Authors:Tamás Magyar, Felipe Werle Vogel, Florence Tóth, Attila Nagy, János Tamás, and Péter Tamás Nagy
The anaerobic digestion is a well-known method in waste management of biodegradable wastes to transform waste to energy. Proper digestion requires optimal fermentation conditions to improve the quality and yield of biogas.
The objective of this study was to characterize the biodegradation process of synthetic and organic wastewater. Microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris) were utilized as a bioindicator for anaerobic digestion and monitoring of the fermentation process. Besides bioindication, the viability of the microalgae and the chlorophyll concentration were also assessed in such fermentation processes, since microalgae can be a potential source for biofuel production and a plant nutrient.
The biodegradation process was studied for a month in an anaerobic tank reactor. The fermentation processes and lengths of the fermentation stages were successfully monitored and separately identified based on the pH and gas development. Furthermore, the amount and dynamics of the biogas yield also revealed that the fermentation process was about 510 hours in both cases. In contrast, increased temperature in thermophilic range (45°C) accelerates the degradation processes and resulted in shorter hydrolysis (60 hours), acetogenesis (24 hours) and longer methanogenesis (81 hours) stages, where higher biogas yield was also achieved (59.3%). During the process, the concentration of nutrients showed logarithmical tendencies and COD showed power tendency in time. The extent and the direction of the changes were in correspondence with microalgae activity. In thermophilic circumstances, living microalgae biomass dropped significantly without recovery therefore such an environment is not a viable option for microalgae growth. Moreover, dead microalgae biomass seems to act as a substrate for fermentation slightly increasing the concentration of some nutrients in the wastewater.
Authors:János Máté Kiss, Péter Tamás Szemes, and Petra Aradi
The main contribution of this paper is to present the efficiency of LabVIEW in simulating and controlling a servo system with conventional methods (PI and PID control), as well as sliding mode control (SMC). The control of an actual system with LabVIEW and NI hardware provides an efficient implementation platform, using both LabVIEW’s graphical programming and the text-based m-file language MathScript RT. Both programming environments and the connection to NI hardware are relatively easy to use, therefore, ideal for education. The graphical “coding” can help novice users to see through their algorithms. However, the mathematical background of sliding mode control is difficult compared to conventional PID control; the SMC implementation for practical uses can be quite simple, as the presented example demonstrates. The first didactic step is a simulation with the Control Design and Simulation, as well as MathScript RT Modules. Then a myRIO Student Embedded Device is used to control a real servo system. LabVIEW code can be compiled to run on computers, (soft) real-time targets, and FPGAs (hard real-time targets), so students can easily and quickly step up to real industrial measurement and control problems without the need to learn new programming environments.
The irregular buildings constitute a large part of urban infrastructure and they are currently adopted in many structures for architectural or esthetic reasons. In contrast, the behavior of these buildings during an earthquake generates a detrimental effect on their regularity in elevation which leads to the total collapse of these structures.
The objective of this work is essentially to model reinforced concrete framed buildings irregular in elevation subjected to seismic loads by the Finite Element Method (FEM). This modeling aims to evaluate several parameters: displacements, inter-storey drifts and rigidities, using two dynamic calculation methods; one modal and the other spectral modal. The latter is widely used by engineers.
For this purpose, a detailed study of the frames which have several setbacks in elevation is carried out to validate the correct functioning of our FEM calculation code in both cases of modal and modal spectral analyses. The performance, accuracy and robustness of the FEM calculation code produced in this study is shown by the good correlation of the obtained results for the treated frames with those obtained using the ETABS software.
Crash tests of vehicles are specified by government programs. This laws are includes only minimum requirements for individual components. Therefore additional consumer protection load cases have been developed by independent private institutes. Finite element method simulations can reduce development periods and the number of cost-intensive real crash tests. The goals of the calculations are that the early detection of component failure, the protection of occupants or pedestrians. The biggest challenge of the future, in the field of vehicle occupant safety is the interaction of the airbags and belt system with dummy by the electric vehicles, which have the concept of autonomous driving function. The aim of the research is to investigate this area using a simulation model.
Authors:Eethar Thanon Dawood and Marwa Saadi Mhmood
A quaternary supplementary cementitious materials as partial replacement of ordinary Portland cement decreases CO2 emission. This paper has investigated the properties of mortars made from different quaternary blends of wood ash, steel slag powder and glass powder with ordinary Portland cement at different replacement levels of 0, 24, 25, and 30% by weight of the binder. The blended mortar mixtures tested for flow, compressive strength and density. The results showed that the flow of mortars is decreased with the combined use of steel slag powder, glass powder, and wood ash compared with control mix. Compressive strength reduced with the combination of steel slag powder, glass powder and wood ash but this reduction effects is acceptable especially at 24% replacement contain super-plasticizer compared with the ecological benefit.
Authors:Husam Rajab, Mussa Ebrahim, and Tibor Cinkler
Recently, one of the most common needs of people are to be connected to the Internet anytime, anywhere, anyhow. The Internet of Things is a materialized paradigm in which everyday objects are implemented with Internet connectivity, enabling them to collect and interchange information. As energy is expected to be more expensive, the energy supply is often not available for IoT devices, the low power wide area networks attempt to be the solution to this problem. LoRaWAN provides radio coverage over long distances by enhancing the reach of the base stations via adapting transmission rates, transmission power, modulation, duty cycles, etc. This paper aims to decrease the power consumption using machine learning and deep neural network by applying support vector regression and deep neural network algorithms, which can support to extend the battery lifetime.
This article considers factors of number of sidings and the occurrences of transit traffic and presents a comparison of selected railway lines in Poland. Multi-criteria analysis methods were used, like the zero unitarization method and the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution method. The comparison made it possible to arrange the selected railway lines in the order from the most to the least useful. The obtained results showed also that zero unitarization method is limited only to the analysis of all lines on which transit traffic occurs or all lines without transit traffic. The comparison of all lines is possible using the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution method.
Authors:Messaouda Rais, Adel Boumerzoug, and Balint Baranyai
As it is clear, worldwide buildings are the largest consumer of the final energy consumption. In Algeria, it has been reported that 33% of the overall energy consumption was attributed to buildings. This is due to the design and constructional techniques of the residential buildings, which do not address the local climatic condition. To assess this situation, the study is focused on analyzing the existing residential buildings in Algeria, in terms of energy, thermal, daylight, and indoor air quality performance, using a dynamic simulation software. Typical building design in a hot and dry climate was selected. The results revealed that the existing residential buildings do not comply with the energy-efficient design standards. It was concluded that further strategies should be applied in this sector, in terms of building design, materials, and façade configuration.
The urban story of the Ex European city in Biskra presents an inevitable impact on the perceptive images of the Algerian cities. The examination of the building’s condition in the historical center indicates a deteriorated state in most of the structure caused by various degradations. The field study aims to classify the French quarter’s constructions according to multiple criteria, based on the identifications of related conservation statuses. Thus the census data contributes to the regeneration of the checkerboard condition while proceeding with the resolution of the threatening mutations - amplifying the qualities and potentials for a sustainable renewal of this built heritage.
Authors:Shaymaa Alsamia, Dhorgham S. Ibrahim, and Hazim N. Ghafil
The most crucial function in drilling wells is the rate of penetration, which is modeled by many researchers, and the best one is Young-Bourgyen model, which is used in this study. Eight factors affecting rate of penetration have been studied and approved in developing a mathematical equation that shows the combined effects of these variables on rate of penetration optimization. This paper presents an efficient way to find the optimum values for parameters of the Young-Bourgyen model using metaheuristic algorithms. An actual drilling data was used from Khangiran field to calculate the difference between the actual penetration rate and the predicted one by different optimization algorithms. Particle swarm optimization, dynamic differential annealing optimization, artificial bee colony, gray wolf optimization, Harris hawk's optimization, flower pollination algorithm, firefly algorithm, whale optimization algorithm, and sine cosine algorithm are used to find best possible solution.