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Abstract

This study will use rhetorical criticism to analyze eleven Hungarian animation films and four TV shows from the Soviet-era to discover how Hungarian animation in this period utilized folktales to criticize the government. The Thompson Motif Index will be used as a point of comparison. Results from the study show that multiple animation films utilized folktale elements to criticize the government, leaving it open for further study to explore other ideologies that may be reflected in Hungarian animation in the Soviet-era.

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Abstract

This study explores the life-mode of Hungarian migrants in their destination country, England, particularly London in the last decade, focusing on their housing conditions and working experiences. Relying on her participant observations and interviews, the author formulates a picture through the eyes of Hungarian migrant laborers regarding how both the real estate and labor market exploits them (micro level). She explains the motives of the main economic actors (entrepreneurs, real estate and employment agencies, employers) leading to exploitations (meso level) in addition to discussing how all of these fit into the wider socio-economic context (macro level).

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Abstract

The self-definitions of today's folk artists, as well as the concept(s) of folk art of official umbrella and quality assurance organizations, are rooted in complex, interrelated processes. In my study, I focus on the post-World War II concept of folk art, which is full of contradictions, but, despite all protests, has had an undeniable impact on the folk art of today. The system of applied folk arts paradoxically fostered the prominence of individual creators, in contrast to the communication of its novel cooperatives in the decades after World War II, which emphasized communal work. These creators – often possessing truly authentic folk art knowledge (some having gained their reputation before World War II) but no longer following the peasant way of life – were depicted by the media in rural or bucolic genre situations, thereby heavily aestheticizing the concepts of folk and folk art. At the same time, socialist cultural policy also emphasized their status as artists and creators, making them key figures in the cooperatives' work for decades as lead designers, prompting them to revitalize their local motif stock. At this point, another paradox of the Applied Folk Arts Council's perspective emerges, as the representation of the folk art of emblematic regions can increasingly be seen as the representation of the style of an individual (lead designer or charismatic artist). In my opinion, considering the 19th-century roots of the process, the definition of today's folk artists' products as unique works of art and the profound respect for design skills is rooted in this perspective that focuses on the work of iconic personalities, as I also point out in my case study analyzing Tiszafüred pottery through the work of several generations, a style that was adapted by Sándor Kántor and became known as Karcag pottery.

Open access

Abstract

The Royal Hungarian State School of Lacemaking in Körmöcbánya was the earliest independent institution in the field of Hungarian bobbin lacemaking. Unfortunately, there is little information available about the school, largely due to the revision of national borders as a result of the Treaty of Trianon. Following a survey of what remained of the lacemaking cottage industry in Upper Hungary [now mostly present-day Slovakia], teaching was organized from 1883 in itinerant workshops in Bars and Zólyom counties (in Úrvölgy, Sóvár, Eperjes, and Hodrusbánya). Annual training courses, as part of a school-based teaching system, were introduced probably in around 1894, and from 1899 yearbooks were published by the Royal Hungarian State School of Lacemaking in Körmöcbánya. Until 1909 (with the exception of the 1888/89 academic year), Körmöcbánya functioned as the administrative center, while teaching took place in local schools, first in Jánoshegy and subsequently in Óhegy, Jánosrét, Kunosvágás, and Kékellő, where schools opened in succession. Poorer students were awarded scholarships to participate in the two-year training, and those who wished to work in the cottage industry were given employment following graduation. Besides introducing the readily marketable Carlsbad, Idrija, Cluny, and Torchon lace patterns that were taught at the school, Béla Angyal was the first to expand the treasury of Upland lace patterns with the addition of new Hungarian designs, while Emília Angyal was responsible for their technical elaboration. For a while, state-sponsored lacemaking in Upper Hungary provided a relatively good livelihood for the female members of working families, although this situation changed with the influx of cheap foreign lace, and especially with the spread of mass production. Besides popular foreign patterns and techniques, the school in Körmöcbánya also played an important role in the spread of new tools in Hungary.

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Abstract

The present paper offers a critical reflection on folk inspirations in Polish design in the early 21st century. It discusses the question of folk as an artistic form, pointing to conceptualizations of folk style and its formal qualities within the field of modern artistic production to which design and craft practices belong. It also touches on the role of the rural actors involved in the processes of the construction of folklore and their attitude towards folk conceived as esthetics, artistic form, and style. For rural producers, folk style was a question of conscious choice, sometimes motivated by conformism and sometimes by a deliberate effort to contribute to local/class/national self-presentation, very often in contradiction to the individual's own taste and that of their peers. The paper then examines the involvement of Polish folk-inspired design (etnodizajn) in the early 21st century with national self-presentation, as well as the various folk (lore)-inspired design strategies followed by contemporary Polish designers. It concludes with the observation that 21st-century design practices drawing on folkloric inspiration are part of a long sequence of cultural appropriations, where appropriation can mean both the alienating inequality experienced by the rural manufacturers of folk, as well as a necessary condition for the understanding of alterity by both sides in the cultural exchange.

Open access

Abstract

New ecovillage communities, and individuals who simply move from the towns to the countryside in Estonia, are inspired by a desire to be involved in heritage preservation, local customs, and traditional skills. Ecovillages are keen to attract people who are skilled in various traditional handicrafts, while craftspeople, in turn, may encounter fewer problems finding the facilities and raw materials needed to practice their crafts on moving to the countryside. The present paper focuses on activities in five new rural communities from the perspective of craftspeople. We asked them to describe their initial incentives for establishing and joining the respective communities, and the directions of their joint activities. We documented a significant diversity among the five communities. Some were self-evolved, while others had been deliberately established. Some communities had local roots, while others were spearheaded from elsewhere. Some of the communities sought idyllic landscapes and indigenous culture, social life, and friendship, while others valued the region's economic potential. We found highly skilled niche producers in excellently equipped workshops who were involved in so-called content-focused activities in various manor estate buildings renovated with the help of European Union funds, as well as those starting from scratch on principle. Community representatives included those striving for the greatest possible economic independence and minimal ecological footprint, as well as those looking for opportunities to recreate the kind of farming life typical of last century, based on work carried out by people and horses — and, across almost all groups, people with a keen interest in a wide variety of handicraft skills from the past. We also observed other, personal motivations and experiences among our respondents — for example, how they had been invited there, what supported their move, and what they found problematic. We were interested in the present state of affairs: how the community contributes to their new skills and practices; how the new community and other local inhabitants manage communication networks; and how they see themselves and their way of life in their new home. We were keen to find out whether the symbiosis of local nature, old values and skills, and innovative and fresh practical solutions will prove sustainable in the long term.

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Abstract

In the study, I provide a comparative overview of the aesthetical debate that took place at the turn of the 18th and 19th century in Germany and Denmark concerning the use of the Old Norse versus the classical mythology in literature. I discuss Johann Gottfried Herder’s ideas on this topic, expressed in his work Vom neuern Gebrauch der Mythologie (1767) and especially in his dialogue Iduna oder der Apfel der Verjüngung (1796), with focus on the following question: Does the rejuvenating potential of the Norse myth as suggested by Herder in Iduna, allow any room for the classical inspirations in modern literature? Herder’s view will provide a starting point of the comparison for the cultural situation in Denmark where the University of Copenhagen announced in 1800 a prize question on aesthetics “Would it benefit Northern polite literature if ancient Northern mythology were introduced and generally accepted by our poets in place of its Greek counterpart?”. The entries in this contest represented the view of the younger generation, namely Adam Oehlenschläger, Jens Møller and Ludvig Stoud Platou. I summarize their views and examine Herder’s influence on the debate.

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Abstract

Although no Aeschylean hypomnemata have been preserved, the papyri have returned evidences of ancient scholarship, such as fragments with marginalia and hypotheseis of several lost tragedies. For this reason, it is difficult to compare the scholia tradition, but it provides particular value for these ancient annotations. If the limited papyrus notes could testify a lower fortune of Aeschylus, the discovery of scholar materials, linked with lost tragedies, denotes that his productions was still available during the first centuries of Imperial Age. Interesting evidence is P.Oxy. XX 2257, which offers important information on the Aitnaiai stagecraft. My purpose is to reconstruct the drama setting and explain the technical modality of scene changes.

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Summary

Two enigmatic figures of 20th-century political theory, Eric Voegelin and Simone Weil, stand out with idiosyncratic receptions of ancient Greek texts. Both thinkers diagnosed that, as political agents in late modernity, we have unlearned to read world-making ancient texts and their narratives in their cosmic dimension and thus lost what has rooted European culture and history. Against this backdrop, Voegelin and Weil share ‘antidotal’ practises of combining historically and generically distinct material. These practices aim at fathoming a primordial experience at work in European narratives. With this comparative analysis of Voegelin's and Weil's symbolic readings (exemplified in this paper by passages from the Iliad, the History of the Peloponnesian War, and the Symposium), I present some considerations how their combinatory imagination of ancient material could supply late modern political agents with a pathos, a meaningful self-world relationship that was thought to have gone missing.

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Abstract

The legend of Ovid’s Hungarian tomb appeared in the historiography in the 16th century: besides the numerous Ovid-tombs that turned up all across Europe, Wolfgang Lazius was the first who mentioned in his work Commentarii Reipublicae Romanae that the grave of the poet destined to a tragic fate was discovered in Savaria-Szombathely. Then – at the end of the 16th century, probably through Polish influence – a four-line ‘epitaph’ expanded the narrative. In my paper I aim to enlighten how the legend of Ovid’s tomb appeared in the Hungarian historiography of the 16–18th century, how the authors tried to eliminate historical contradictions, and also, I intend to present the different concepts on the creation and the authenticity of the alleged epitaph today.

Open access