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Abstract

Background and aims

It is well understood that engagement with some forms of gambling, like EGMs, is riskier than other forms. However, while reports of associations are common, few studies have attempted to evaluate and compare the relative risk of all available forms, and none have estimated the relative contribution of each form to the total burden of gambling problems (GP) in a population.

Methods

Using an aggregated dataset of national and state-based prevalence studies in Australia (N = 71,103), we estimated prevalence and unique effects of frequency of engagement on each form on GP. Two alternative numerical methods were then applied to infer the relative contribution of each form to the total amount of GP.

Results

EGMs are responsible for 51%–57% of gambling problems in Australia, and 90% of gambling problems are attributable to EGMs, casino, race, and sports betting. Casino table games and EGMs are equally risky at the individual level, but the former contribute far less to problems due to low participation. Bingo and lottery play show no statistically detectable risk for GP.

Discussion and conclusion

The results illustrate which forms present the greatest population burden and illuminate the reasons why. EGMs have an outsized impact. EGM uniquely combines high risk conditional on play, with a high participation rate and a high frequency of play among participants. This is in contrast to risky but less commonly played casino games, and prevalent but non-risky forms like lotteries. We conclude that EGM regulation should be a primary focus of policy action in Australia. More innovative policy ideas relating to EGMs should be tested due to the disproportionate impact of this product type.

Open access

A mentalizáció, a reziliencia és a problémaviselkedés kapcsolati beágyazottsága serdülőkorban: vizsgálatok a Reflektív Funkció Kérdőív (RFQ-H) magyar változatával

Mentalization, resilience, problem behavior and percieved social support among 14–19 year old high school students: Studies with the Hungarian version of the Reflective Function Questionnaire

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors:
Erzsébet Szél
and
Éva Szabó

Háttér és célkitűzések

A mentalizáció kulcsfontosságú a szociokognitív képességek integrációjához és fejlett interperszonális készségek kialakításához. Hagelquist (2017) pedagógiai és pszichoterápiás modelljében a sikeres mentalizációt építőkövek hierarchikus rendszerébe helyezte. Célunk a Reflektív Funkció Kérdőív megbízhatóságának vizsgálata és a mentalizáció hagelquisti modelljének igazolása egészséges serdülő mintán. Jelen kutatásban azt vizsgáltuk, hogy az észlelt társas támogatás és a mentalizáció színvonala milyen kapcsolatot mutat a rezilienciával és a problémaviselkedés kialakulásával.

Módszer

A vizsgálatban 444 serdülő vett részt (M = 16,3 év, SD = 1,15 év), akik a Reflektív Funkció Kérdőív mellett kitöltötték a Serdülő Reziliencia Kérdőív magyar változatát, a Képességek és Nehézségek Kérdőívet, valamint a Multidimenzionális Társas Támogatás Kérdőívet. Az adatok elemzéséhez klaszteranalízist végeztünk a mentalizáció és az észlelt társas támogatás dimenzióinak bevonásával.

Eredmények

Az észlelt problémaviselkedés gyenge, illetve közepes erősségű kapcsolatban áll a mentalizáció sérülésével, a mentalizáció dimenziói közül a bizonytalan mentalizációval és az érzelmi elárasztottság skálájával, azaz az egyén csökkent képessége arra, hogy saját szándékait értelmezze, pozitív együtt járást mutat a problémaviselkedés kialakulásával. A mentalizáció és az észlelt társas támogatás dimenzióinak bevonásával három klasztert alakítottunk ki. A kiegyensúlyozott csoportba tartozó egyének szignifikánsan kevesebb problémaviselkedést jeleztek, és magasabb szintű rezilienciáról számoltak be. A magárahagyottak csoportja a reziliencia és a problémaviselkedés területén is a legerősebb sérüléseket jelzi, míg az érzelemvezérelt csoport esetén a problémaviselkedés emelkedett mértéke jellemző.

Következtetések

A mentalizáció kapcsolati beágyazottsága befolyásolja a reziliencia színvonalát és a problémaviselkedés kialakulásának esélyét, ezzel igazolódott Hagelquist modelljének azon része, amely a sikeres mentalizáció egyik feltételének a környezeti-kapcsolati biztonságot jelöli ki.

Background

Mentalization is a key concept in integrating socio-cognitive skills and developing advanced interpersonal skills. In his pedagogical and psychotherapeutic model, Hagelquist (2017) placed successful mentalization in a hierarchical system of building blocks. Our aim is to investigate the reliability of the Reflective Function Questionnaire and to validate the Hagelquist model of mentalization in a healthy adolescent sample. In our study, we examined the relationship of percieved social support and mentalization focusing on the development of resilience or problem behavior.

Methods

444 adolescents (M = 16.3 years, SD = 1.15 years) completed the Hungarian version of the Resilience Scale for Adolescents, the Strenghts and Difficulties Questionnaire, The Mutidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and the Reflective Function Questionnaire. Data analisys was performed by cluster analysis involving the dimensions of mentalization and perceived social support.

Results

Perceived problem behavior is weakly or moderately associated with mentalization impairment. The individual's decreased ability to interpret his or her own intentions is positively associated with the development of problem behavior. As a result of the cluster analysis involving the dimensions of mentalization and perceived social support, we formed three clusters. Individuals in „the balanced” group reported significantly less problem behaviors and reported higher levels of resilience. The group „left alone” shows the strongest impairments in both resilience and problem behavior, while the „emotion driven” group has an increased rate of problem behavior.

Conclusions

Relational embeddedness of mentalization influences the level of resilience and the chances of developing problem behavior, thus confirming the part of Hagelquist's model that identifies environmental-relational security as a prerequisite for successful mentalization.

Open access

Az iskolai stressz, az adaptív és maladaptív megküzdés, valamint az iskolai kötődés összefüggései serdülő mintán

The relationships between school stress, adaptive and maladaptive coping and school attachment in an adolescent sample

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors:
Ágnes Juhász
,
Boglárka Ardai
,
Lilla Nagy
,
Noémi Balázs
, and
Réka Szigeti

Háttér és célkitűzések

Kutatásunkban 10 és 14 év közötti serdülők körében vizsgáltuk 473 fős mintán a megküzdő stratégiák ismeretét, az adaptív stratégiák védő szerepét az átélt stresszel szemben, valamint az átélt stressz és depresszió összefüggéseit az iskolával kapcsolatos attitűdjeikkel. Témánk indokoltságát a serdülőkorban átélt nagyobb mértékű stressz, valamint az adaptív megküzdési stratégiáknak a stressz negatív hatásaival szembeni potenciális védő szerepe adja.

Módszer

Kvantitatív és kvalitatív módszereket is használtunk két különböző időpontban. A kamaszoknál felmértük az általuk átélt stresszt, illetve a depressziót, továbbá a szubjektív egészségi panaszaikat és az iskolai kötődésüket. A megküzdő stratégiák ismeretét nyílt végű kérdéssel, majd a válaszok tartalomelemzésével kutattuk. Az összefüggéseket korrelációs és lineáris regressziós elemzéssel vizsgáltuk.

Eredmények

Az iskolai stressz összefüggést mutatott a depresszióval és az észlelt tanári támogatással. Az iskolai kötődést a vizsgált változók közül egyedül a tanári támogatás magyarázta. Az iskolai stressz szignifikáns negatív kapcsolatban volt az iskolai kötődéssel keresztmetszeti és hosszmetszeti elrendezésben is. Mintánkban a leginkább ismert stresszkezelési technikák a fizikai aktivitás, a verbalitás/sírás/kiabálás, a fizikai pihenés/feltöltődés és a digitális világ technikáinak használata voltak, néhány vizsgálati személy az instrukció ellenére maladaptív stratégiákat is említett. A maladaptív stratégiák igénybevétele főként a fizikai aktivitással, a verbalitás/sírás/kiabálás használatával, illetve a digitális világ technikáinak igénybevételével mutatott együtt járást. Az adaptív stresszlevezető technikák mennyisége gyenge pozitív korrelációt mutatott a stresszel.

Következtetések

A tanároktól kapott támogatásnak kiemelten fontos szerepe lehet a serdülők által átélt stressz mértékének csökkentésében, illetve ezen keresztül a depressziójuk megelőzésében.

Background and aims

We investigated a sample of 473 adolescents aged 10–14 their knowledge about coping strategies, the protective role of adaptive coping against perceived stress and the relationship between perceived stress and depression of the adolescents with their attitudes to school. The importance of our topic comes from the fact that adolescents perceive higher stress levels, and from the adaptive coping strategies' potentially protective role against the negative effects of stress.

Method

We applied quantitative and qualitative methods at two different points in time. We measured the adolescents' perceived stress, depression, subjective health complaints and their school attachment. We investigated the knowledge about coping strategies using open-ended questions and content analysis. The relationships between variables were analysed using correlation and linear regression analysis.

Results

School stress was related to depression and the perceived support from teachers. The variance of school attachment was only explained by support from teachers. School stress was in a significant negative relationship with school attachment in both cross-sectional and longitudinal settings. The most known stress management techniques in our sample were: physical activity, verbalization/crying/shouting, physical relaxation, and utilization of the techniques of the digital word. A few participants mentioned maladaptive strategies as well despite the instruction. Utilization of the maladaptive strategies correlated mostly with physical activity, using verbalization/crying/shouting and the utilization of the techniques of the digital word. The amount of adaptive stress management techniques had a weak positive correlation with stress.

Conclusion

Support from teachers might have an outstandingly important role in decreasing the level of perceived stress of adolescents and in preventing their depression.

Open access

Roma – nem roma interetnikus párkapcsolatok és identitás

Roma–non-Roma interethnic relationships and identity

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors:
Cinderella Komolafe
,
Georgina Csordás
, and
Beáta Dávid

Háttér és célkitűzések

A roma – nem roma interetnikus párkapcsolatok, házasságok száma egyre növekszik Magyarországon. Bár az interetnikus párkapcsolatok kapcsolatba hozhatóak a romák társadalmi integrációjával, eddig mégis kevés kutatás fókuszált vizsgálatukra. Kutatásunk fókuszában az etnikai identitás, valamint a roma identitásstratégiák álltak, különböző roma alcsoportok (beás, oláh, romungró) bevonásával. Arra kerestük a választ, hogy ezen konstruktumok milyen kapcsolatban állnak azzal, hogy a válaszadóknak volt-e valaha életében nem roma párja.

Módszer

Kérdőíves, kvantitatív, keresztmetszeti, feltáró kutatásunkban a roma – nem roma interetnikus párkapcsolatokat az etnikai identitás (MEIM skála), roma identitásstratégia (szeparált, integrált, asszimilált) és a roma alcsoporthoz (oláh, beás, romungró) való tartozás szempontjából vizsgáltuk egy 533 fős magyarországi roma mintán.

Eredmények

Vizsgálatunkban míg az etnikai identitás nem mutatott összefüggést azzal, hogy a válaszadóknak volt-e nem roma párja életükben, addig a roma identitásstratégia igen. Akik jobban a többségi csoporthoz tartozónak vallották magukat, nagyobb arányban választottak nem roma párt. Míg, akik büszkén vallották, hogy roma származásúak, inkább választottak roma párt életük során. Az iskolai végzettség a roma identitásstratégiával és a pár származásával is összefüggött.

Következtetések

Az, hogy az etnikai identitásban nem mutatkozott meg különbség a párok származása szerint, a roma identitásstratégiában pedig igen, arra utalhat, hogy a párválasztás ez esetben jobban szól a többség és a kisebbség viszonyáról és annak benső reprezentációjáról, mint arról, hogy a kisebbségi csoportba tartozó egyén hogyan gondolkozik és cselekszik etnikai csoportjával kapcsolatban.

Background and aims

The number of Roma–non-Roma interethnic relationships and marriages has been increasing in Hungary. Although these interethnic relationships can be related to the social integration of the Roma people, still little research has been focused on the study of this so far. The focus of our research was ethnic identity and Roma identity strategies, by involving different Roma subgroups (Beas, Oláh, Romungro). We intended to find the answer to how these constructs relate to whether the respondents have ever had a non-Roma partner in their lives.

Methods

In our questionnaire-based, quantitative, cross-sectional, exploratory research with 533 Roma respondents in Hungary, we examined Roma–non-Roma interethnic relations in terms of ethnic identity (MEIM scale), Roma identity strategy (separated, integrated, assimilated) and belonging to a Roma subgroup (Oláh, Beas, Romungro).

Results

In our study, while ethnic identity did not correlate with whether respondents had a non-Roma partner in their lives or not, the Roma identity strategy did. Those who claimed to belong to the majority of society were more likely to choose a non-Roma partner. While those who proudly professed to belong to the Roma community preferred to choose a Roma partner in their life. Level of education showed interrelation with the Roma identity strategy and the ethnicity of the partner.

Conclusions

The fact that there was no difference in ethnic identity according to the origin of the partner, however, the Roma identity strategy is in connection with the partner choice, may indicate that the partner choice in this case is more about the relationship between the majority and the minority and its internal representation, than how an individual of a minority behaves and thinks about his or her ethnic group.

Open access

Abstract

Background

Psilocybin-assisted psychotherapy has demonstrated significant promise as a treatment for depression, anxiety, and existential distress associated with serious medical illness and has generally been employed on an individual basis, which presents challenges for scaling and resource availability. There are also compelling theoretical reasons to suggest that group-based formats-if utilized in a thoughtful fashion-might offer unique or enhanced therapeutic benefits for certain conditions or populations. The HOPE trial is an IRB-approved open-label feasibility and safety pilot study of psilocybin enhanced group therapy in patients with a DSM-5 depressive disorder associated with a cancer diagnosis completed at the Huntsman Cancer Institute (HCI) in Salt Lake City, Utah (HOPE: A Pilot Study of Psilocybin Enhanced Group Psychotherapy in Patients with Cancer). We report here qualitative survey-based data, impressions, and suggestions for group-based psychedelic-assisted therapy interventions based on our observations to inform future studies.

Methods

Patients with a DSM-5 depressive disorder with an underlying cancer diagnosis were recruited from HCI by referral from oncology providers, palliative care, and social work. Following screening and consenting, 4-6 participants per cohort (with three total cohorts) were enrolled in a protocol involving 3 120 min group preparatory sessions, a single high-dose (25 mg) group psilocybin session, and 3 subsequent group integration sessions. Primary clinical outcomes are still in process of data collection and analysis. Qualitative data was gathered from patient written reports and a survey administered at 2 weeks post intervention. Qualitative reports were also gathered from the therapist team at a post-study group process session.

Findings

We report here results from a qualitative survey of participant experiences with group format study design, as well as impressions and guidelines for group format and group psychotherapeutic process to inform other studies pursuing group-based interventions in psychedelic therapy. Suggestions are provided for protocol design, screening processes, space considerations, therapist team structure, group process, music, timeline, as well as potential issues and challenges.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Previous research has proposed that microdosing, i.e., the repeated use of sub-threshold doses of serotonergic hallucinogens, has an impact on mood by increasing emotional awareness. We propose that increased emotional awareness could translate into higher emodiversity, a balanced experience of emotions in which emotions are experienced with more similarity in intensity and duration. We examine the effect of microdosing, the day after, as well as the cumulative effect of microdosing on overall, positive and negative emodiversity.

Methods

We use data collected over a period of 28 days sampled between February to June 2020 from 18 users that already had an active practice of microdosing at the start of the data collection. We assessed emotional states using ESM methods, i.e., signal-contingent sampling with triggers sent 5 times a day. The working dataset has a number of 224 observations days. We used mixed effects models to test our hypotheses.

Results

When taking into account the level of average affect, we found that during microdosing days positive and overall emodiversity were significantly lower. No evidence was found for a mediating role of the level of average affect. Higher cumulative instances of microdosing were not related to any of the emodiversity indexes. Participants experienced more “awe, wonder, or amazement”, “ashamed, humiliated, or disgraced” as well as less “joyful, glad, or happy” emotions during microdosing days.

Conclusion

A microdosing practice may increase the centrality of certain emotions on microdosing days, resulting in a decrease in emotional diversity.

Open access

Abstract

Virtual exchange practices have been developed at universities for several years; however, the academic importance of VE has grown during the COVID-19 pandemic (Garcés & O'Dowd, 2020; Oswal, Palmer & Koris, 2021). As a result of the restrictions concerning physical mobility, VE has become a ‘first aid kit’ (Reiffenrath, de Louw & Haug, 2020) to continue students' international cooperation. However, at present, there is little research about the nature of students' VE practices during the pandemic COVID-19, particularly in relation to the functions of VE. Thus, the purpose of this study is to understand the characteristics of the special VE actions undertaken during the COVID-19 pandemic and to map out the educational functions and their prevalence through focus group interviews involving students who study at five different universities in Europe.

The article introduces the term ‘emergency-mode’ VE programmes that combine activities of traditional VEs with tailor-made solutions to accommodate the challenges posed by the pandemic. The analysis shows new directions of VE in terms of its educational functions, identifying 1) developmental, 2) social, 3) instrumental, 4) emancipatory, 5) self-reflectional, 6) motivational, as well as 7) occupational functions. The article also presents the prevalence of these functions in the specific learning environments created due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Open access

Abstract

This article reports on integration challenges that were experienced by nine individuals who attended a three-day legal psilocybin truffle retreat in the Netherlands. The study employed a qualitative phenomenological approach, using semi-structured interviews to gain an understanding of participants' (n = 30) psilocybin experiences and their after-effects. While the study did not actively seek to measure integration issues or unexpected side effects, nine out of thirty participants (30%) spontaneously reported a post-experience integration challenge. These challenges included: mood fluctuations, ‘post-ecstatic blues’, disconnection from community, re-experiencing symptoms, spiritual bypass and perceived lack of support. Integration challenges were transient; they occurred immediately after the psilocybin experience (once the main psychedelic effects had worn off) and in the days and weeks following the retreat, and resolved with time. Integration challenges were also correlated with positive after-effects including long-term remission of significant health conditions. The experiences related in this article align with existing literature that describes the ‘spiritual emergency’ phenomenon; that is, the potential challenges that can arise after ecstatic experiences and how these challenges may be integral to the transformative potential of such experiences. We discuss the implications for psychedelic integration and harm reduction practices and for future psychedelic research.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Although large-scale population studies have linked the use of classic psychedelics (lysergic acid diethylamide, psilocybin, or mescaline) to reduced odds of physical health problems, mental health problems, and criminal behavior, the roughly 35 million adults in the United States who have used classic psychedelics are nonetheless stigmatized in the American job market. Various federal organizations in the United States automatically reject applicants on the sole basis of prior psychedelic use, thereby practicing an open form of legal discrimination against these applicants. The present study investigates whether this discrimination can be justified based on associations between lifetime classic psychedelic use and motivationally-based workplace absenteeism.

Methods

Using pooled cross-sectional data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (2013–2019) on 193,320 employed adults in the United States, this study tests whether lifetime classic psychedelic use predicts the number of workdays employees skipped in the last month (i.e., motivationally-based workplace absenteeism).

Results

After adjusting for sociodemographics, physical health indicators, and other substance use, no significant association between lifetime classic psychedelic use and motivationally-based workplace absenteeism is found.

Conclusion

This study builds on classic psychedelic research that is just beginning to take work-specific outcomes into account and offers empirical justification for the elimination of arbitrary drug-based recruitment policies in the workplace.

Open access
Journal of Psychedelic Studies
Authors:
Madeline Brendle
,
Anya Ragnhildstveit
,
Matthew Slayton
,
Leo Smart
,
Sarah Cunningham
,
Mackenzie H. Zimmerman
,
Paul Seli
,
Michael Santo Gaffrey
,
Lynnette Astrid Averill
, and
Reid Robison

Abstract

Background and Aims

Ketamine and esketamine have garnered interest in both psychiatric research and clinical practice for treatment-resistant depression (TRD). In this review, we examined registered trials investigating the therapeutic use of ketamine or esketamine for TRD, with the aim of characterizing emerging trends and knowledge gaps.

Methods

The ClinicalTrials.gov electronic registry and results database was queried from inception to February 5, 2022, adhering to elements of the PRISMA guideline, we evaluated trial eligibility in the qualitative synthesis. Data regarding study design, drug regimens, and measures were subsequently abstracted and descriptively analyzed.

Results

The search returned 86 records, of which 56 trials were included in the final review. The number of trials investigating ketamine and esketamine for TRD increased since 2008, with higher peaks observed in 2015 (n = 9) and 2021 (n = 9). Most trials were Phase 2 (13, 23.2%) or Phase 3 (11, 19.6%), gathering preliminary data on efficacy and/or further data on safety and efficacy with variant dosing and pharmacological approaches. By and large, trials examined ketamine and esketamine as individual versus combination treatments (45% and 25%, respectively). The Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) was most commonly used to assess clinical outcomes (75%).

Conclusions

There are increasingly large-scale and late-phase trials of esketamine over ketamine for TRD, coupled with efforts to centralize evidence on these medications. Yet several trials do not assess patient characteristics that may affect treatment response, such as age, sex, and race. By understanding these design limitations, scientists and clinicians can avoid research waste and funding bodies can judiciously direct support towards high priority research.

Open access