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Abstract

The impact of the Russian-Ukrainian war on energy prices contributed significantly to European price increases in 2022. The study aims to find a linkage between the performance of 24 EU countries during the energy inflation crisis and their preparedness, vulnerability or exposure. The verified hypotheses reflect on the role of initial conditions of countries and the one-year impact of energy inflation on their economic performance. The two-step analysis first creates six clusters of countries based on their energy, trade, financial and political vulnerability, and preparedness indicators. The second step is to explore the shifts of clusters in expectations on macroeconomic indicators. Specific patterns of country groups are explored in the value and evolution of wartime indicators of inflation, GDP growth, consumer and business confidence, as well as FX volatility. The exploration concludes that the entry variables of clustering are relevant, and the EU countries can be segmented by dependency, energy, financial, and political aspects. Thus, it is possible to verify the distance in risk and exposure among EU economies. The impact variables demonstrated that the extent of the inflationary effect depended on the initial conditions. In addition, the research identified protective short-term factors against energy inflation originating in a trade and war context.

Open access

Abstract

The sharing economy concept has been firmly incorporated into various scientific fields and applied broadly in practice. This paper aims to gain a detailed insight into the contemporary intellectual structure of the sharing economy in the fields of economics, business and management. Using a two-stage approach: a critical literature review and social network analysis (SNA), the dominant research niches and under-investigated issues within sharing economy were identified, along with the most influential authors and papers. Author collaboration and citation connection of papers have also been examined. It was concluded that sharing economy knowledge is gradually approaching the stage of maturity bearing in mind the growing number of articles, the presence of emerging research niches, as well as scarcity of approaches directed to purely quantitative analysis. Additionally, it was discovered that despite the study focus on the predefined research field, sharing economy concept exhibit a remarkable level of postdisciplinarity.

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Abstract

Economies have gone through several crises in the recent past. The most serious ones were the Covid-19 pandemic and the current Russian–Ukrainian war. Our paper aimed to identify and analyse the impacts and consequences of the pandemic and the war on the manufacturing sector of the Czech Republic. A literature review, based on the analysis and synthesis of the scientific sources, served as a platform for determining research questions and hypotheses. The article summarizes the research results of the research team in October – November 2022. The gap between the outbreak of the war and the implementation of the research was 7 months. The chi-square test, Cramer's coefficient, and exact binomial test were used to verify the statistical dependencies of the research questions and hypotheses. Attention is also focused on risk prevention, as research results show that there has been a sharp increase in the supplier and personnel risks.

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Abstract

One of the objectives of fiscal policy is to ensure a fair income distribution. In the literature there is no consensus on the income inequality – fiscal policy nexus. Unlike previous studies, this paper contributes to the literature by quantifying the moderating effect of income inequality in total tax revenues and gross national expenditures which are defined as fiscal policy tools. With the help of two moderator variables (income inequality*total tax revenues, and income inequality*gross national expenditures), the impact of income inequality and fiscal policy tools on economic growth are tested for 20 Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries from 1990 to 2019. Diagnostic tests are also carried out on the series before long-term relationships are determined. Our analysis finds that the inequality-growth relationship is negative, the moderator variable defined as income inequality * total tax revenues decreases the strength of the relationship, and the moderator variable defined as income inequality * gross national expenditures increases the strength of the relationship.

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Abstract

Since the time of classical economists, investment decisions hold centre stage in economic theory. In this article, we integrate classical economists' perspectives on the determinants of investment with the Keynesian theory of effective demand. For this purpose, we employ variables to capture the effects of profitability, the state of demand, and the financial and risk conditions using time series data from 17 major OECD economies spanning the 1960–2017 period. Two are the salient features of our article: The first is the use as profitability variables, the marginal efficiency of capital or the incremental rate of return, and the second is the use of regime changes and respective threshold values for these two key variables. The econometric results show that the profitability variables are decisive in shaping investment decisions and designating phase changes.

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The revival of comparative economic systems research

Reflections inspired by the recent publication of the collected works of Domenico Mario Nuti

Acta Oeconomica
Author:
László Csaba

Abstract

This essay offers an overview of the state and perspectives of comparative economics in Europe. The starting point is the publication of the collected works of Mario Nuti, but the overview covers several Handbooks and collections as well as individual contributions. The big picture of the post-transition period highlights the relevance of “old” comparative economics, especially when interpreting illiberal practices in the post-communist Europe and the debate on the nature and limitations of the Chinese market socialism.

Open access

Abstract

The potency of economic sanctions imposed on nations depends on demand and supply adjustment possibilities. Adverse GDP impacts will be maximal when import, export, production, distribution and finance are inflexible (universal non-substitution). This paper elaborates these conditions, and quantifies the maximum GDP loss that Western sanctions could have inflicted on Russia in 2022–2023. It reports the World Bank's predictions, contrasts them with results and draws inferences about the efficiency of Russia's workably competitive markets. The paper shows that Russia's economic system exhibits moderate universal substitutability and is less vulnerable to punitive discipline than Western policymakers suppose. The likelihood that the Kremlin will restore Ukraine's territorial integrity, ceteris paribus, is correspondingly low. The authors also observe that unintended adverse side effects from sanctions and counter-sanctions were excessive because policymakers chose to maximize GDP-damage to Russia instead of optimizing Western and third-party net benefits. Given moderate substitutability, Western policymakers can switch to smart net benefit maximizing sanctions that enhance Western and third-party welfare without significantly bolstering Russia's military industrial productivity and war-waging capabilities by retaining embargoes on weapons, technology and critical components, while selectively softening other restrictions. Smart sanctions might facilitate a negotiated settlement of the Russo–Ukrainian war.

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Abstract

This article focuses on mortgage interest deduction (MID) as an indirect tax support for acquiring one's housing. This form of support is the most widely used in the Czech Republic compared to other tax reliefs and causes the highest losses for the government budget. This paper provides quantitative evidence on how the MID was distributed among taxpayers in the Czech Republic in the period 2008–2019 in relation to taxable income and revenue losses for the government budget. Furthermore, it assesses the effectiveness of these tax measures in reducing socioeconomic inequalities among taxpayers. Research based on the application of the MID in tax returns has shown the effective distribution of the MID until 2017. Tax support for housing was used mainly by taxpayers with low taxable income, which is also the largest group. The essence of vertical equity has been fulfilled, which contributed to reducing the level of social inequality. This positive distributional effect has diminished over time. As of 2019, the highest share of public expenditure was redistributed to taxpayers with higher taxable income, indicating the existence of inequalities in the tax system. The different developments over time have shown that the use of the mortgage interest deduction cannot be assessed statically, as it evolves dynamically over time.

Open access

Abstract

The topic of the research is whether better human capital, as determined by secondary school learning outcomes measured by PISA scores, promotes economic growth. The literature often uses the PISA results as a proxy for growth, while its use and impact on growth are not empirically proven. These questions are analyzed through two hypotheses. The first hypothesis (H1) states that in a worldwide sample of countries, GDP per capita growth between 2006 and 2019 was positively impacted by rising PISA results. The second hypothesis (H2) states that between 2006 and 2019, the rise in PISA scores in East Asia had a stronger influence on economic growth than in the rest of the world. The study examines 59 nations that have administered two PISA tests during the period of 2006–2019. The findings imply that there is generally no causal connection between PISA results and growth and the PISA results play no additional role in the development of East Asian nations. The results can be explained in two ways. The first is that human capital includes more than just skills. The second is that the data only covers a short period of time, which may limit the analysis of long-term patterns.

Open access

Abstract

This study investigates the impact of review quality (a situational stimulus) on consumers' risk perception and purchase intention in cross-border e-commerce based on the Stimulus-Organism-Response (SOR) model. In doing so, quantitative research involving 400 Hungarian respondents was performed. The data were analysed using composite-based structural equation modelling (SEM). The study concludes that an experience created through highly qualified online reviews of previous consumers has a significant effect on mitigating consumers' risk perception while increasing their purchase intentions. The study also differentiates two aspects of risk, including perceived risk and affective risk, and reveals the two-fold mechanism of the decision-making journey. These results enrich the existing literature by supporting the use of the SOR model and introducing review quality as a situational stimulus to explain consumers' risk perception and purchase behaviours in cross-border e-commerce. Additionally, the study also provides valuable guidance in website design that can stimulate purchasing while lowering online perceived risk.

Open access