The Westsik’s long-term crop rotation experiment was set up in 1929 at the Nyíregyháza Experimental Station (NE Hungary) on a slightly acidic Arenosol. Besides fallow crop rotation (CR), effects of different organic amendments (lupine as green manure, lupine as main crop, straw manure, and farmyard manure (FYM) were studied with or without N or NPK-fertilizers. The crop rotation consisted of rye, potato, lupine, and oat with common vetch. The soil of potato plots was analysed in 2019 at the 90th anniversary of Westsik’s crop rotation experiment.
The following chemical and microbiological soil parameters were determined: soil pH, available nutrient contents, organic carbon (OC) and nitrogen (ON) contents, microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN), soil respiration, net nitrification, and activity of some soil enzymes.
In the CRs, the soil pHH2O varied from acidic to weakly alkaline and it largely differed from pHKCl. The results showed a significant increase in the content of nitrate, available phosphorus and potassium in most of the fertilized plots. Applying straw, green manure, or FYM significantly increased the OC and ON contents. The total count of cultivable bacteria increased upon the application of the organic manures. Combined application of straw manure and N-fertilization heavily improved the abundance of the microscopic fungi.
While all the applied organic manures significantly enhanced the MBC, the MBN increased only by the green manure amendment. Our results revealed higher soil respiration rate in the plots receiving straw or FYM than in the control. Both green manure and FYM elevated the net nitrification rate. Phosphatase, saccharase, urease, and dehydrogenase enzymes showed a hesitating response to the manure application in the different CRs.
The soil respiration and dehydrogenase activity correlated to most of the measured chemical parameters. Among microbiological properties, the MBC and MBN, as well as dehydrogenase and other enzyme activities displayed a positive correlation. Results proved the need for the exogenous application of organic matter in the form of organic manures to enhance the nutritional status and health of the soil.
Greenhouse plastic contaminations in agricultural soils were studied to quantify and examine the macroplastic and microplastic contaminants on the soil surface, soil profile, and groundwater under greenhouse farmland. Random sampling was used to select three areas in a greenhouse farm where macroplastic and microplastic data were collected. Four composite samples were collected from shallow (0–20 cm) and deep (20–40 cm) soils for each sampling point, respectively. Three soil profiles were dug, and samples were collected at intervals of 20 cm. Groundwater samples were also collected from the same profiles at a depth of 100 cm. Microplastics were extracted using predigestion of organic matter with 30% H2O2 and density separation with ZnCl2. The total mass of macroplastics in the greenhouse farmland was 6.4 kg ha–1. Polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride were the dominant plastic structures, and the dominant sizes were 1–5 and 0.5–1.0 cm, respectively. Overall, the average abundance of microplastics in the greenhouse soil was 225 ± 61.69 pieces/kg, and the dominant size structure was 2–3 mm. The average microplastic concentrations at depths of 0–20 and 20–40 cm were 300 ± 93 and 150.0 ± 76.3 pieces/kg, respectively. The average microplastic concentration in the groundwater was 2.3 pieces/l, and fibers were the dominant plastic structure. Given that microplastics were found in greenhouse soil, soil profiles, and groundwater, we recommend the careful cleaning and disposal of plastics on greenhouse farmland and further research to shed light on the level of microplastic contamination in the soil profiles and groundwater.
Soybean seeds were germinated on an industrial scale after soaking for 0–56 h to produce a special additive for food industrial use. The germination process of three soybean varieties was monitored with near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy based on changes in the amount, status, or character of the water. This paper evaluates the “waterless” NIR spectra of sound, germinated, and heat treated seeds to try to follow the fine details of the germination process. The germination process was analysed with the help of cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA), and polar qualification system (PQS) as statistical and chemometric methods. PCA proved to be the most sensitive spectrum evaluation method to follow the fine details of germination. The applied NIR method is suitable for non-destructively, real-time monitoring of the non-linear nature of germination.
Fungal disease resistant (PIWI) interspecific grape varieties are playing an important role as an alternative for organic wine production. Organic (bio) wines are demanded by numerous conscious consumers around the globe. They choose this kind of wines predominantly because of the absence of synthetic pesticides, fertilisers and sustainable agriculture. Resistant grape growing moreover results in additional environmental and health benefits. Nero and Bianca are among Hungary's most promising interspecific grape cultivars gaining international interest recently, there are, however, limited vitivinicultural knowledge on them. Our aim was to examine the flavonoid and anthocyanin composition for both interspecific varieties during different harvest times in two consecutive vintages. The date of harvest and vintage played a significant effect on grape and wine quality.
Proteases hold an important position in today's world commercial enzyme market. Among various microbial producer genera, Bacillus is leading the commercial protease production. However, industry is still actively looking for new microbial protease producers with distinctive properties. Therefore, this study was undertaken for the evaluation of protease production by Bacillus megaterium DSM 32 strain in terms of its protease productivity, calculation of various production kinetics, partial characterisation of the enzyme, and modelling the protease production process. As results, the highest protease activity, specific cellular protease production rate, and protease productivity were calculated as 255.42 U mL−1, 36.2514 U g−1, and 16.1313 U mL−1 h−1, respectively, in shake flask fermentations. Partial characterisation studies showed that the enzyme has 45 °C and pH 8 as optimum working conditions, and its activity increased by 24% with the addition of 5 mM Mn+2 to the reaction medium. Additionally, the enzyme showed high stability and kept almost full activity in a cell-free medium for 20 days at 4 °C. Furthermore, modified Gompertz model provided the best fit in describing protease production with the lowest error and high fit values.
Poultry processing industry produces large quantities of by products (skin, bone, and feather) that contain significant amounts of protein. The source of gelatine is of great concern for some societies including Muslims, Hindus, and Jews as gelatine is mostly obtained from porcine sources. In the present study, gelatine was obtained from chicken skin and some quality and functional features were evaluated in comparison with commercial gelatines from porcine, bovine, and piscine sources. Chicken skin gelatine formed stable foams by a foaming stability of 83.3% as well as high emulsion activity of 72.8 m2 g−1 compared to commercial gelatines. On the other hand, gel strength and viscosity of chicken skin gelatine were 307 g and 2.5 cP, respectively, and significantly lower than that of commercial gelatines due to high content of impurities. The results concluded that chicken skin may be used in gelatine manufacturing upon efficient removal of fat, which was the most abundant component in the dry matter of chicken skin.
Cultured buttermilk is a dairy beverage with a high nutritive value. In the current study, functional cultured buttermilk was formulated using probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum and flaxseed fortification to improve the potential health benefits. The cultured buttermilk samples were analysed for pH, lactic acidity, colour, phase separation, viscosity, microbiology and sensory properties. The results showed non-significant changes in acidity and pH. However, flaxseed fortification decreased phase separation and increased viscosity of buttermilks. In addition, a significant difference in colour attributes was revealed between samples. Sensory characteristics of cultured buttermilks were acceptable to produce a functional food.
Egy köles tájfajta műtrágya-reakciójának vizsgálata
Examination of the reaction to fertilization of regional millet variety
Kutatómunkák általános célja olyan kísérletek végzése, amelyek feltárják az adott régióban perspektivikusan termeszthető fajták, illetve tájfajták optimális műtrágyázási igényeit. Tanulmányunkban a Karcagon nemesített és fenntartott ’Maxi’ köles tájfajta tápanyagreakciójának vizsgálatából származó eredményeinket mutatjuk be a módosított Országos Műtrágyázási Tartamkísérlet (OMTK) 2017. évi és az annak figyelembevételével 2021-ben beállított Műtrágyázási Kísérleti Kert (MKK) adatai alapján. A kísérleteket Karcagon, a MATE Karcagi Kutatóintézetben, egy mélyben szolonyeces réti csernozjom talajon állítottuk be. 2017-ben a módosított OMTK kezelései 4 nitrogén (40, 80, 120, 160 kg ha– 1), 4 foszfor (0, 40, 80, 100 kg ha– 1) és 3 kálium (0, 60, 90 kg ha– 1) dózis kombinációjából adódtak, illetve volt egy műtrágyázás nélküli abszolút kontroll. 2021-ben az MKK kezelései 3 nitrogén (40, 80, 120 kg ha– 1), 3 foszfor (0, 40, 80 kg ha– 1) és 2 kálium (0, 60 kg ha– 1) dózis kombinációját foglalták magukba, illetve mindegyik parcella felére növénykondicionáló szert juttatunk ki. A termesztett növény mindkét évben a karcagi nemesítésű ’Maxi’ kölesfajta volt. A különböző kezeléscsoportok termésre gyakorolt hatásának statisztikai értékelését egytényezős varianciaanalízissel végeztük el. Mindkét vizsgálati évben a 80 kg ha– 1 hatóanyag mennyiségben kijuttatott nitrogén műtrágyázás bizonyult a leginkább megfelelőnek. A magas foszfor dózisok a legtöbb esetben termésdepresszióhoz vezettek. Eredményeink alapján még a közepes – jó kálium ellátottságú karcagi talajokon is hasznos lehet a kálium kijuttatása, bár a káliumtrágyázás termésre gyakorolt hatását a varianciaanalízis nem igazolta. Az Algomel PUSH szerrel végzett növénykondicionálás statisztikailag is igazolhatóan, mintegy 10%-kal növelte a termés nagyságát. Kutatómunkánk folytatásával pontosabban meghatározható lesz számos tájfajta tápanyagreakciója és fajtaspecifikus, a helyi agroökológiai viszonyokat is figyelembe vevő tápanyag dózisok és kombinációk ajánlhatók a gazdálkodóknak.
The general objective of our research is to carry out experiments that are suitable to reveal the optimal fertilization demand of regionally bred or potentially producible crop varieties for a specific region. In our recent study, the results gained from the examination of the nutrient reaction of the regional millet variety ‘Maxi’ bred and maintained in Karcag are introduced based on the data originating from the modified Long-term National Fertilization Experiments (OMTK) in 2017 and from the Fertilization Experimental Garden (MKK) established at Karcag in 2021. Both experiments were set up in the MATE Research Institute of Karcag on a meadow chernozem soil salty in the deeper layers. In 2017, there were 4 nitrogen (40, 80, 120, 160 kg ha−1), 4 phosphorus (0, 40, 80, 100 kg ha−1), and 3 potassium (0, 60, 90 kg ha−1) dosage combinations applied and one unfertilized absolute control in the OMTK trial. In 2021, in the MKK experiment, treatments involved 3 nitrogen (40, 80, 120 kg ha−1), 3 phosphorus (0, 40, 80 kg ha−1), and 2 potassium (0, 60 kg ha−1) dosage combinations, furthermore, on half of the plots a plant conditioner was sprayed. Millet variety ‘Maxi’ bred at Karcag was the indicator crop in both years. For the statistical analysis of the effect of the various treatment groups on yields, One-way ANOVA tests were used. We considered the 80 kg ha−1 nitrogen substance dose the most suitable in both years. High dosage of phosphorus application resulted in yield depression in most of the cases. Based on our results, potassium fertilization can be effective even on the soils of Karcag with medium to good potassium supplies, though the analysis of variance did not justify the effect of K-fertilization on yields. The 10% yields increase due to plant conditioning with Algomel PUSH was statistically proven. By continuing or research, the reaction to fertilization of several regional crop varieties can be determined more precisely, and variety-specific nutrient doses and combinations can be determined and suggested to the local famers taking the regional agri-ecological conditions into consideration.
Effect of adding foxtail millet flour (FMF) (10, 20, and 30% w/w) to refined wheat flour (RWF) on physicochemical and rheological properties of dough was studied. Qualitative properties of Brotchen bread including moisture, ash, crude fibre, specific volume, and colour of the breads were evaluated. Adding FMF to the flour increased crude fibre, fat, ash, and protein contents and reduced falling number, damaged starch and wet gluten contents, and sample lightness. Consistograph test indicated that addition of the FMF decreased water absorption capacity, maximum pressure, and tolerance, however, drops in pressure at 250 and 450 s became greater. Alveograph test revealed that with adding FMF, dough resistance to extension and dough strength decreased but an increase in dough extensibility was obtained at FMF30%. Increasing the amount of FMF resulted in a decrease in the volume of the bread, and the FMB (foxtail millet bread) 30% had the highest browning index and b*. The FMB20% had the highest resilience and springiness, while higher level of foxtail (30%) increased chewiness.