Generalizing results of Schatte  and Atlagh and Weber , in this paper we give conditions for a sequence of random variables to satisfy the almost sure central limit theorem along a given sequence of integers.
In the 1980’s the author proved lower bounds for the mean value of the modulus of the error term of the prime number theorem and other important number theoretic functions whose oscillation is in connection with the zeros of the Riemann zeta function. In the present work a general theorem is shown in a simple way which gives a lower bound for the mentioned mean value as a function of a hypothetical pole of the Mellin transform of the function. The conditions are amply satisfied for the Riemann zeta function. In such a way the results recover the earlier ones (even in a slightly sharper form). The obtained estimates are often optimal apart from a constant factor, at least under reasonable conditions as the Riemann Hypothesis. This is the case, in particular, for the error term of the prime number theorem.
The ultrapower T* of an arbitrary ordered set T is introduced as an infinitesimal extension of T. It is obtained as the set of equivalence classes of the sequences in T, where the corresponding relation is generated by a free ultrafilter on the set of natural numbers. It is established that T* always satisfies Cantor’s property, while one can give the necessary and sufficient conditions for T so that T* would be complete or it would fulfill the open completeness property, respectively. Namely, the density of the original set determines the open completeness of the extension, while independently, the completeness of T* is determined by the cardinality of T.
We introduce a Floer homotopy version of the contact invariant introduced by Kronheimer–Mrowka–Ozsváth–Szabó. Moreover, we prove a gluing formula relating our invariant with the first author’s Bauer–Furuta type invariant, which refines Kronheimer–Mrowka’s invariant for 4-manifolds with contact boundary. As an application, we give a constraint for a certain class of symplectic fillings using equivariant KO-cohomology.
We extend the construction of Y-type invariants to null-homologous knots in rational homology three-spheres. By considering m-fold cyclic branched covers with m a prime power, this extension provides new knot concordance invariants of knots in S3. We give computations of some of these invariants for alternating knots and reprove independence results in the smooth concordance group.
We prove a theorem on the preservation of inequalities between functions of a special form after differentiation on an ellipse. In particular, we obtain generalizations of the Duffin–Schaeffer inequality and the Vidensky inequality for the first and second derivatives of algebraic polynomials to an ellipse.
In this paper we work out a Riemann–von Mangoldt type formula for the summatory function :=, where is an arithmetical semigroup (a Beurling generalized system of integers) and is the corresponding von Mangoldt function attaining with a prime element and zero otherwise. On the way towards this formula, we prove explicit estimates on the Beurling zeta function , belonging to , to the number of zeroes of in various regions, in particular within the critical strip where the analytic continuation exists, and to the magnitude of the logarithmic derivative of , under the sole additional assumption that Knopfmacher’s Axiom A is satisfied. We also construct a technically useful broken line contour to which the technic of integral transformation can be well applied. The whole work serves as a first step towards a further study of the distribution of zeros of the Beurling zeta function, providing appropriate zero density and zero clustering estimates, to be presented in the continuation of this paper.