In the ancient world, visual and verbal σύνθημα appears to be of enormous importance during conflicts. It is one of the elements pertaining to the management and organization of political intelligence. In particular, the signal, declined in the verbal form, for its fundamental function of ‘recognition’ to validate the belonging of a soldier to a particular side, had to be chosen with great care. Its use appears to have intensified and, at the same time, perfected, according to what can be gathered from historiographical evidence and from military treatises, at the time of the transition between the Classical and Hellenistic eras, when the way of waging war also underwent an important transformation.
Among the Tangut Buddhist texts discovered from Khara-Khoto, there emerges a text entitled Gu tśja ɣiej tsji̱r tśhji kjịj, which means ‘Analysis of the Essence of Madhyamaka.’ Intriguingly, a Tibetan treatise composed by Rgya dmar ba Byang chub grags (fl. 12th century) bears the same title. A comparison between the texts in both languages shows that about 50% of their contents are the same. Although the Tangut text cannot be regarded as a translation of the Tibetan text we see today, the complex relationship between both texts and the history of the transmission of the Tibetan treatise is worth investigating.
Oxygen plays a crucial role in all stages of wine production. The aim of this study was to quantify dissolved oxygen in filtered wines trained on fine lees during different technological operations such as racking, coarse filtration, stabilisation of thermolabile proteins, and sterile filtration and bottling. The most significant oxygenation of wine occurs during filtration (1.9–3.57 mg L−1) and during bottling (2.99–4.12 mg L−1). At the same time, oxygen affects the phenolic composition, antioxidant activity and sulphur dioxide.
Understanding and being able to use oxygen correctly during wine production can lead to a reduction in the doses of sulphur dioxide used. It has been shown that wines trained on fine lees are more able to withstand oxygen and, therefore, the sulphur dioxide doses can be reduced substantially. The experiment, in which two different winemaking technologies were observed, was carried out on the Welschriesling variety using both stainless steel tanks and oak barrels.
Over many decades, the library of Radvány castle has developed into a valuable and organized collection. The founders and owners of the library were members of the Radvánszky family from Radvány right until the time when it finally became state property. The collection has been described on several occasions, and the state of the library has been explored several times in the literature; however, to date, its holdings have not been described and published in detail. However, the specialist would be in an easy position, since catalogs have survived and, in addition, a significant part of the collection still exists, so there is a good chance that the library's stock can be reconstructed. The real and the supposed processes of building the collection may be traced back quite clearly over a period of more than a century and a half.
This article examines the figure of the passive hero first in the Korean literature of origins, and then in classical Korean literature of the Koryŏ and Chosŏn periods. After a general introductory section, in which the worldwide literary archetype of the hero and its evolution over time are examined, the author, specifically examining Korean literature, analyzes in part one the passive heroes of four short historical/mythological stories variously set in an era between the second and eighth centuries, and then part two of the article analyzes three passive hero figures as protagonists of one 14th-century tale and two 18th-century classic novels. The author thus shows how the narrative of the passive hero has undergone a significant transformation in Korea, passing from a mythical/spiritual state (which often does not even admit the figure of an antagonist) to a decidedly secular, materialist and politicized condition where the protagonists find themselves facing cultural superstructures which, in addition to generating antagonists, push passive heroes towards true forms of defensive fundamentalism.
High-performance internal combustion engines are subject to severe torsional vibrations which result from uneven gas and inertial loads. Fatigue damage occurs if the frequency of these undesired oscillations matches the resonance frequency of the crankshaft and the driven engine elements. This phenomenon can be avoided by the application of visco-dampers whose working fluid is high-viscosity silicone oil. Since silicone oil is exposed to a significant amount of heat load during operation, it is essential to calculate the temperature distribution in a relatively easy, quick, and cost-efficient way for lifetime estimation purposes. The aim of this article is to develop a reliable, fast, and accurate finite difference-based numerical method for steady-state thermal calculations for arbitrary damper sections. The developed MATLAB code calculates the temperature field of the damping fluid together with all components in a radial cross-section at given operational conditions. The accuracy of the developed thermal calculation method has been tested in a 3-dimensional – 2-dimensional two-step verification process by finite element and finite volume-based advanced engineering software in ANSYS environment. Furthermore, the original Iwamoto equation available in the literature has been updated to provide more accurate surface temperature results based on the simulations' outcome gained by the finite volume method.
The concept of the ‘Japanization of Confucianism’ took shape during the Meiji 明治 period (1868–1912 C.E.), reached its highest point of development in Tokugawa Japan (1603–1868), and is epitomized by the rise of the Kyoto faction (Kyō-gakuha 京學派) of Zhu Xi studies (Shushi-gaku 朱子學). However, due to the underestimation of Japanese Zhu Xi studies by scholars like Inoue Tetsujirō 井上哲次郎 from the early twentieth century onward, the Kyoto faction ipso facto has been largely eclipsed in the history of the study of Japanese Confucianism. In light of this, the present article investigates the representative scholars in the Kyoto faction to uncover the dynamic process of Confucianism’s penetration into Japanese society. A multiple-dimension study is conducted to dissect varied approaches to promoting the Japanization of Confucianism, including the vernacularization and sanctification of Confucianism in Japan. This article seeks to redefine the role of the Kyoto faction in the transmission of Confucianism across East Asia.
This work explored the impact of mixed flow spray drying on the physical and functional properties of whey powder without any subsequently added drying agent to increase whey utilisation. Spray drying was performed on a pilot scale using a mixed flow spray dryer. The effects of the inlet air temperature (150–210 °C) and feed flow rate (2–7 L h−1) on several responses such as moisture content, yield, dispersibility, bulk density, and outlet air temperature were investigated using response surface methodology. In addition, with the optimised parameters, Carr index, Hausner ratio, solubility, wettability, hygroscopicity, degree of caking, crystallinity, and morphology of the obtained whey powder were determined. The investigation revealed that feed flow rate is the main parameter influencing all responses. The inlet air temperature significantly affected the bulk, tapped density, and outlet air temperature. The optimal inlet air temperature and feed flow rate for the production of whey powder were 182 °C and 3.2 L h−1, respectively. Under these parameters the moisture content, yield, bulk density, hygroscopicity, and degree of caking of the obtained product were 28.6, 1.80%, 0.24 g cm−3, 16.10 g H2O/g powder, and 85.56%, respectively.