Authors:Kazem Mohammadpour, Mitra Moezipour, and Arman Avand-Faghih
The box tree moth, Cydalima perspectalis, is the most important pest of the box tree in the world. The use of pheromone is expected to reduce use of chemical pesticides in C. perspectalis. In this study, the efficiency of three different types of traps including funnel, wing and delta traps at two installation heights (2 and 4 m above the ground) and also dynamic activity of C. perspectalis at different elevations above sea level was investigated in Mazandaran province (Iran) in 2018 and 2019 seasons. The results showed that funnel traps in comparison with the other two types of traps (delta and wing) captured significantly more C. perspectalis. However, trap height had no effect on trapping. C. perspectalis was active in the box reservoir at different elevations above sea level.
Authors:Sundoss Kabalan, Katalin Juhos, Eszter Tóth, and Borbála Biró
Cover crops serve as an essential source of nutrients in the soil and generally improve the soil’s properties. Cover crops’ production is considered a benefit of the soil quality; by protecting the soil from erosion, reducing the weeds and the so-called soil-borne plant pathogens. Different varieties of cover crops can be cultivated such as legumes, non-legumes, brassica, and grass-type of plants with a variability of the symbiosis. A pot experiment was carried out with five cover crops, as non-symbiont (Brassica carinata B.c.), single-symbiont with arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) (Phacelia tanacetifolia P.t., Avena strigosa A.s.) and double symbiont with AMF and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (Vicia benghalensis V.b., Vicia faba V.f.) crops; and a mixture of the five species, placed in sandy soil (arenosol) in plastic pots (5000 g soil) in 4 repetitions. One of the pots with mixed cover crops was inoculated by AM fungi industrial product. We measured soil biological activity of dehydrogenase (DHA) and fluorescein-diacetate (FDA) enzymes, the frequency of AM fungi (F%), the all protein, glomalin content and electrical conductivity (EC) of the soils. Mixture of all the cover crops resulted maximum EC and significantly enhanced the enzymatic, DHA, FDA activities in comparison with single plants. Mycorrhiza colonization frequency was high in all cover crops except the mustard (B.c.), as nonsymbiont. Vetch (V.b.), as double symbiont was responding very positively to AMF inoculation, and enhanced the performance of its growth. It was found in the pot experiment, that vetch, has the highest capacity to retain soil-protein, glomalin concentration, as well. The mixture of five cover crops could be suggested to use, due to the synergistic positive performance of the individual crops, and the better functioning of beneficial fungal / bacterial symbiosis.
Authors:László Simon, Marianna Makádi, Zsuzsanna Uri, Szabolcs Vigh, Katalin Irinyiné-Oláh, György Vincze, and Csilla Tóth
Open-field small plot long-term experiment was set up during 2011 with willow (Salix triandra × S. viminalis ‘Inger’), grown as a short rotation coppice energy crop in Nyíregyháza, Hungary. The sandy loam Cambisol with neutral pH was treated three times (2011, 2013, and 2016) with 15 t ha–1 municipal sewage sludge compost (MSSC) and with 600 kg ha–1 (2011, 2013) or 300 kg ha–1 (2016) wood ash (WA). In 2018 the MSSC-treated plots were amended with 7.5 t ha–1 municipal sewage sediment (MSS), and 300 kg ha–1 WA. MSSC and WA or MSS and WA were also applied to the soil in combinations during all treatments. Control plots remained untreated since 2011. Repeated application of wastewater solids (MSSC, MSS) and wood ash (WA) significantly enhanced the amounts of As (up to +287%), Ba, Cd (up to +192%), Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn in the topsoil of willows. The combined application of MSSC+MSS+WA resulted in significantly higher Mn and Zn and lower As Ba, Cd Cr, and Pb concentrations in topsoil than MSSC+MSS treatment of soil without WA. Nitrogen concentrations in leaves of treated plants were generally slightly lower or similar to control. All soil treatments significantly enhanced the uptake or accumulation of nutrient elements (Ca, K, Mg, P) and potentially toxic elements (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the leaves of willows during 2018, 2019, and 2020. Significantly higher Mn or Zn concentrations were measured in MSSC+MSS+WA than in MSSC+MSS treatments. Significant amounts of Cd (up to 1.11 mg kg–1) or Zn (up to 183 mg kg–1) can be translocated (phytoextracted) from a soil amended with wastewater solids or wood ash to willow leaves. In 2018 the treatments decreased the chlorophyll fluorescence values, while in 2019 and 2020 the light adapted fluorescence yield (Y) values were higher in treated than in control plants.
Authors:Zoltán Győri, Péter Sipos, Judit Szepesi, and Norbert Boros
In this study PTEs, [potentially toxic elements (Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn)] were investigated in the upper layer of floodplain soils that occurred as a result of accident in the area of two mine tailings in Northwestern Romania. A large amount of sediment was deposited on the soil of floodplains along the Hungarian section of River Tisza, which could represent a threat to the environment. Floodplain soil samples were collected from four locations in Hungary from an area of the river stretching to about 250 km. BCR (Bureau Communautaire de Référence) sequential extraction method was used to analyze both post-flood and present samples. Most of the analyzed elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) were found in the residual fraction, but there is a notable soluble amount in hydroxylammonium chloride extractable fraction. The results allow a comparison of the changes that have taken place over time, in addition to serving as a basis for further studies.
Evaluation studies investigated the leverage effects of beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) on the long-termed toxicity of cypermethrin 25% EC, sulfoxaflor 24% SC, acetamiprid 20% SL and chlorfenapyr 24% SC against adults of Thrips tabaci laboratory strain (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) (Lindeman, 1889) from 8 up to 40 °C. Laboratory studies showed no toxicity for β-CD alone at all tested concentrations. Concentrations of β-CD at 1.25 and 2.50 gm L−1 had potent leverage effects on the LC50s of cypermethrin within 30–35 °C and sulfuxoflor at 40 °C. β-CD at 0.5 gm L−1 had no leverage effect on tested insecticides. All the tested concentrations of β-CD decreased the toxicity of acetamiprid. Semi-field trials (≥28 °C) along 12 days declared that β-CD (equivalent to 1.25 gm L−1) increased the overall mean mortality percentages of 0.5 FRs of cypermethrin (73.08%) and sulfoxaflor (54.74%) compared to their 0.5 FRs alone of 63.70 and 44.30%, respectively in season 2020. While in season 2021, only cypermethrin at 0.5 FR + β-CD (74.45%) surpassed its 0.5FR (61.83%). Lethal times (LT50) values in semi-field trials showed a prolonged residual toxicity periods for the 0.5 FRs of cypermethrin + β-CD (8.58 days) and sulfoxaflor + β-CD (4.80 days) compared to their 0.5 FRs of 6.65 and 3.24 days, respectively in season, 2020. Furthermore, LT50 values of the 0.5 FRs of cypermethrin + β-CD (9.02 days) and sulfoxaflor + β-CD (7.34 days) exceeded their 0.5 FRs of 6.24 and 4.07 days, respectively in 2021. Thus β-CD could realize leverage efficacy and longer-termed toxicity for cypermethrin and sulfoxaflor in high temperatures.
Authors:D.T.B. Thuy, N.T. An, V. Jayasena, and P. Vandamme
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a four-carbon non-protein amino acid, is widely known to have multiple physiological functions. The present study aimed to investigate the cultivation parameters for GABA production by a lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strain isolated from a tuna gut sample. Among 60 tuna gut LAB, only 7 Limosilactobacillus fermentum isolates, i.e. NG01, NG12, NG13, NG14, NG16, NG23, and NG27, were capable of GABA fermentation, with NG16 being the most potent GABA producer. The GABA production by isolate NG16 was therefore thoroughly characterised. The optimal batch culture conditions for GABA production were an initial cell density of 5×106 CFU mL−1, a monosodium glutamate concentration of 2%, an initial pH of 7, a fermentation temperature of 35 °C, and an incubation time of 96 h. Under this cultivation conditions, NG16 produced a maximum GABA yield of 25.52 ± 0.41 mM.
Authors:Á. Ribárszki, D. Székely, B. Szabó-Nótin, B. Góczán, L. Friedrich, Q.D. Nguyen, and M. Máté
Quality and storability are crucial factors in production of apple juice. The main goal of this study was investigation of the effects of ascorbic acid and acerola juice on the changes of some sensorial parameters and bioactive compounds of aseptically filled and industrial scale produced apple juice during storage for 12 months. While the viscosity and pH of apple juice did not change significantly, the ΔE* peaked (20–30) at month 6 of the storage period. The colour of apple juice was lighter than at the beginning of storage. Maximum total phenolic contents were 1,100, 1,400, and 1,250 mg L−1 in the control, ascorbic acid supplemented, and acerola added samples, respectively. Other parameters (antioxidant capacity, ascorbic acid, browning index, etc.) peaked in month 4. Acerola was a good alternative anti-browning and antioxidant agent for the treatment of apple juice in the processing. The antioxidant capacity of apple juice treated with acerola was higher than with ascorbic acid. The results were obtained with industrial samples, thus, they can serve as a very good base for the optimisation process and industrial production without the need for scale-up.
Authors:E. El Chami, J. El Chami, Á. Tarnawa, K.M. Kassai, Z. Kende, and M. Jolánkai
Fusarium spp. are phytopathogens causing fusarium head blight in wheat. They produce mycotoxins, mainly fumonisins, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone. The study was conducted during two growing seasons (2020 and 2021) at the experimental field and laboratories of the Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences (MATE). The aim of the study was to determine the influence of growing season, nitrogen fertilisation, and wheat variety on Fusarium infection and mycotoxin production in wheat kernel. Zearalenone was not detected during the two growing seasons and deoxynivalenol was only detected in 2020. The results indicate that nitrogen fertilisation and wheat variety did not have statistically significant influence on Fusarium infection and mycotoxin production. The growing season had statistically significant influence on Fusarium infection and fumonisins production due to higher rainfall in 2021 compared to 2020 during the flowering period when the wheat spike is the most vulnerable to Fusarium infection.
Pulse beetle, Callosobruchus spp. are the major threat in legume grain (pulse) storage. They are very prolific and rapid in breeding and increasing their population within short period of time. Its infestation starts either in the field on the maturing pod and is carried to the stores with the harvested crops or it originates in the storage itself. If appropriate management is not adopted, then it can damage 100% of stored pulses within few months of storage. On an average they cause 5–10% pulse crop losses in the temperate and 20–30% in the tropical countries during storage. Here this article is intended to discuss their distribution, host plants, life cycle, damage symptoms, ecology, economic impact and their management by recent and effective techniques.
Authors:B. Schmidt-Szantner, M. Gasztonyi, P. Milotay, and R. Tömösközi-Farkas
A three-year (2016–2018) open field experiment was conducted to study the effect of irrigation, fertilisation, and seasonal variation on the main bioactive components, such as carotenoids (lycopene and β-carotene), total polyphenols, antioxidant capacity, and tocopherols of processed Uno Rosso F1 tomato. The statistical evaluation of measurements proved that the multi-year data set cannot be evaluated as combined data set; the values obtained in different years must be evaluated separately. The impact of irrigation on the content of bioactive components varied from year to year. The correlation was negative between irrigation and α-tocopherol content in 2016 and 2018 (r = –0.567 and –0.605, respectively), polyphenol content in 2016 (r = –0.668), γ-tocopherol content in 2017 (r = –0.662), while positive correlation was observed between concentration of vitamin C (r = 0.533) in 2017, lycopene content (r = 0.473) in 2018 and irrigation intensity. A weak correlation was proved between K levels and concentrations of lycopene and polyphenols in 2016 (r = 0.301 and r = 0.392, respectively).