different signs and symptoms in patients. The main goal of this study was to search for these numerous microorganisms in patients presenting with persistent polymorphic syndrome possibly due to a tick bite (SPPT).
Patients and methods
The following microorganisms were searched for in saliva, urine, venous and capillary blood by using real time PCR: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Borrelia miyamotoi, Borrelia hermsii, Bartonella spp., Bartonella quintana, Bartonella henselae, Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia spp., Coxiella burnetii, Brucella spp., Francisella tularensis, Mycoplasma spp., Chlamydia spp., Babesia spp., Theileria spp.
104 patients were included. 48% of the patients were poly-infected, and 25% harboured at least three different microorganisms. Borrelia spp. were not the most frequent bacteria observed, observed far behind Mycoplasma spp., Rickettsia spp. and Ehrlichia spp. which were the most frequent microorganisms observed. Piroplasms were found in a significant number of patients. The most sensitive matrix was saliva, followed by urine, capillary blood and venous blood.
Our prospective study has shown that patients with SPPT, a syndrome close to fibromyalgia, could harbour several tick borne microorganisms.
Authors:Y.H. Xu, T. Li, W.L. Yang, M.Y. Sun, R.Z. An, and W.M. Du
There have been contradicting observations regarding the prebiotic efficacy of feruloylated oligosaccharides (FOs) extracted from different varieties of cereals with varying oligosaccharides and ferulic acid (FA) levels. The present study was performed to determine whether the mass ratio of xylooligosaccharide (XOS) to FA influences their combined effects on faecal FA content, short chain fatty acid (SCFA) output, and gut stress of d-galactose-treated aging rats. The results show that there was no significant difference in the faecal FA levels of rats fed with 5:1 and 10:1 XOS:FA diet, although the FA level in the 5:1-supplemented diet was twice as much as in the 10:1 diet. More utilisation of FA decreased butyric acid and SCFA output in the faeces for diet 5:1 compared with diets 10:1 XOS:FA or XOS alone. Furthermore, compared with 10:1 XOS:FA or XOS alone treatments, the 5:1 XOS:FA diet resulted in increased 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl activity and higher ratios of Bifidobacterium or Lactobacillus to Escherichia coli (P < 0.05), while not increasing the number of probiotic Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. These findings suggest that under the specific stress level set for this study, the sufficient amount of FA added to XOS (5:1) can stimulate FA utilisation to modify gut redox balance, while reducing faecal SCFA output.
The checklist includes tree, shrub, dwarf shrub, woody liana and epiphyte species that occur or have occurred in Hungary except the settlements and other intensively utilised objects. 437 dendrotaxa were included and evaluated in this list. This means 281 species, 22 subspecies, 128 nothospecies and 6 nothosubspecies. Based on the indigenat, 260 native, 92 alien and 9 cryptogenic dendrotaxa live in Hungary, furthermore 54 cultivated dendrotaxa and 22 dendrotaxa with questionable occurrence. Analysing the invasive status of alien species, 19 invasive or being in the early stages of invasion, 12 naturalised and 61 casual dendrotaxa can be distinguished. According to residence time status, the number of archaeophytes is 16 and that of neophytes is 76. Of the 260 native dendrotaxa, 9 were extinct or presumably extinct. 44 dendrotaxa are considered to be proven endemic, and there are 8 subendemic. Of the 134 nothotaxa on the list, 14 are artificial and 120 are of natural origin.
The genus Dracocephalum L. (Lamiaceae) with about 60 to 70 species is a genus in the sub-tribe Nepetinae, tribe Mentheae of Lamiaceae family, native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. They are mostly perennial herbs, and rarely annual. Flora Iranica reports 8 Dracocephalum species and the Flora of Iran reports 10 Dracocephalum species in Iran out of which, 4 species are endemic. We collected 7 Dracocephalum species and studied species delimitation and species relationship by morphometric and anatomic results. The species were efficiently delimited by morphological and anatomical characters. Morphological and anatomical characters revealed closer affinity between D. moldavica and D. subcapitatum and D. thymiflorum were placed with distance from these species.
Authors:S. Y. Kondratyuk, L. Lőkös, I. Kärnefelt, A. Thell, M.-H. Jeong, S.-O. Oh, A. S. Kondratiuk, E. Farkas, and J.-S. Hur
Seven genera new to science, i.e.: Helmutiopsis, Huriopsis, Johnsheardia, Klauskalbia, Kudratovia, Kurokawia and Poeltonia of the Physciaceae are proposed for the ‘Rinodina’ atrocinerea, the ‘Rinodina’ xanthophaea, the ‘Rinodina’ cinnamomea, the ‘Heterodermia’ obscurata, the ‘Rinodina’ straussii, the ‘Anaptychia’ isidiata and the ‘Physconia’ grisea groups consequently that all form strongly supported monophyletic branches in a phylogeny analysis based on a combined matrix of nrITS and mtSSU sequences.
Phylogenetic positions of species belonging to the genera Kashiwadia s. l., Leucodermia, Mischoblastia,Oxnerella, Phaeorrhiza s. l., Polyblastidium and Rinodinella s. l. are discussed. Oxnerella afghanica which for the first time recorded as parasitic lichen species from both epiphytic and saxicolous crustose lichens is designated as type species for the genus Oxnerella.
Sequences of the recently described Physcia orientostellaris as well as Huriopsis xanthophaea and additional sequences of Kashiwadia aff. orientalis and Mischoblastia aff. oxydata are submitted to the GenBank.
The positions of Polyblastidium casaterrinum from Costa Rica, ‘Rinodina’ efflorescens from Białowieża, Poland, and ‘Mischoblastia’ confragosula from Cambodia in the Physciaceae are confirmed in a phylogeny analysis based on the nrITS sequences.
The presence of ‘extraneous mycobiont DNA’ in lichen associations is exemplified with earlier incorrect identifications of Heterodermia, Kashiwadia, Kurokawia,Oxnerella and Poeltonia specimens.
Sacred groves are the fairly well-protected system of community-based conservation of tree patches on account of their association with village gods, and repository of many rare and threatened elements of biodiversity. There are, however, few publications on lichens of sacred groves. The lichens have long been regarded as sensitive indicators for monitoring environmental state. The present study reports one hundred and sixteen species of lichens from forty-four genera of nineteen families in four selected sacred groves of Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal. These lichens represent two different growth forms, i.e. crustose (105 species) and foliose (11 species). Shorea robusta, a dominant tree species in two sacred groves bears the highest lichen diversity with seventy-four species. To better understand the related biodiversity and climate, this work is likely to promote further studies on lichen diversity in other regions of West Bengal.