This study aims to examine the effect of hydrolysis degree (DH) on both antioxidant activity and functional properties of Acetes japonicus proteolysate (AP). Consequently, the AP showed the highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity (SA) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) at DH of 66.7%. Whereas, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) cation radical (ABTS•+) SA and superoxide anion radical (O2•–) SA of the AP peaked at DH of 75.8%. In addition, its strongest Fe2+-chelating rate was found at DH of 72.1%. In the pH range from 3 to 8, the AP showed solubility over 55% even after heat treating, foaming capacity (FC) of 5.7–80.0%, foaming stability (FS) of 2.9–77.0%, emulsifying-activity index (EAI) of 16.1–56.3 m2 g−1, and emulsifying stability index (ESI) of 12.4–156.7 min. The highest water-holding capacity (WHC) and oil-holding capacity (OHC) of the AP were observed at DH of 66.7% and 50.6%, respectively. This study enhanced value of the Acetes by producing antioxidant AP possessing functionalities.
The effect of processing parameters on microencapsulation of oregano essential with maltodextrin:gum arabic using a disk atomiser spray-dryer was evaluated. By means of response surface methodology, the feed flow rate and inlet air temperature were optimised. Powder yield, moisture content, essential oil retention, and antioxidant activity of microparticles were evaluated. The best conditions to produce microencapsulated oregano essential oil were 0.6 L h−1 for feed flow rate and 200 °C for inlet air temperature. With this combination a microencapsulated powder with 89.8% powder yield, 2.1% moisture content, 92.1% essential oil retention, 76 s solubilisation time, 12.9 g of water/100 g of dry matter, 0.3371 g mL−1 bulk density, 0.5826 g mL−1 tapped density, and 8.2 μm of average particle size was produced. The microencapsulation of oregano essential oil preserves the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of its bioactive compounds.
This study evaluated the effect of surfactant-assisted enzymatic extraction on the quality of tiger nut milk (TNM). TNM was extracted from tiger nuts using different concentrations of xylanase (0.010–0.100%) and Tween 20 (0.005–0.010%). The yield, stability, nutritional, antioxidant, and sensory properties of the samples were determined. The yield of TNM significantly increased, by 32.72–50.67%, following surfactant-assisted enzymatic extraction. Optimum yield and stability of TNM were obtained using 0.010% xylanase and Tween 20. Enzymatic extraction significantly increased total sugar and flavonoids, however, starch, dietary fibre, protein, carotenoids, lycopene, total phenolic content, and antioxidant properties reduced significantly. The incorporation of Tween 20 stabilised these parameters. There was no significant difference in panellists' preference for the control (sample extracted without enzyme and surfactant), enzymatically-extracted, and surfactant-assisted enzymatic extracted samples in mouthfeel and aroma, however, the surfactant-assisted enzymatic extracted sample was most preferred in colour, consistency, taste, and overall acceptability. Using surfactant-assisted enzymatic extraction could prove invaluable for the production of TNM.
Cultivation of specialty mushrooms on lignocellulosic wastes represents one of the most economical organic recycling processes. Compared with other cultivated mushrooms, very little is known about the nature of the lignocellulolytic enzymes produced by the edible fungus Calocybe indica, its enzymatic activity profiles during submerged and solid state fermentation. The intracellular activity of laccase (7.67 U mg−1), manganese peroxidase (7.48 U mg−1), cellobiohydrolase (5.46 U mg−1), and endoxylanase (4.21 U mg−1) was best obtained in C. indica on 14th and 21st day of incubation. The extracellular activity of laccase (11.57 U mL−1), lignin peroxidase (8.45 U mL−1), and endoxylanases (6.22 U mL−1) were found to be highest on the 14th day. Ligninolytic enzyme activity was substantial during substrate colonisation but quickly dropped during fruiting body development. C. indica, on the other hand, showed relatively modest hydrolase activity during substrate colonisation. The activity of hydrolytic enzymes increased dramatically when primordia formed and peaked at the mature fruiting body stage. The yield of the crude enzyme-treated wheat straw utilised for mushroom production was 52.47%. These findings showed that the activities of lignocellulolytic enzymes were regulated in line with developmental phase of growth of C. indica.
This study aims to formulate the optimal pectin-curcumin-lemongrass oil emulsion (PE) for coating of chicken fillet at 50:50%, 70:30%, and 90:10%, based on microbial growth inhibition, freshness consistency, and fat absorption during frying. Throughout the 7 days of storage, chicken fillet coated with 70:30% PE showed significant (P < 0.05) suppressive activity against psychrophilic bacteria (8.09 ± 0.00 log10 CFU g−1) compared to non-coated sample (8.27 ± 0.06 log10 CFU g−1). In contrast, 90:10% PE coating inhibited the growth of yeasts or moulds on chicken fillet at 8.24 ± 0.28 log10 CFU g−1, compared to non-coated sample (9.16 ± 0.14 log10 CFU g−1). The 70:30% PE coating showed a better fillet's toughness (18.30 ± 1.32 N mm−1 s−1) and firmness (1.49 ± 0.22 N mm−1) when compared to fillet without coating. After 7 days of storage, coated and uncoated samples showed the same total colour difference (E value) indicating PE coating preserved the texture of fillet and colour. Both coated samples (70:30% and 90:10%) reduced fat uptake during frying by 13.70%–14.25%. The application of PE coating at 90:10% was effectively functioned as an excellent coating to preserve the quality and safety of fillet.
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a serious health condition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of polyphenol-rich Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice (AMFJ) on glucose tolerance, triglyceride levels, and adipose tissue in rats with MS induced by high-fat high-fructose (HFHF) diet. Fifty rats were allocated in 5 groups: control, MS, MS+AMFJ2.5, MS+AMFJ5, and MS+AMFJ10. In the course of 10 weeks, the control group was on a regular rat diet while the other groups received HFHF diet. During the experiment, control and MS groups were treated daily orally with distilled water (10.0 mL kg−1) and the other three groups – with AMFJ at doses of 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 mL kg−1, respectively. In MS rats, glucose intolerance, hypertriglyceridemia, visceral obesity, and increased adipocyte size were observed. In AMFJ-treated groups, the serum glucose and triglycerides, as well as visceral fat and adipocyte size decreased significantly and did not differ from those of the control group. AMFJ at doses 2.5 and 5.0 mL kg−1 showed an anti-apoptotic activity in adipocytes, while at the dose of 10 mL kg−1 a pro-apoptotic effect was detected. In conclusion, AMFJ could antagonise most of the negative consequences of HFHF diet on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in a rat MS model.
‘Patharnakh’ (Pyrus pyrifolia Burm.) (PN), a hard pear and ‘Punjab Beauty’ (Pyrus communis L. × Pyrus pyrifolia Burm.) (PB), a soft pear are dominant low-chill pear cultivars of subtropics of India. Present investigation reports the changes in sugar metabolism and related enzymatic activities in fruits of ‘PN’ and ‘PB’ cultivars harvested at different developmental stages from 45 to 150 days after fruit set. Total soluble sugars, fructose, and sucrose contents were higher in ‘PB’ as compared to ‘PN’ during fruit growth and maturation stages. Total phenols and flavanols increased initially and then showed a decreasing trend towards maturity. Sucrose synthase (SS) and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) activities strongly correlated to sucrose content in ‘PN’ but SPS was weakly related in ‘PB’ fruits. Acid and neutral invertases showed a negative correlation with sucrose content in ‘PN’, and a reverse trend in ‘PB’ cultivar was observed. It is concluded that SS and SPS are crucial for sucrose accumulation in ‘PN’, but invertase enzymes are also important for sucrose accumulation in ‘PB’ fruits.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is one of the most common chronic liver diseases with unclarified pathomechanism and without evidence-proven therapy. Dietary polyphenols, targeting oxidative stress, are at the center of investigations. Our aim was to examine the effects of a polyphenol rich extract on metal element homeostasis and transmethylation ability in non-alcoholic fatty liver model. A ten-day rat model was used (control group, hyperlipidemic group with fat-rich diet, hyperlipidemic group with fat-rich diet and polyphenol supplementation, N = 8 in each group). The hyperlipidemic diet increased the concentration of the majority of the elements with significantly higher contents of B, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Se, Si, and Zn in the liver. Further elevation of Al, Pb, and Sn concentrations could be observed in polyphenol supplemented animals. The polyphenol supplement unexpectedly decreased the transmethylation ability of the liver (132.00 vs. 114.15 vs. 92.25 HCHO μg g−1) further. The results emphasize the possible role of altered metal and non-metal element concentrations and decreased transmethylation ability in the pathomechanism of fatty liver disease. Dietary supplementation with natural compounds may have undesirable effect as well, there is the necessity to improve the efficacy of polyphenol formulations because of their low oral bioavailability.
COVID-19 lockdown affects people's daily routine and has an impact on their lifestyle. Recent studies documented associations between body weight changes and children's lifestyle during social isolation. Childhood obesity is associated with a higher risk of COVID-19 severity and mortality. Our aim was to assess the effects of lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic on children's sleep, screen time, physical activity, and eating habits. 387 parents of five elementary school students between 16 and 26 June 2020 were interviewed through an online questionnaire. Physical activity level decreased (63.8%), sleep (60.9%) and screen (5.64 ± 3.05 h/day) times and food intake (39.8%) increased. 80.6% of parents reported changes in children's diet: increased consumption of fruits and vegetables (32.4%), breakfast (15.5%), water and sugar-free beverages (17.6%), snacks (40.4%), sugary drinks (9.9%) was observed. Body weight increased in 44.4% of children. The results of the survey conducted under GYERE®-Children's Health Program are in line with the international literature findings: body weight change during the quarantine is significantly associated with food intake, snacking, sugary drinks, and we also found association with fruit and vegetable consumption and lack of breakfast. Effective strategies and electronic health interventions are needed to prevent sedentary lifestyle and obesity during lockdown.
Cassava is used as a staple food in many developing countries despite its low nutrient density. Fortification of cassava diets is needed for the prevention of malnutrition and achievement of food security. Cassava-soybean complementary foods were formulated from natural and solid state fermented cassava complemented with soybean. The proximate composition, physicochemical properties, nutritional quality, and sensory properties of the samples were determined (Table 2). The moisture content (7.51%) and ash (3.81%) content of the solid state fermented (SSF) cassava flour complemented with un-defatted soybean flour was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than of the other samples. Solid state fermentation (SSF) led to the highest reduction in viscosity (from 2,855 to 2,052 cPs). Average weight gain and protein efficiency ratio (PER) of experimental animals fed SSF cassava were the highest. The colour and aroma of SSF diets and that of fermented cassava samples were similar (P > 0.05). The texture of diets from SSF cassava were inferior (P < 0.05) to the other samples. Solid state fermentation of cassava with Rhizopus oligosporus and supplementation with soybean can be used to produce a complementary food that is nutrient dense and nutritionally adequate, although the texture of the product might need to be improved.