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We introduce the two new concepts, productly linearly independent sequences and productly irrational sequences. Then we prove a criterion for which certain infinite sequences of rational numbers are productly linearly independent. As a consequence we obtain a criterion for the irrationality of infinite products and a criterion for a sequence to be productly irrational.

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The present note will present a different and direct way to generalize the convexity while keep the classical results for L 1-convergence still alive.

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The Separation Problem, originally posed by K. Bezdek in [1], asks for the minimum number s(O, K) of hyperplanes needed to strictly separate an interior point O in a convex body K from all faces of K. It is conjectured that s(O, K) ≦ 2d in d-dimensional Euclidean space. We prove this conjecture for the class of all totally-sewn neighbourly 4-dimensional polytopes.

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A remarkable class of quadratic irrational elements having both explicit Engel series and continued fraction expansions in the field of Laurent series, mimicking the case of real numbers discovered by Sierpiński and later extended by Tamura, is constructed. Linear integer-valued polynomials which can be applied to construct such class are determined. Corresponding results in the case of real numbers are mentioned.

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R. P. Stanley proved the Upper Bound Conjecture in 1975. We imitate his proof for the Ehrhart rings.

We give some upper bounds for the volume of integrally closed lattice polytopes. We derive some inequalities for the δ-vector of integrally closed lattice polytopes. Finally we apply our results for reflexive integrally closed and order polytopes.

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The modified method of estimation of the resistance of block ciphers to truncated byte differential attack is proposed. The previously known method estimate the truncated byte differential probability for Rijndael-like ciphers. In this paper we spread the sphere of application of that method on wider class of ciphers. The proposed method based on searching the most probable truncated byte differential characteristics and verification of sufficient conditions of effective byte differentials absence.

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Multiplicative complexity is the minimum number of AND-gates required to implement a given Boolean function in (AND, XOR) algebra. It is a good measure of a hardware complexity of an S-box, but an S-box cannot have too low multiplicative complexity due to security constraints. In this article we focus on generic constructions that can be used to find good n×n S-boxes with low multiplicative complexity. We tested these constructions in the specific case when n = 8. We were able to find 8 × 8 S-boxes with multiplicative complexity at most 16 (which is half of the known bound on multiplicative complexity of the AES S-box), while providing a reasonable resistance against linear and differential cryptanalysis.

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Since Gentry’s breakthrough result was introduced in the year 2009, the homomorphic encryption has become a very popular topic. The main contribution of Gentry’s thesis [5] was, that it has proven, that it actually is possible to design a fully homomorphic encryption scheme. However ground-breaking Gentry’s result was, the designs, that employ the bootstrapping technique suffer from terrible performance both in key generation and homomorphic evaluation of circuits. Some authors tried to design schemes, that could evaluate homomorphic circuits of arbitrarily many inputs without need of bootstrapping. This paper introduces the notion of symmetric homomorphic encryption, and analyses the security of four such proposals, published in three different papers ([2], [7], [10]). Our result is a known plaintext key-recovery attack on every one of these schemes.

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HaF is a family of hash functions developed in Poland at Poznán University of Technology, see [1, 2]. It is a classical Merkle-Damgård construction with the output sizes of 256, 512 or 1024 bits. In this paper we present a collision attack with negligible complexity (collisions can be found without using a computer) for all the members of HaF family. We have also shown that the improved function (without the critical transformation) is still insecure. It is possible to find a preimage for a short message with the complexity lower than the exhaustive search. We are also able to create some fixed points with a complexity of single compression function call.

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New multivariate cryptosystems are introduced. Sequences f(n) of bijective polynomial transformations of bijective multivariate transformations of affine spaces K n, n = 2, 3, ... , where K is a finite commutative ring with special properties, are used for the constructions of cryptosystems. On axiomatic level, the concept of a family of multivariate maps with invertible decomposition is proposed. Such decomposition is used as private key in a public key infrastructure. Requirements of polynomiality of degree and density allow to estimate the complexity of encryption procedure for a public user. The concepts of stable family and family of increasing order are motivated by studies of discrete logarithm problem in Cremona group. Statement on the existence of families of multivariate maps of polynomial degree and polynomial density with the invertible decomposition is formulated. We observe known explicit constructions of special families of multivariate maps. They correspond to explicit constructions of families of nonlinear algebraic graphs of increasing girth which appeared in Extremal Graph Theory. The families are generated by pseudorandom walks on graphs. This fact ensures the existence of invertible decomposition; a certain girth property guarantees the increase of order for the family of multivariate maps, good expansion properties of families of graphs lead to good mixing properties of graph based private key algorithms. We describe the general schemes of cryptographic applications of such families (public key infrastructure, symbolic Diffie—Hellman protocol, functional versions of El Gamal algorithm).

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