The present article seeks to review the literature on the historical development of the Japanese accentual system. Whilst some merits of the alternative account of Ramsey and de Boer are recognized, the traditional model of Middle Japanese pitch-accent is defended, and a rebuttal of the arguments against it provided. The traditional model is integrated and corroborated by cross-linguistic and phonation-related arguments, with an eye towards philological evidence. It is concluded that, for the present at least, the evidence in favour of the traditional account of Middle Japanese tonogenesis is more robust and more persuasive.
Modéliser la prise de Constantinople (1204) •
Les lettres fictives de Boncompagno da Signa et leur intertextualité
The fictional letters on the capture of Constantinople in 1204 and its aftermath written by the professor of rhetoric Boncompagno da Signa for his treatise Boncompagnus (1215/1226) form a prime document for examining the relationship between real and fictional correspondence in the Middle Ages. By comparing their content, structure, and rhetorical devices with those of a set of documents written on the same theme, including the letter sent by Baldwin of Flanders to Pope Innocent III to report on the events of 1204, it is possible to identify the way in which Boncompagno drew inspiration from this official letter to compose his model letter, and what differentiates them. This comparative analysis allows us not only to deepen our knowledge of the processes of the fictionalisation of history at work in Italy in the thirteenth century, but also to take a different look at the rhetoric of official letters or other texts (poems, stories) relating the same events.
Although the word qazaq is widely agreed to be the common ancestor of both ‘Cossack’ and ‘Kazakh’, there remains uncertainty about qazaq’s etymology. This paper proposes that qazaq originated as a variant of the central Turkic etymon qaç(g)aq and thus derives from the Common Turkic root qaç- (‘flee’). The paper draws on data generated through the traditional methods of historical linguistics—the comparative method and philological analysis—in conversation with recent work in anthropological and sociolinguistics on the concept of linguistic ‘register’ to better theorize qazaq’s historical development and the variation in its forms and meanings.
This study focuses on an obstacle to the capital accumulation possibilities of the pre-capitalist period in the Ottoman economy. From the second half of the 16th century, the janissaries, like all the institutions of the Empire, changed. The main argument of the study is that the new form taken by the janissaries as a result of this transformation had a feature that absorbed the capital produced in the Empire. This study does not address or discuss the Empire’s integration process or its peripheral position within the capitalist system.
The paper offers a sample of a Khitan–English–Chinese Wordlist in preparation by scholars from the People’s Republic of China and Hungary. After a preface on general questions, it deals with the glyphs beginning with a- and b- in the Khitan Small Script. This is followed by Khitan words beginning with the first two letters of the Latin alphabet. The aim of the paper is to open a discussion on a future Khitan Etymological Dictionary.
Two more Firmans on the Reorganisation of the Ottoman Postal System (1101/1690 and 1209/1794) •
(Documents from the Amasya and Damascus Kadi Sicils)
The present article publishes the texts and translations of two firmans of Süleyman II (1101/1690) and Selim III (1209/1794) that were taken from copies in the kadi registers (sicil) of Amasya and Damascus. They concerned the reform of the Ottoman courier and post-station (ulaḳ / menzilḫāne) network with regard to the Anatolian routes. In contrast to the wide-ranging reforms featured by two other firmans (1108/1696) that Colin Heywood translated in this journal in 2001, these firman texts feature small-scale, targeted reforms. Read together, these firmans shift our understanding of reform away from singular moments of intervention towards a longer-term, incremental model of maintenance.
In the present study, antibiotic resistance profiles and biofilm forming abilities of 9 Listeria monocytogenes isolates obtained from out of 30 retail meat samples were determined, and the effect of commercial white vinegar on these virulence factors in isolates exposed to subMIC concentrations were investigated. All isolates were found to be resistant to cefotixin and oxacillin, 8 isolates (26.6%) to clindamycin, 1 isolate (3.3%) to rifampicin, and 1 (3.3%) isolate was found to show intermediate resistance against clindamycin. Biofilm formation was determined for all the isolates at 22 °C and 37 °C (24 h, 48 h and 72 h). MIC values of white vinegar samples were determined at 3.12% for all isolates. MIC/2 and MIC/4 concentrations of white vinegar increased the biofilm forming capacity of the isolates by 21.2% and 17.1%, respectively. After exposure to MIC/2 concentration of white vinegar for seven days, the antibiotic resistance status of the isolates to tetracycline, rifampicin, and clindamycin changed, and the biofilm forming abilities significantly decreased at 4 °C and 37 °C for 48 h and at 37 °C for 72 h (P < 0.05). The results showed that the use of subMIC concentrations of white vinegar should be avoided in routine sanitation applications.
This article indicates another set-theoretic formula, solely in terms of union and intersection, for the set of the limits of any given sequence (net, in general) in an arbitrary T 1 space; this representation in particular gives a new characterization of a T 1 space.
We give all solutions of completely multiplicative functions ƒ , g, for which the equation Ag(n + 1) = Bƒ (n) + C holds for every n ∈ ℕ. We also study the equation G(p + 1) = F(p − 1) + D and we prove some results concerning it.