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Abstract

The widespread misuse of antibiotics leads to a rapid development of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacterial pathogens all over the globe, resulting in serious difficulties when treating infectious diseases. Possible solutions are not limited to the development of novel synthetic antibiotics but extend to application of plant-derived products either alone or in combination with common antibiotics. The aim of this actual review was to survey the literature from the past 10 years regarding the antibacterial effects of distinct Artemisia species including Artemisia absinthiae constituting an integral component of the Absinthe drink. We further explored the synergistic antibacterial effects of the Artemisia plant products with established antibiotics. The survey portrays the Artemisia derived compounds as potent antibacterial agents that can even restore the efficacy of antibiotics against MDR bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and MDR Escherichia coli. This, in turn, is presumably triggered in part by the interaction of the Artemisia ingredients with the efflux pumps of MDR bacteria. In conclusion, biologically active molecules in Artemisia plants enhance the antibiotic susceptibility of resistant bacteria, which provide promising future therapeutic strategies to combat MDR bacterial pathogens.

Open access
Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
I. Mahmoudi
,
O. Ben Moussa
,
M. Chouaibi
,
A. Telmoudi
,
W. Boukari
, and
M. Hassouna

Abstract

Cultured buttermilk is a dairy beverage with a high nutritive value. In the current study, functional cultured buttermilk was formulated using probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum and flaxseed fortification to improve the potential health benefits. The cultured buttermilk samples were analysed for pH, lactic acidity, colour, phase separation, viscosity, microbiology and sensory properties. The results showed non-significant changes in acidity and pH. However, flaxseed fortification decreased phase separation and increased viscosity of buttermilks. In addition, a significant difference in colour attributes was revealed between samples. Sensory characteristics of cultured buttermilks were acceptable to produce a functional food.

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Contributions to molecular phylogeny of lichens 3. •

New monophyletic branches of the Trapeliaceae and Xylariaceae

Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors:
S. Y. Kondratyuk
,
L. Lőkös
,
A. S. Kondratiuk
,
I. Kärnefelt
,
A. Thell
,
E. Farkas
, and
J.-S. Hur

Seven new genera, i.e. Brianiopsis for the former ‘Lambiellaimpavida group, Farkasiella for the former ‘Trapeliopsisaeneofusca group, Gallowayiopsis for the former ‘Trapeliacollaris group, Kleopowiella for the former ‘Trapeliaplacodioides group, Trapegintarasia for the former ‘Trapelialilacea group, Trapejamesia for the former ‘Trapeliacorticola branch, as well as Xyloelixia for the former ‘Xylographaisidiosa group are proposed.

Isolated position of ‘Lambiellacaeca, ‘Lambiellainsularis, ‘Lambiellahepaticicola, ‘Lambiellasphacellata, ‘Placopsisbicolor, ‘Xylographabjoerkii, and ‘Xylographalagoi, is discussed too. Correctness of identification of vouchers of various species of the following genera Placynthiella, Placopsis, Trapelia, and Trapeliopsis is also discussed.

New combinations are proposed for the following 27 species: ‘Ainoa’ sphacellata (for Lecidea sphacelata Th. Fr.), Brianiopsis aliphatica (for Lambiella aliphatica T. Sprib. et Resl), Brianiopsis cerebriformis (for Rimularia cerebriformis Kantvilas), Brianiopsis globulosa (for Rimularia globulosa Coppins), Brianiopsis gyrizans (for Lecidea gyrizans Nyl.), Brianiopsis gyromuscosa (for Rimularia gyromuscosa Aptroot), Brianiopsis impavida (for Lecidea impavida Th. Fr.), Brianiopsis mullensis (for Lecidea mullensis Stirt.), Farkasiella aeneofusca (for Lecidea aeneofusca Flörke ex Flot.), Farkasiella gelatinosa (for Lecidea gelatinosa Flörke), Gallowayiopsis collaris (for Trapelia collaris Orange), Gallowayiopsis glebulosa (for Lichen glebulosus Sm.), Gallowayiopsis obtegens (for Biatora coarctata subsp. obtegens Th. Fr.), Gallowayiopsis roseonigra (for Placopsis roseonigra Brodo), Kleopowiella placodioides (for Trapelia placodioides Coppins et P. James), Kleopowiella bisorediata (for Trapeliopsis bisorediata McCune et F. J. Camacho), Kleopowiella thieleana (for Trapelia thieleana Kantvilas, Lumbsch et Elix), Rimularia coreana (for Trapelia coreana S. Y. Kondr., Lőkös et Hur), Trapegintarasia antarctica (for Trapelia antarctica Ertz, Aptroot, G. Thor et Ovstedal), Trapegintarasia lilacea (for Trapelia lilacea Kantvilas et Elix), Trapegintarasia tristis (for Trapelia tristis Orange), Trapejamesia corticola (for Trapelia corticola Coppins et P. James), Trapejamesia hurii (for Placynthiella hurii S. Y. Kondr. et L. Lőkös), Xyloelixia constricta (for Xylographa constricta T. Sprib.), Xyloelixia disseminata (for Xylographa disseminata Willey), Xyloelixia isidiosa (for Hypocenomyce isidiosa Elix), and Xyloelixia septentrionalis (for Xylographa septentrionalis T. Sprib.).

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This paper contains 142 Campylopoideae records from 10 collecting trips of the author with his colleagues in the East African islands. Among the 27 taxa 15 records were new to a certain island, of which 4 were known before only from continental Africa. With these the known number of species on the Indian Ocean islands raises from 30 to 34. Observations on the ecology, distribution and illustrations of most species are also given.

Open access

Belonging to Lamiaceae family, the genus Teucrium L. is a rich source of secondary metabolites used in pharmacology and industrial medicine. This study aimed to investigate the flavonoid contents of methanol extract and the chemical markers of Teucrium at specific and infraspecific levels and identify the chemotypes of its accessions. Nineteen accessions, eight species, and five subspecies were collected from three sections (Teucris, Polium, and Scordium) belonging to the natural habitats in the west, southwest, centre, and south of Iran. Total flavonoid extraction was attained by the air-dried leaf of Teucrium species and 90% methanol. HPLC coupled with triple quadrupole mass analyser was applied to screen and identify the chemical constituents. Multivariate analyses were implemented by cluster and principal component analysis. Chemical investigation specified 148 chemical compounds, of which 135 flavonoids were tentatively identified. The most abundant derivatives belonged to flavones (41 derivatives), flavonols (37 derivatives), and isoflavonoids (22 derivatives). Based on the cluster analysis, 13 groups of chemical markers were formed in sections Teucris and Scordium and five groups in section Polium as chemotaxonomic indicators. The specified chemotypes were represented by ten in the sections Teucris and Scordium and by six in the section Polium. A relationship was suggested between type and flavonoid quantity (number), altitude, and geographical location. The present study provided valuable information for pharmacological research, bioactivity assessment, and chemotaxonomic purposes. This is the first report on the presence of chemotypes, chemical markers, and quality assessments for the genus Teucrium.

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An isolectotype specimen of Eustichia africana deposited in the herbarium LW (Lviv, Ukraine) is discussed and illustrated here. The LW isolectotype of Eustichia africana is found to be the most complete (largest in terms of the number of plant fragments) original collection among initial syntypes (now the lectotype at PRE and numerous isolectotypes) of this taxon distributed in Rehmann’s exsiccatae (and kept in W, PC, PRE, etc). A detailed description and illustration of the LW isolectotype specimen are provided. The special investigation of LW specimens of Fissidens eustichium found to confirm species status of Eustichia africana, which is different from E. longirostris (Brid.) Brid. to which sometimes E. africana was included as synonym since 1923 (while Fissidens eustichium Rehmann nom. nud. was included as synonym [to the latter taxon (= E. longirostris)] since 1894). Thus, the name and the accepted status of species Eustichia africana are resurrected.

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Se designa el lectotipo de Diphysa sennoides Bentham (1853: 12) y se excluyen los otros sintipos determinados como Diphysa floribunda Peyritsch (1859: 78) y Diphysa carthagenen sis Jacquin (1760: 28; 1763: 208). Palabras clave: Coulter, lectotipo, México. The lectotype of Diphysa sennoides Bentham (1853: 12) is designated and the other syntypes determined as Diphysa floribunda Peyritsch (1859: 78) and Diphysa carthagenensis Jacquin (1760: 28; 1763: 208) are excluded.

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Ferula microcolea (Boiss.) Boiss. is an endemic plant in Iran that some of its habitats have been destroyed in recent decades. Since the bioclimatic variables which determine its potential distribution, are poorly defined, a specific analysis is needed. In this study, the species distribution modelling was used for reaching these goals: (i) identifying the bioclimatic factors that constrain the distribution of this species in Iran, (ii) generating a potential habitat suitability map for F. microcolea using Maxent (iii) determining the high suitable areas where this species could be present (iv) evaluating the final model. In all, 66 records of F. microcolea in Iran were used as the occurrence data. Nineteen bioclimatic variables were obtained from the WorldClim database and collinear variables were removed in a sequential manner with regard to the ecological knowledge of the plant. The maxent parameters were optimised with ENMeval R package. For evaluating the performance of the Maxent model, the Area under curve value (AUC) was calculated. The results showed that the model performance was excellent. Analysis of variable contribution demonstrated that the distribution of this species is most influenced by the Annual Mean Temperature. We revealed that the area about 22,005.5 km2 is highly suitable for F. microcolea that is principally located in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province. Although this region is rich in biodiversity, greater focus should be paid to its conservation. Our findings provide a scientific basis for the habitats conservation of this species in Iran.

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A successful management and preservation of the natural populations depend on accurate assessment of genetic diversity. Knowing the genetic diversity within a population is important for choosing the conservation strategies for the species. The genus Carpinus belonging to Coryloideae, Betulaceae, has significant economic and ornamental importance. Determination of the taxa in the genus Carpinus in Iran is one of the most controversial issues among the researchers; for example, we can see this claim in the recent botanical literatures such as Sabeti and Browicz. However, two good species namely C. betulus L. and C. orientalis Mill. are the main species in Iran, adjacent regions and also in Europe. In general, taxonomic and biosystematics studies of the Carpinus are not known in Iran, moreover, in few cases, inter-specific hybrids and intermediate forms are recognised. A detailed molecular (ISSR) study of the Carpinus is done here with the following objectives: 1) to delimitate the species; 2) to carry out population genetic study and produce information on genetic structure, genetic variability within each population in Carpinus betulus and C. orientalis. In present study, 85 randomly collected plants from 17 geographical populations of two Carpinus species were considered. Our results indicated that ISSR markers can be used as a reliable and informative technique for evaluation of genetic diversity and relationships among Carpinus species.

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