This work aimed to evaluate the effect of ethylene treatment on ripening of 1-MCP treated pear after 6 months of cold storage. Pear treated with gaseous 1-MCP at 625–650 ppb for 24 h at 0 °C was stored at 0 °C for 6 months with normal air, and treated groups were exposed to 100 ppm ethylene at 20 °C for 24 h. After that, samples were kept at 0, 10, and 15 °C for 2 weeks. Stiffness, chlorophyll fluorescence, ethylene and CO2 production of fruit were investigated during 2 weeks. Application of ethylene resumed the ripening of pear after long term storage. The results showed that fruit treated with ethylene achieved more homogeneous surface colour in comparison with non ethylene treated pears. In addition, the ethylene and carbon dioxide production of ethylene treated pears had higher values than that of control. The ethylene treatment could accelerate the softening of pear. Temperature also has significant effect on ripening during storage. This study found that ethylene treatment could accelerate the normal ripening of 1-MCP treated pears.
Soil science, a relatively young field of research with a history of fewer than two centuries, experienced an exponential expansion in scientific output in the last decades. While the output of all sub-disciplines is growing, research efforts in these sub-disciplines differ, reflecting the importance of the subjects. The broadening focus of soil science can be detected by the content of the increasing number and diverting thematic sessions of the World Soil Science Congresses, which are held every four years since the beginning of the 20th century. The structure of the current world congress is supposed to reflect the contemporary understanding of the internal structure of soil science, including its subdivision by major themes. Considering these soil themes/sub-disciplines, we assessed the evolution of soil science in the last three decades using scientific publications as indicators. Furthermore, we evaluated the inter-linkages of soil topics within soil research using network analysis and assessed the contribution of science to the broader fields of studies, from agriculture to engineering and environmental sciences. Results show that scientific interest towards all sub-disciplines is exploding, but environment-related topics, including subjects related to climate and contamination, show an even sharper increase. As far as the internal structure of soil science is concerned, research efforts are organised around the major topics of microbiology, soil contamination, nutrients, soil physics and water management. Our study reveals that currently the highest interest towards soil is coming from ecology and environmental sciences, followed by agriculture, engineering, geology and plant sciences, respectively.
Fruit of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. are used as functional foods for centuries due to their rich content and bioactivities. Although in vitro antioxidant and hypoglycaemic activity of jujube fruit were investigated previously, the bioavailability phenomenon has been disregarded so far. For this study, 80% ethanol extract of Ziziphus jujuba fruit (ZJE) was investigated for its in vitro hypoglycaemic and antioxidant potentials, before and after the interaction with simulated human digestion. DPPH scavenging activity, FRAP, CUPRAC, and TOAC assays were used for this purpose. Moreover, inhibition potentials of α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes and advanced glycation end products (AGE) were examined for the hypoglycaemic effect. Results indicated that ZJE showed significant antioxidant and dose dependent enzyme and AGE inhibition activity. Nonetheless, subsequent to simulated human digestion in vitro bioactivities of ZJE were significantly lowered for bioavailable fraction (IN). Protocatechuic acid (PA) (major phenolic compound of the fruit) contents of the extract and fractions were measured via HPTLC for more accurate understanding of the effects of human digestion and bioavailability profile.
To determine the most effective preservation method for MiBa (a traditional Chinese rice product), MiBa treated with 75% alcohol, 75% alcohol + inhibitor, ozone treatment; untreated (control); and raw rice were subjected to 16S rRNA gene and ITS three-generation sequencing by High-throughput Sequencing Technology. According to the results the preservation effects of different treatment methods ranked as follows: ozone treatment >75% alcohol treatment >75% alcohol+inhibitor > control. Bacterial composition analysis showed that the bacterial community on the surface of MiBa treated with ozone was dominated by genera Leuconostoc and Serratia. The fungal community consisted mainly of Aspergillus and Alternaria. In summary, ozone treatment proved to be the most effective in inhibiting microbial contamination during the storage of MiBa, effectively extending its shelf life.
In this research, the impacts of various enzymes (phospholipase-A2 (0.3% v/v), lipase (0.03% w/v), and protease (0.5% w/v)) on the physico-chemical and functional characteristics of the treated egg white protein (EWP) were determined. The pH, turbidity, colour (L*, a*, b*, and ∆E*), gas concentrations in the package, relative foaming capacity (RFC), and foaming stability were analysed during storage at 4 °C. The protease (1,000 ± 60.82) and lipase (790 ± 41.63) increased RFC values significantly (control: 616 ± 36.05) on the initial day. The enzymes significantly decreased (P < 0.05) the turbidity values from 0.46 ± 0.10 (control) to –0.30 ± 0.05 (lipase) and –0.35 ± 0.03 (protease), whereas it was increased by phospholipase-A2 (0.53 ± 0.06). This research points out the efficacy of the enzymes in improving functionality of EWP. In conclusion, treatment with protease enzyme provided the best RFC values at day 27. However, utilisation of protease led to decrease in L* and b* values.
Guignardia bidwellii, indigenous to North America, is a significant pathogen of grapes long known in Hungary, infecting only the growing green parts of the vine (leaves, petioles, shoots, and bunches). In the absence of adequate plant protection and extreme weather conditions such as a predominantly humid, warm year, black rot of grapes can be expected. The pathogen can cause high yield losses due to grape rot and reduce wine quality if the infection is severe.
The evolution of certain biogenic amine compounds were investigated under the influence of grape black rot. The results obtained showed that they were present in low concentrations from an oenological point of view. Polyphenol composition was consistent with the literature, blackening affected mainly the concentration of catechin. Black rot fungus does not produce β-glucosidase enzyme. In terms of resveratrol content, black rot has no particular effect. However, like Botrytis cinerea, it produces glycerol and, proportionally, gluconic acid in lower concentrations.
It can be concluded that black rot of grapes does not cause health problems when introduced into wine processing.
Potato tubers defend themselves against herbivores with endogenous secondary compounds such as solanine and scopolamine. They also recruit endophytes and members of the tuberosphere to repel herbivores. Many of these endophyte defence features are overcome by cooking, with some notable exceptions that have been identified by rDNA analysis of potato peel samples and may account for some previously unrecognised features of potato peel colic. This is relevant regarding the rather modern way of cooking, where the potato peel is left intact in food and consumed.
Animal food, especially meat, has played an important role in the history of mankind. Different meats can be used in the production of meat products. In addition to lean meats, mechanically deboned meat (MDM) and mechanically separated meat (MSM) can also be used in meat products. However, the latter does not qualify as meat due to damage to the muscular structure due to the high pressure applied during the separation, therefore cannot be included in the meat content of products.
The aim of our experiment was to compare whole, minced meat, MDM and MSM from turkey (raw and in the form of meat paste). Technofunctional tests (water-holding and -binding capacity), color measurement, chemical composition (moisture, protein and fat content), electron microscopic recording, rheological properties show that the quality of MSM is inferior to other meat raw materials. These properties can also result in the production of lower quality products.
The composition of biologically active compounds of Calocybe gambosa (Lyophyllaceae) was analysed, and the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities were tested in vitro. C. gambosa was low in energy, fat, and carbohydrates, but rich in proteins and fibres. The total polyphenol content in the extracts was low (23.08 ± 0.67 in aqueous and 24.99 ± 4.25 μg GA mg−1 of extract in methanolic extract). The methanolic extract showed anti-DPPH radical activity with an IC50 of 626.10 ± 25.20 μg mL−1. The sample of C. gambosa is rich in nucleotides and amino acids responsible for its pleasant taste. The nucleoside and 5′-monophosphates contents were 0.97 mg g−1 and 2.32 mg g−1 of dry mushroom, respectively. The contents of essential and non-essential amino acids were 18.41 ± 0.06 and 41.75 ± 0.30 mg g−1 d.w., respectively. The percentages of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids were 42.6% and 57.4%, respectively. The most abundant water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins were B1 and E, respectively. Cytotoxic effect of the extracts was examined against different cancer cell lines, and the best cytotoxicity was showed by the peptide extract against colon cancer cell line LS174.
Pre-drying prior to freezing may reduce several freezing drawbacks. Nevertheless, drying may cause nutritional quality losses. Instant Controlled Pressure Drop process has been proposed to intensify pre-drying process. This research is dedicated to study the evolution of the main bioactive compounds (total phenolics, flavonoid, and tannins contents) of quince dehydrofrozen fruits. Fresh samples were subjected to air drying at 40 °C and 3 m s−1 air velocity down to a final water content of 0.3 g g−1 db. Pre-dried samples were Instant Controlled Pressure Drop (DIC) treated under different conditions, i.e. saturated steam pressure (P) and treatment time (t), following a 2-factor/5-level Experimental Design. Treated fruits were frozen at –30 °C then were thawed at 20 °C in order to study the impacts of DIC on phenolic compounds. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) confirmed that pressure was the most influencing parameter in terms of polyphenol, flavonoid, and tannins contents. Finally, DIC pre-treatment allowed the improvement of phenolic content retention compared to untreated DIC samples.