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In this paper I analyse the photomontages of Endre Bálint (1914–1986) in the context of the cultural politics of the Iron Curtain period in Eastern Europe and Hungary. First, the study takes a diachronic, historical approach to photomontage as a creative method that maintained continuity between the avant-garde generations of artists, a way of thinking and a creative process accordingly, cultivated in the circles of persecuted, banned or silenced artists experimenting during the decades from the 1920s to 1970s. Second, by placing Endre Bálint’s late photomontages (made after his 1963 return from his “exodus” to Paris) in the context of contemporary artistic phenomena (e.g. Brecht’s photobook, Jean-Luc Godard’s work, David Hockney’s montages or bricoleur punk artists), I argue that, in contrast to the generally held view, they are not the withering signs of renunciation, but rather a way out of renunciation, that is, a solution. “We breathe in fragments,” Bálint wrote, and the pictorial form to fittingly reflect a fragmented way of existence (together with the psychological burdens, shadows of the past, and the social and cultural-political determinations) was the montage-technique that had flourished from the 1920s, and whose Eastern European, distinctively Hungarian variant found its guardian, its good shepherd in Bálint, in his creative practice. Bálint’s late photomontages also deserve attention from the point of view of a silent narrative of art history, which does not focus on middle-aged artists’ major works, but on the profuse production by the old masters, the masters of sprezzatura, which is characterised by an aesthetic lightness, a kind of aesthetic liberation and swiftness, and the ability to allow memories a free influx into the creative work. One of the conclusions of this study is that Hungarian photomontage, and especially the late work of Endre Bálint, can be instructively read in conjunction with the equally restrained psychoanalytic literature of the period, in which the splitting of Self as a traumatic consequence of shocking events and also a means to survive those events is a key concept. A critically productive artistic construction that is based on fragments can be seen and read as the visual counterpart of a psychological notion of Self-splitting.

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Metamorphoses

The recent conservation-restoration in the ‘Hungarian Versailles’

Acta Historiae Artium Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Author:
Áron Tóth

The Esterházy Palace in Fertőd is part of Hungary’s largest eighteenth-century residential complex. After severe damage at the end of the Second World War and in the 1950s, the palace was repeatedly renovated for almost seventy years. Between 2021 and 2022, the state apartments in the main building and some adjoining rooms underwent extensive conservation and restoration. Due to the palace’s complicated history and the inconsistent interventions of the post-war period, it was difficult to preserve as many remnants as possible. The aim was to preserve and display all historical periods from the beginning to the present, as they provide information about all the historical and cultural changes over the centuries. From this point of view, the contradictory relationship between some previous interventions and the principles laid down in documents such as the Venice Charter, the Nara Document or the UNESCO Convention of the Intangible Heritage were considered a legacy that can no longer be erased from the history of the palace. Based on conservation and restoration principles crystallised in the second half of the twentieth century and considering the changes in the field of heritage conservation since the 1990s, an attempt was made to preserve the tangible and intangible heritage as far as possible. With this in mind, the rooms were divided into three groups, each of which is subject to a different conservation and restoration method.

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Abstract

During the testing of laboratory Voriconazole API batches, one unidentified impurity (IMP-5.312) was detected employing the Pharmeuropa HPLC technique at a level in excess of 0.10%. This IMP-5.312 was synthesized and then characterized as 6-(3-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-hydroxy-4-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl) butan-2-yl)-5-fluoropyrimidin-4-ol by the corresponding spectral information (MS, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and IR). The IMP-5.312 impurity was effectively quantified using an enhanced HPLC based-technique that was developed as well as validated. The approach made use of a Novapak C18 column with an inner diameter of 3.9 mm and a length of 150 mm (4.0 µm) for chromatographic separation. The analysis of IMP-5.312 was made at 45 °C, with a flow rate (isocratic) of 1.0 mL min−1 and a 256 nm detection wavelength. Acetonitrile, methanol, and 0.1% aqueous trifluoro acetate buffer (pH 4.0) were mixed at a ratio of 15:30:55 (v/v/v) to create the mobile phase for a 20 μL sample injection. The linearity range of 0.25281–1.51690 μg mL−1 had a correlation coefficient more than 0.99942, and the accuracy ranged from 89.3 to 100.3%. It was noted that the established HPLC based-technique was sensitive, specific, and precise. The technique was executed on the current batches of VRC API for IMP-5.312 analysis, and the outcomes were good. For quality control purposes during the manufacturing procedure of VRC, the identification as well as analysis of IMP-5.312 should be helpful. The in silico approach was applied to predict the IMP-5.312 toxicity. The reports indicated that IMP-5.312 in non-mutagenic and categorized as ICH M7 class-5 impurity.

Open access

Originating from Leipzig and active in Vienna, the printmaker and painter Donat Hübschmann (†1583) had clients from Hungary who were close to the joint Hungarian and Bohemian royal and imperial court in Vienna of the composite Habsburg Monarchy, to which the Kingdom of Hungary belonged. Miklós Oláh (Nicolaus Olahus), humanist prelate and Archbishop of Esztergom, and head of the Hungarian Court Chancellery based in Vienna, commissioned him to make a copy of his etched portrait. János Zsámboky (Johannes Sambucus), who entered court service as a humanist, ordered two works from him. In 1564–65 Zsámboky had an illustrated broadsheet made to commemorate the coronation in Pozsony (now Bratislava, Slovakia) as King of Hungary of Archduke Maximilian II of Habsburg in 1563, which was decorated with a woodcut by Donat Hübschmann: a veduta of Pozsony. Further, in 1566 he assigned Donat Hübschmann to produce a copy of the earliest surviving printed map of Hungary (Lazarus secretarius, Tabula Hungariae, 1528). Other Hungarian-related works can be found among the master’s prints, such as a woodcut portrait of Hans Francolin the Younger, Hungarian Herald of Ferdinand I. It is likely that Donat Hübschmann was also responsible for the painted decoration on five letters patent, which were commissioned by Hungarian noblemen and issued by the Hungarian Court Chancellery in Vienna. In every case, the miniature coats of arms were signed with the monogram “DH”. The calligraphic decoration of these can be attributed to the noted calligrapher György (George) Bocskay and his workshop.

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Physiology International
Authors:
Maria Luiza Serradourada Wutzke
,
Matheus Felipe Zazula
,
Ana Luiza Peretti
,
Estéfani Marin
,
Jossinelma Camargo Gomes
,
Alberito Rodrigo de Carvalho
,
Célia Cristina Leme Beu
,
Rose Meire Costa
,
Lucinéia de Fátima Chasko Ribeiro
, and
Gladson Ricardo Flor Bertolini

Abstract

Background

Whole-body vibration (WBV) is used to enhance physical performance in sports and rehabilitation. The present study analyzed the effects of remobilization with WBV on the soleus muscle of Wistar rats.

Methods

Twenty-eight animals were separated into four experimental groups (n = 7): CON (control); IM (immobilized); FR (immobilization and free remobilization); and WBV (immobilization and remobilization with WBV). The immobilization of the pelvic limb was carried out according to the standard protocol using a plaster cast for 15 days. For remobilization with WBV, a Frequency of 60 Hz was applied for 10 min, five days a week, for two weeks. After the remobilization period, the animals were euthanized, and the right soleus muscle was dissected followed by processing for histomorphometric analysis and immunolocalization of Aquaporin 1 (AQP1).

Results

We observed a reduced larger diameter in IM compared to CON, with restored values in WBV. For the estimation of connective tissue, a significant increase was observed in the immobilized groups, while a reduction was noted in the remobilized groups. AQP1 expression decreased significantly in IM and increased in WBV.

Conclusion

Immobilization caused morphofunctional damage to the soleus muscle, and remobilization with WBV is efficient and offers advantages over free remobilization.

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Style and Inscription

Inscriptions in classical and early humanist capital letters cut in stone in Hungary in the age of King Matthias and the Jagiellos

Acta Historiae Artium Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Author:
Árpád Mikó

The practice of using classical capital lettering was introduced north of the Alps from Italy in the second half of the 15th century, and appeared very early in the Kingdom of Hungary. The article contains six case studies on the problems of architectural carvings, stone tabernacles, tombstones and the classical inscriptions on them. I. Tabernacles. All’antica tabernacles were produced in large numbers in late mediaeval Hungary and survive in churches from monumental to very small. The tabernacle frames, which followed the antique architecture of the façade, were accompanied by inscriptions: quotations about the Eucharist or, less frequently, inscriptions referring to the maker. II. Inscriptions outside the royal court. Outside the Buda residence of King Matthias, inscriptions engraved with humanist capitals also appeared, earlier than in the royal court, according to our present knowledge. The earliest dated inscriptions in Hungary survive in Veszprém and are attributed to Bishop Albert Vetési, the best known being a text written on ribbons running on a Gothic console (1467). The all’antica heraldic stones known from several places in the country are often dated, the earliest being found in the Nógrád castle of Miklós Báthory, the humanist bishop, with the date 1483. III. The royal court. Monumental all’antica inscriptions adorned the royal palace in Buda: building inscriptions, statue bases. Their texts are mostly known only from sources, as few original stone carvings have survived. These inscriptions were sometimes in bronze letters, but there were also engraved ones. The monumental inscriptions were associated with King Matthias, while the inscriptions known from the time of Vladislaus II are smaller in size and do not have bronze lettering. IV. Epitaphs. Antique letters also appeared as circular inscriptions on late medieval tombstones. The epitaph written in distychs was often engraved in a tabula ansata. Rarely, the wording was also antiquated, as exemplified by the abbreviations DOM, DOMS, DM. V. Inscriptions around Hungary in the Jagiellonian period. The commissioners of early inscriptions were familiar with the all’antica inscriptions of the Buda court. In Vienna, the first known all’antica inscriptions can be attributed to a citizen of Buda, Peter Juncker, and in Moravia to the lords of Tovačov and Moravská Třebová (Ctibor Tovačovský z Cimburka; Ladislav z Boskovic). VI. Architectural inscriptions of the Jagellonian period in Hungary. Inside the sepulchral chapel of Tamás Bakócz in Esztergom there is a bronze donation inscription (1507), in keeping with the perfect Renaissance centralised space. After 1500, all’antica building inscriptions became common in Hungary. We know of many of them, mainly in the Transdanubian region, written in pure classical capitals. In the northern part of the country, the early humanist capitals are more common; the Biblical quotations and proverbs on the staircase of the town hall of Bártfa were written in such letters. In Transylvania, classical capitals are again common: the inscriptions of the Lázói Chapel, built next to the cathedral in Gyulafehervár, or the Várday Chapel were also carved in such letters.

Open access

This study examines Max Dvořák‘s previously unknown papers prepared for his one-semester lecture series at the university of Vienna in 1913. Dvořák titled these lectures “explanations of Selected Works of Art“ (Erklärung ausgewählter Kunstwerke) and in doing so developed a distinctive method within the art historical research of the so-called vienna School of Art History. The paper interprets the lectures through a close reading of the method as a parallel to the change in the concept of the work of art as it occurred in the philosophy and practice of art at the beginning of the twentieth century, demonstrated in the study by examples from the thinking of the German philosopher Oskar Becker and a transformation of the meaning of painting by the French artist Marcel Duchamp. As the study shows, such analogies allow us to understand the meaning of the work of art in Max Dvořák‘s art history in a new way.

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