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Abstract

Potential functional food bakery products were developed and characterized based on White Lupin (Lupinus albus cv. Nelly) flour. Analytical properties of the seeds resemble to previously described Lupinus species, with significantly high protein content (45%). The high protein and dietetic fiber content of the seeds makes Lupin flour suitable to develop potential functional food products with high nutritional values. Results of the development of sweet biscuits and salty crackers enriched with Lupin flour are presented. Sensory evaluation of the bakery products was carried out by 15 panelists using the nine points hedonic scale. Heat stability of White Lupin proteins were investigated by gel-electrophoretic analysis, White Lupin proteins are quite stable at 140°C, after 35 min heating the biscuits still contain 69% of the original amount of proteins. Baking conditions were optimized also based on gel-electrophoretic experiments, the optimal baking time was 30 min at 140°C. Gluten-free Lupin-based biscuits and crackers were produced by completely omitting wheat flour from the recipes.

Open access

Abstract

Wastewater issues became a complex challenge in the world. There are several methods in wastewater treatment, such as chemical, physical, biological, and the combination of each method. However, each process has advantages and disadvantages. The physicochemical methods are common methods used in wastewater treatment, such as adsorption and coagulation. Adsorption and coagulation are excellent methods to remove pollutants. The adsorption process is greatly influenced by pH, adsorbent dose, temperature, and contact time. Coagulant dose, settling time, and pH are the main factors in the coagulation process. Chemical material as an adsorbent and coagulant has been studied in previous research, but recently, to substitution chemical materials is a challenging subject. Natural substances are potential new materials in wastewater treatment and became popular due to their efficiency and environment friendly characteristics. This review investigated the role of adsorption and coagulation in wastewater treatment and the utilization of natural materials as adsorbents and coagulants.

Open access

Abstract

An overview on the representatives of the host plant specialist phyline genus Macrotylus Fieber, 1858 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae: Phylinae) distributed in Hungary is presented, including key, diagnoses, along with taxonomic, biogeographic, and ecological notes to the discussed species. First occurrences of Macrotylus quadrilineatus (Schrank, 1825) in Hungary are reported.

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Abstract

Built elements and structures are a prominent component of our historic gardens, both in terms of function and artistic composition and garden scenery. The surveys of historic garden structures are important research tasks, which also underpins and validates restoration work.

In most cases, the neglected state of historic gardens and sites and the unavailable archival materials do not allow an authentic restoration of historic gardens to their original state. Nevertheless, there is a real need to reconstruct our historic gardens, based not only on historical authenticity but also on a systematic reinterpretation of the relationship between society and landscape.

The objective of this article is to present a general methodology for renewal of historic gardens through examples of specific garden reconstructions. The case studies are the authors' own design works, which demonstrate the application of different design approaches, highlighting details of the reconstruction of specific built garden elements.

Open access

Abstract

Fifteen new occurrences of ragweed leaf beetle (Ophraella communa LeSage, 1986) are presented from Hungary based on targeted faunistic investigations and the results of our call for citizen scientists. All records are concentrated on the nearby regions of Budapest, suggesting that the species was introduced to this northern central region of the country by human activity. The high number of new occurrences indicates that the species is steadily established in this region. In contrast, the natural dispersal from the neighbouring southern countries seems not to cross the Hungarian borders yet.

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Abstract

Evaluation studies were carried out to simulate realistic field exposures of sulfoxaflor and flonicamid against Aphis gossypii at foraging time of Apis mellifera. Semi-field trials of field rates of sulfoxaflor and flonicamid against A. gossypii laboratory strain at 48 h of exposure had equipollent overall mean of mortality of 62.50 and 63.50%, respectively in season of 2020, likewise 60.50 and 62.50%, respectively in season of 2021. Lethal time values (LT1) had ranges of 51.33–32.46 days for sulfoxaflor and 49.00–39.55 days for flonicamid. Laboratory trials on foraging honeybees (∼21 days old) at 5 h of exposure showed an excellence for sulfoxaflor (5.00%) in overall mean of mortality compared to flonicamid (2.75%) in season of 2020. Likewise, sulfoxaflor (4.75%) surpassed flonicamid (2.75%) in season of 2021. The highest LT1s on honeybees for sulfoxaflor and flonicamid reached 27.45 and 10.94 days, respectively. International Organization for Biological Control classified both insecticides to be harmless on honeybees. Survival foraging bees exposed to LD50s of the tested insecticides had malformed digestive tracts gradually vanished along week of exposure. Suggestions for foliar spray stoppages prior to flowering period were mentioned for both insecticides.

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Abstract

Acanalonia conica (Say, 1830), the first representative of the Nearctic planthopper family Acanaloniidae (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Fulgoroidea), introduced to Europe, is reported for the first time from multiple locations in Hungary. Diagnosis, detailed illustration of male genitalia and notes on ecology are provided along with the distributional records.

Open access

Abstract

Till now, no published study is available on the variation in pathogenicity of Fusarium head blight (FHB) pathogens in relation to their isolation origin in barley head. To end this, two barley cultivars of contrasting quantitative resistance were artificially infected by four FHB species under field conditions over two consecutive growing seasons. Then, pathogenicity tests were conducted under in vitro conditions on single-spore cultures originated from both kernels and glumes in the heads. Different pathogenicity was detected among Fusarium species originated from both kernels and glumes, indicating that the same isolate from glumes and kernels differs in pathogenicity on leaves/seedlings. Isolates of Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium verticillioides originated from infected kernels had shorter latent periods and higher area under disease progress curves compared to isolates originated from glumes, and the reverse was observed for the Fusarium equiseti isolate. In the case of Fusarium solani, isolates originated from kernels or from glumes were equally pathogenic. Primarily findings in this first in-depth study have implications for breeding programs relied principally on actual quantification of pathogenicity in Fusarium species present in a given environment. The sampling of fungi should take into account the presence of Fusarium species of interest on kernels or glumes.

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Abstract

Effects of Meloidogyne incognita, Pseudomonas syringae pv. pisi and Rhizobium leguminosarum were studied on growth and biochemical parameters of pea (Pisum sativum L.) in three soil types. Plants grown in 20% fly ash attained higher plant growth, chlorophyll and carotenoid followed by loam soil and 20% sand. Inoculation of R. leguminosarum resulted in increased plant growth, nodulation, chlorophyll and carotenoid over control. Root nodulation and proline contents were high in plants grown in 20% sand and least in 20% fly ash. Inoculation of M. incognita prior to P. syringae pv. pisi resulted in a greater reduction in plant growth, nodulation, chlorophyll and carotenoid content and least where P. syringae pv. pisi was inoculated prior to M. incognita. Inoculation of pathogens increased proline contents. Galling and population of M. incognita was high in 20% sand followed by loam soil and fly ash amended soil. P. syringae pv. pisi and R. leguminosarum had adverse effect on galling and nematode population. The principal component analysis identifies interaction of pathogens and showed segregation of various treatments in the plots.

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Abstract

Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller, 1873) is one of the most damaging pests of potatoes in the world. Since the chemical pesticides play a key role in managing of potato tuber moth (PTM), the present study was conducted to assess the efficacy of Proteus®, Takumi®, Avaunt®, Dorsban®, Decis®, Consult® and Vertimec® against neonate larval penetration and one-day-old eggs of P. operculella. But adverse effects of chemical insecticides, actuated researchers to seek secure tools such as medicinal plants and biopesticides like Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner, 1715 for pest managements. Hence, we also examined toxicity of savory, ziziphora and cumin methanolic extracts against the pest under laboratory conditions. We also surveyed the synergistic/antagonistic interactions between the most effective insecticide and methanolic extract with Bt against PTM. Our results showed that both Vertimec® and savory synergized the performance of Bt against neonate larval penetration of P. operculella. Probit analysis of insecticides and methanolic extracts demonstrated that Vertimec® and Takumi® had high toxicities to the neonate larval penetration of PTM which exhibited LC50 values equivalent to 7.09 ppm and 0.008 g L−1, respectively. Savory was the most effective extract against larval penetration and hatching rate of the pest (LC50 = 440.36 and 635.93 ppm, respectively). Oviposition preference demonstrated that Vertimec® and Decis® exhibited inhibitory ovipositional effects against P. operculella.

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