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Abstract

The main concern of this article is to introduce the concept of the authentic gesture as a vital, largely self-determined expression of the child and to make it fruitful for art education. Because of the assumed educational importance of the concept, some hints to other learning areas will also be given. This should be done from a historical and systematic perspective against the background of relevant literature, above all the German-language literature and some other important voices, in which a number of further leading ideas can be found and discussed. Explicated in this way, the concept at issue leads to the question of the unknown per se, to which art education and education in general should open itself. This means that education opens up to something that, in its material and/or social form, evades a final assessment. Something enigmatic thus comes into view, because the unknown, by definition, is beyond exact description and extern evaluation. However, in and for the modern world, it can be paraphrased with a secular approach of transcendence as an inner-psychic space which is withdrawn from instrumental intervention including educational intervention and which must be protected at all costs as a central condition of freedom and human dignity.

Open access

Abstract

The article evaluates how well the goals of the European Green Deal are justified, especially considering the risks to energy and food security arising from the conflict between Russia and Ukraine. We agree with the objectives of the European Green Agreement as a whole, but whether some of the objectives which feature in the EASAC study can be achieved by 2030 is questionable, and the description of the tools necessary to achieve the objectives is incomplete. Among other things, there is hardly any mention of the role played by precision farming with digitalization, which is a revolutionary change from an ecological and economic point of view, in reducing the use of synthetic inputs, in regenerating the original state of the soil, in reducing GHG emissions, thus in increasing biodiversity, and at the same time in intensifying production, and finally in expanding the application of biotechnology. We examine these areas in our analysis. Some of the objectives of the EASAC study to be achieved by 2030 are subject to debate, and the description of the information and communication conditions necessary to achieve the objectives is incomplete. The IoT (Internet of Things) responds to global and local challenges: it integrates the precision technologies, WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks), artificial intelligence, mobile field (Smart Small Robots) and remote data loggers (UAVs: Unmanned Air Vehicles and satellites), Big Data, and cloud computing. Consequently, decision support is increasingly developing into unmanned decision making. IoT (Internet of Things) is the basis of “Farm to Fork” and “Lab to Field” monitoring approaches.

This article evaluates the implementation of European Green Agreement objectives in light of energy and food security risks arising from the Russia-Ukraine conflict. While overall support for the agreement exists, the feasibility of certain EASAC study objectives by 2030 is called into question due to insufficient tools specifications. Notably absent is the emphasis on precision farming with digitalization, which is a transformative ecological and economic practice. Our analyses look into its function in reducing synthetic inputs, soil regeneration, GHG emission reduction, biodiversity enhancement, production intensification, and biotechnology development. Debates surround EASAC study objectives for 2030, despite limited information and communication restrictions. The Internet of Things (IoT) arises as a solution, combining precision technology, WSNs (wireless sensor networks), AI (artificial intelligence), smart small robots, UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles), satellites, big data, and cloud computing. As a result, decision support turns toward unmanned decision-making, with IoT laying the groundwork for “Farm to Fork” and “Lab to Field” monitoring systems.

Open access

Abstract

This paper argues that the mitigation of the normative pedagogy in the value heterogenous world has elicited the need to rephrase the teacher's role. While this study cannot reflect on all issues that have recently arisen, some core questions are addressed to examine the teacher-student relationship and highlight a few principles that teachers need to be aware of. This study links to previous works on responsive pedagogy, accepting the ambition to respond to individual needs but also discussing collective terms such as human freedom and cultural differences, which impact children's perspectives.

Accordingly, this paper is an attempt to provide an interdisciplinary framework based on educational philosophy, psychological evidence, and ethnographic studies to discuss the conflict between individual and community interests, basic human needs, individual differences, and ethical issues arising from diverse cultural backgrounds, and some contemporary phenomena that have affected the operations of schools. As a result, following a critical review of the introduced concepts, this paper suggests considering some educational responsibilities that may improve teachers' practice in the 21st century.

Open access

Solidarity – An aim of education?

Reflections on a vital topic of education for sustainable development (ESD) from the perspective of a responsive pedagogy

Hungarian Educational Research Journal
Author:
Alexander Maier

Abstract

The demand for solidarity is made today by different social actors, e.g., from politics, religion or philosophy. Especially in the context of climate change and its social and ecological consequences, the demand for solidarity plays a major role. It is often referred to as the climate justice crisis. Therefore, solidarity can also be understood as a goal of education for sustainable development (ESD). In this context, ESD, which also sees itself as a concept of transformational education, prefers above all elements of a disruptive pedagogy through which students are to be led to new perspectives - for example, to solidarity with the victims of the consequences of climate change. The article takes up this concern of ESD, but would like to look at the educational goal of solidarity from the perspective of a responsive pedagogy. The starting point for this would not be the goals of ESD in the first place, but the needs of children and young people, as Ehrenhard Skiera has highlighted them in the context of his responsive pedagogy. Against this background, the article asks about the possibilities and preconditions for learning processes based on solidarity.

Open access

The use of organic fertilization is declining in Hungary due to the sharp fall of livestock stand since the middle of the 1980s. Most farmers are forced to use solely chemical crop enhancers. A bifactorial small plot experiment was carried out between 10 May 2023 and 19 October 2023 in Keszthely, in order to examine the effects of farmyard manure (M), green manure (GM) and stem residues (SR) on the nutrient uptake and nitrogen utilization efficiencies of maize at equidistantly increasing (0–70–140–210–280 kg N ha–1) nitrogen doses. The relationship between some vegetative traits (dry biomass weight, Leaf Area Index (LAI)) and yield, furthermore leaf relative water content (RWC) was also examined. According to the results, organic fertilizer substitution significantly increased the N content both in whole plant and grain samples of NPK+M and NPK+GM+SR treatments, compared to the chemically fertilized control (NPK). In case of P and K only slight differences were observed. Whole plant K contents of NPK+M were significantly higher than in the other treatments (P = 0.045; P = 0,005), furthermore P contents in grain samples were significantly higher in NPK+M (P = 0.004) and NPK+GM+SR (P = 0.05) than in control. Harvest index (HI [%]) of NPK+M and NPK+GM+SR were 1.06 and 1.05 times higher than in NPK. Depending on the treatment, P0023 maize hybrid absorbed 58.7–74.64% of total N uptake in the grain (HIN%), and the utilization of 1 kg N fertilizer for the extra yield above the yield of the individual control was 0.39–1.38 kg (AREN). Significant positive correlations were observed between dry biomass weight and yield (NPK: r = 0.937, P = 0.019; NPK+M: r = 0.971, P = 0.006; NPK+GM+SR: r = 0.88, P = 0.049), furthermore LAI and yield (NPK: r = 0.9, P = 0.037; NPK+M: r = 0.983, P = 0.003; NPK+GM+SR: r = 0.784, P = 0.117). Highest RWC values – which may be related to better soil aggregate stability – were measured in NPK+GM+SR treatment, therefore there may be a great potential in this treatment among drought conditions. The effect of organic amendments is particularly noticeable with smaller nitrogen doses so they should be used to reduce inorganic fertilizer application and the resulting environmental risks.

Open access

Abstract

Steviol glycosides (SGs) are natural sweeteners derived from stevia leaves, which have various applications in food and beverage products. The extraction efficiency of SGs depends on several factors, such as solvent type, solid to solvent ratio, centrifugal force, and temperature. This study aimed to compare the effects of different solvents (ethanol and water) and leaf moisture (dry and fresh) on the extraction efficiency of major steviol glycosides (SGs) of rebaudioside A (Reb A), stevioside (ST), and rebaudioside C (Reb C) in stevia (var. Levent 93) plant. A Box–Behnken design was used to optimise the extraction parameters for each extraction type. The results showed that ethanol was a more effective solvent than water, however, aqueous extraction was more environmentally friendly and low-cost, and could also yield high concentrations of SGs when fresh leaves were used. The major SGs had similar concentrations in ethanolic extraction, but Reb A was twice as high as ST in aqueous extraction. Reb C was influenced by the solid to solvent ratio in both extraction types, but more so in water extraction. Temperature had a positive effect on ST and Reb C in water extraction of fresh leaves, but not in water extraction of dry leaves or ethanolic extraction. The results of this study contribute to the optimisation of SGs extraction from stevia leaves and provide insights for future research on the effects of different solvents and extraction parameters on the quality and purity of SGs.

Restricted access

Abstract

Klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the most prevalent bacteria causing urinary tract infections (UTIs). Its increasing resistance to a wide array of antibiotics limits available treatment options. This study investigated the characteristics and trends of antimicrobial resistance in K. pneumoniae isolated from UTIs in Crete, Greece, during 2017 and 2022. Among the 11,946 Enterobacteriaceae isolated from urine specimens, a total of 1,771 K. pneumoniae isolates were identified (14.8%), with an isolation frequency secondary to Escherichia coli (66.3%). K. pneumoniae isolates increased over the years, with a peak in the year 2022. Higher resistance rates were detected in ciprofloxacin (41%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) (38.1%) and nitrofurantoin (33.9%). Resistance to ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, tigecycline, and TMP/SMX significantly increased from 33.7%, 24%, 6%, and 33.1%, respectively, over the years 2017–2019, to 47.8%, 34.2%, 14.3% and 42.8%, respectively, over the period 2020–2022. ESBL production and carbapenem resistance were decreased by 2.2% and 3.7%, respectively, over the two three-year periods (2017–2019 and 2020–2022). Among the 278 carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae (CRKP) isolates, 164 (59%), 66 (23.7%), 18 (6.5%) and 16 (5.8%) were positive for KPC, NDM, VIM and OXA-48 enzymes, respectively. Only 14 (5%) isolates harboured two carbapenemase genes, namely 10 (3.6%) both bla NDM and bla VIM, and 4 (1.4%) both bla KPC and bla NDM. Females, inpatients and the elderly were more frequently affected by CRKP. The frequency of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) isolates were 32.6% and 7.7%, respectively. Continuous surveillance of local microbial prevalence and monitoring of antimicrobial resistance patterns provide critical information to guide the empiric therapy for UTIs and control the spread of MDR bacteria.

Restricted access

Abstract

Both onion and shallot are the most common ingredients to use for many recipes. Consuming onion and shallot provide health benefits including antidiabetic effects. However, the benefits of onion and shallot mixture at different ratios have not been studied in terms of total phenolic content, total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity, and antidiabetic effects. Our study revealed that shallot significantly increased total phenolic content in the mixture from 492 ± 32 μg mL−1 (100% v/v onion) to 803 ± 24 μg mL−1 (100% v/v shallot) depending on the ratios of shallot in the mixture. Shallot also significantly enhanced total antioxidant capacity, SOD-like activity, α-amylase inhibition, and α-glucosidase inhibition in the mixture. Shallot juice exhibited the highest percentage inhibition of α-amylase activity (40.51 ± 1.57%) and α-glucosidase activity (89.61 ± 2.85%) in comparison to those of onion juice and the mixture. In addition, significant positive correlation between phenolic compound and different variables was observed (P < 0.05). Phenolic compounds present in onion and shallot are probably responsible for many health benefits including antidiabetic effects.

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