Itáliai és német építőmesterek tevékenysége a budai polgárvárosban a török kiűzése után
Activities of Italian and German Master Builders in Buda After the Expulsion of the Turks
1686. évi visszavívása után a romokból és az eleinte még falusias viszonyokból lassan, majd egyre gyorsuló ütemben született újjá Buda városa. Az Udvari Kamara idegenből jött, főleg német anyanyelvű, katolikus lakosokat kezdett betelepíteni, a mestereket kedvező feltételekkel csábítva Pest-Budára.
I. Lipót Venerio Ceresola császári építőmestert nevezte ki a budai erődítési munkálatok irányítására, aki már 1686 októberében belekezdett az újjáépítés megszervezésébe. Az ország különböző részeiből érkeztek építőmunkások, akik a kőfaragókkal társulva céhbe szerveződtek Ceresola vezetésével. A budai kőműves és kőfaragó céh 1690-ben jött létre, és működött a céhek 1872-es feloszlatásáig. E mesterek polgári kőművesmester megjelölése még más értelemmel bírt, ugyanis az építész szakmán belül ekkor a legmagasabb megszerezhető képesítés a kőművesmesterség volt, s ezt csak céhen belül és csak mestervizsgával lehetett elérni. A kőművesmester a tervezéstől a kivitelezésig jogosult volt az építés teljes folyamatának elvégzésére. Az építész vagy építőmester elnevezés csak címet jelentett, azaz hivatal- vagy rangjelző volt, mint pl. az uradalmi vagy kamarai építész címe.
Ceresola háztulajdonos is volt Budán, ő kezdte építeni a budai városházát, melyet később a 18. század folyamán a céh több tagja is bővített vagy átépített, köztük Hölbling János, Vogl Konrád, Nöpauer Mátyás. A céh tagjai közül kiemelkedik Hölbling János, aki Ceresolához hasonlóan császári építőmester is volt, az ő egyik munkája pl. a Zeughaus kivitelezése. Nöpauer Mátyás tervezte és építette az Erdődy-palotát, ill. az ő tulajdona volt a Hess András tér 3. sz. alatti Vörös Sün vendégfogadó is.
E céh tagjainak nevéhez az egyszerű barokk lakóépületektől kezdve templomok, kolostorok, középületek építése kötődik, nagyrészt ők építették újjá Buda városát, ami alatt nemcsak a felső város értendő, hanem a külvárosok is, ráadásul e céh mint főcéh tagjai jogosultak voltak az ország egész területén építkezni.
As of 2020, the mining industry in the province of Quebec (Canada) has been providing 16,000 jobs, the majority of these in the north part of the province and in the Abitibi-Témiscamingue region. From the exploration phase to the mining site rehabilitation phase, numerous chemical processes are used, often involving some of the most dangerous substances used on industrial scales.
The hazards associated with many of these substances are in some cases not obvious, and symptoms of exposure may take years to appear. The risks associated with the industrial use of chemicals in Canada and abroad has long preoccupied health authorities, given the severity of the diseases that can occur. In Quebec, occupational diseases associated with exposure to industrial chemicals are reaching 1,500 cases per year.
The principal focus of this study, presented in two articles, is to set a preliminary theoretical framework for categorizing chemicals in terms of their effects on the health of workers throughout the various phases of mining projects. The objective is to decrease (over the long term) the number of occupational diseases due to the use of chemicals by raising awareness among employers and exposed workers in the mining sector.
This research was conducted in four phases. The present article contains the results of the first two stages, that is, a review of the literature to catalog the industrial chemicals used in mines and to list the potential effects of exposure to them, based on Safety Data Sheets. Eighty-five (85) chemicals used in at least one mining project phase and dozens of potential effects on worker health were identified. The rest of the study is presented in a second article 
This article deals with balancing an autonomous motorcycle model along a straight line and curve lines. The dynamic model of the motorcycle balancing is described with an inverted physical pendulum loaded with torque. The torque is provided by the inertia of a rotor driven by a direct current motor. The lean angle of the motorcycle is measured by a smart sensor, which is the feedback signal for the linear quadratic regulator control system. The main purpose of this study is to compensate the error of the smart sensor. Controlling the necessary lean angle of the motorcycle during cornering is also addressed.
The aim of the study is to determine the environmental conditions in the territory of the Myjava river basin (Slovakia) in order to analyze changes in the ecological stability from the first military mapping (1769–1784) until the present (2020). Except of the assessment of the ecological condition of the area, the stress factors of the territory were evaluated together with proposed measures according to the need to improve the current situation. The ecological prosperity of the landscape was evaluated based on the several methodologies used in Slovakia including coefficients of ecological stability. The results pointed to changes in ecological stability during the period evaluated, together with analyses of the stress factors that are currently affecting the territory researched.
Dynamic contact and impact problems are widely applicable. An accurate solution method for these kinds of problems can be used in many fields of mechanical engineering (e.g., cutting metalwork, cogwheel drives, etc.). However, the proper handling of the contact is problematic, as there emerges a substantial amount of nonlinearity in the displacement field. Therefore, a spurious high frequency oscillation is present in the solution. These oscillations must be avoided, as divergence can easily occur in the contact algorithm due to them. In order to eliminate this effect, the applied numerical method must be chosen and set properly. In this study, a comprehensive guide is provided for the appropriate selection of the proper numerical method and its parameters.
In the Hydraulic Laboratory of the Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava the distribution of the flow velocity in a shaft intake structure was investigated on a physical model. The homogeneity of the flow velocity distribution in the intakes of turbines has a great influence on the turbine performance. Modern optical methods, particle image velocimetry and laser Doppler anemometry, were used to measure the flow velocity distribution in the model of the turbine intake. The particle image velocimetry method provides a record of the velocity field, while the laser Doppler anemometry method provides an accurate indication of the velocity at a given point. The flow velocity distributions in the examined profiles were measured by the particle image velocimetry and laser Doppler anemometry methods and the results were compared with each other.
On the basis of elaborating the connotation of intensive city block, it is pointed out that the intensive structure organization is the key to realize intensive city block. The order complexity of the block structure is formed by the close connection, overlapping of elements, the depth difference and their compound association. This paper constructs the basic pedigree of block structure design from three levels of street configuration, plot organization and building layout, and forms the derivation and comprehensive application strategy of pedigree from the organic linkage and compound of each other.
Algae are an evolutionary model of success and colonize all suitable ecological niches including building material surfaces that have favorable characteristics. In the last 25 years, building physics measures were developed to reduce water availability, especially on external thermal insulation composite systems.
Investigations into the influence of coating formulations have so far primarily focused on binder systems, biocides and hygrothermal properties. Research on the algal susceptibility due to the fillers is not to be found, but these regularly constitute a large proportion of final coatings. The present work investigates the influence of magnesium-containing fillers in the process of algal colonization of free-weathered façade coatings and a defense-strategy by water-activated pigment composition.
The aim of this study is to design a pylon with an engineering structure that gives it support and strength and manufacture a pylon characterized by low cost, lightweight, and bearing the patient's weight. This study designed two pylon models and fabricated by additive manufacturing techniques. The polylactic acid polymer is used as the filament for the 3D printing of pylons. A force plate and tensile test with finite element method simulation ANSYS software were applied to the pylons to evaluate their performance. The results showed that 3D printed pylon with Y-section has enough strength under stress and good safety factor, and the ability to bear a high patient load without buckling and exceed the requirements to become instead of the metallic prosthetic pylons.
With the rapid importance of high-performance energy modeling of buildings, whole-building energy simulation engines are rapidly used in the decision-making process. However, there are tens of engines in the market, which makes the choice of design engine very challenging. This article provides a comparison of the applications of whole-building energy simulation to predict a significant number of systems. As a result, the selected engines will be compared to establish their characteristics and abilities. Nevertheless, the focus will be placed on: generic criteria; envelope; lighting; service hot water; Heating-ventilation; and renewable systems. However, the authors found that an engine could be used extensively in one system and has limited capabilities in another system.