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Abstract

The aim of this research is to examine whether consumers in Croatia behave ethically, focusing on whether they believe that family farm products have ethical attributes and whether they are willing to pay a higher price (premium) for such products. Given the specificity of the market niche of family farm products, the paper provides an innovative and different view of the product market with a focus on characteristics rather than the good itself. In the paper, family farm products are viewed as goods with ethical attributes, ethics in consumer behavior is examined, as well as the extent to which consumers are willing to pay a price premium for an ethical good, i.e., its ethical attributes. The sample consisted of 143 participants aged between 20 and 71. The results show that consumers in Croatia commonly behave ethically, perceive the characteristics of family farm products as ethical and are willing to pay a price premium for these products. Women perceive family farm products more ethically, and consumers perceive family farm products to have ethical attributes regardless of how frequently they buy these products.

Open access

Abstract

This paper explains the EU's Aid for Trade (AfT) and trade relations with Vietnam, and examines how EU AfT influences Vietnam's trade policy reform. It provides an analysis of EU AfT as a contested trade policy intervention by using the results of the EU-MUTRAP project in Vietnam. The finding is that EU AfT can interfere as an “external impacts” on Vietnam's trade policy reform. Based on the priorities of EU trade policies towards Vietnam, the EU uses AfT projects to support and change the Vietnamese trade environment. The paper partially proves the contribution of the EU-MUTRAP on the EU-Vietnam Free Trade Agreement negotiations and implementation.

Open access

Abstract

In this article we use a natural experiment to assess the effects of a public transport disruption on the bicycle sharing system ridership. We exploit maintenance work on a major tram line in Budapest. Fixed effects panel regressions are applied in a difference-in-difference setting. Our results show that bicycle sharing usage significantly increased on weekdays during the disruption, however, this effect is not substantial relative to the baseline usage of the tram service. These findings raise interesting policy questions.

Open access

Abstract

Policy makers must identify the priorities in which resources should be invested in order to stimulate growth. This requires the identification of drivers of economic growth. Numerous researchers have pointed out that entrepreneurship is one of the key drivers of growth in the developed countries. However, sometimes entrepreneurship can be “unproductive”, and even “destructive”, because different forms of entrepreneurship do not have the same impact. Our paper investigates the impact of different types of entrepreneurships on growth in the emerging markets in order to identify the productive forms of entrepreneurship. The regression results, from panel data analysis of 20 emerging countries for the period of 2011–2018, showed that total entrepreneurial activity has a positive impact on economic growth in the emerging markets, but this impact is not statistically significant. The greatest and significant contribution to economic growth has high-growth expectation entrepreneurship. The influence of innovative entrepreneurship on economic growth is positive, but statistically insignificant, while impact of necessity-driven entrepreneurship is negative. Necessity-driven entrepreneurship and informal entrepreneurship are unproductive and destructive forms of entrepreneurship in the emerging markets.

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Abstract

The main goals of the article are to investigate the level of fiscal unsustainability in Poland and estimate the tax gap necessary to stabilize the size of the public debt and to follow a path to fiscal sustainability. It hypothesizes that by closing the tax gaps for value-added tax (VAT) and personal income tax (PIT), Poland can cover most of its current fiscal needs and stabilize the country’s fiscal situation. We estimated a modified version of the equation describing Ponzi games, calculated the primary gap indicator, and conducted cointegration tests for ex-post data on public expenditures and revenues to investigate the actual level of fiscal unsustainability. The research period covers yearly observations between 2003 and 2017. Empirical evidence confirmed our research hypothesis. We found out that closing the tax gap could change the situation dramatically. If the public authorities were able to collect the VAT and PIT that currently go uncollected, Poland could easily embark on the path towards fiscal sustainability.

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Abstract

We investigate whether the European Union can be considered as a convergence machine after the 2008/2009 financial crisis. To do so, we econometrically test the relationship between the per capita GDP growth rate and macroeconomic variables in the period of 2004–2018, further subdivided into three periods: 2004–2008, 2009–2013 and 2014–2018. We hypothesize that the 2008/2009 financial crisis had a negative effect on the σ and β-convergence process. Our results support the convergence hypothesis, namely that the poor countries tend to grow faster than the rich countries. The convergence rates ranged between 1.71% and 4.51%. The negative effects of the crisis on convergence have been identified only for the absolute convergence. Our findings demonstrate that economic openness, inflation and government integrity have a positive impact on growth. The effects of unemployment have not been identified.

Open access

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to verify whether there has been a causal relationship between economic performance and the quality of political environment in the last 200 years. Mainly, the paper explores the bi-directorial causality for the period of 1821–2016. To attain the aim, the paper uses Granger causality test. The differences between the individual regions (Europe, Latin America and former British colonies) are taken into consideration. Economic performance is expressed as annual growth rate of GDP per capita (taken from Maddison Project Database); the quality of political environment is associated with the Electoral Democracy Index and the Liberal Democracy Index (from the V-Dem Project).

The paper offers three findings. Firstly, the results indicate that a statistically significant relationship between economic performance and political development was identified for the researched period. Secondly, bi-directorial causality was peculiar to the European countries, whereas the linkage was not identified within other regions. Thirdly, the results for the sub-periods confirm the previous conclusions with two additions. The quality of political environment and economic performance did not interact with each other in the period of 1821–1870 across all three regions, while in the period after World War II, bi-directorial causal relationship could also exist in the Latin American economies.

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Acta Oeconomica
Authors:
Altan Aldan
and
Hatice Burcu Gürcihan Yüncüler

Abstract

The article analyzes the direction and scope of the responsiveness of real wages to the business cycle in Turkey using longitudinal data from 2005 to 2015. We found that wages in Turkey are procyclical; one percentage point increase in the unemployment rate induces a 0.6% decline in real wages. There is a variation in the patterns along the lines of wage distribution among the subgroups with relations to skills. Less-educated workers have acyclical wages. Compatible with this evidence, we found that the workers who earn around the minimum wage also have acyclical wages. High share of minimum wage earners suppresses wage cyclicality. Consistent with strict employment protection legislation and loose wage determination, wages of relatively high-income employees who mostly have formal work arrangements are procyclical.

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Abstract

The self-fulfilling prophecy is a ubiquitous concept with a large amount of research to date, characterised by disciplinary diversity and thus a potential plurality in its narrative. A meta-narrative review was implemented to analyse the narratives of self-fulfilling prophecy in the different research areas. It identified 10 research areas, 22 themes and 7 subthemes where the phenomenon was adopted to describe and explain phenomena/events/outcomes. It revealed the self-fulfilling prophecy’s meta-narrative in the separate areas and in overall, compared to the original notion, and with regard to the critics. And it set up methodological and research area-related boundaries to implementation. Finally, the paper provided suggestions to future researches on internal validity and on the configuration of trending topics as the self-fulfilling prophecy.

Open access