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Let S be a set of n points distributed uniformly and independently in a convex, bounded set in the plane. A four-gon is called empty if it contains no points of S in its interior. We show that the expected number of empty non-convex four-gons with vertices from S is 12n 2logn + o(n 2logn) and the expected number of empty convex four-gons with vertices from S is Θ(n 2).

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This paper attempts an exposition of the connection between valuation theory and hyperstructure theory. In this regards, by considering the notion of totally ordered canonical hypergroup we define a hypervaluation of a hyperfield onto a totally ordered canonical hypergroup and obtain some related basic results.

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We provide sufficient conditions for a mapping acting between two Banach spaces to be a diffeomorphism. We get local diffeomorhism by standard method while in making it global we employ a critical point theory and a duality mapping. We provide application to integro-differential initial value problem for which we get differentiable dependence on parameters.

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We obtain new lower and upper bounds for probabilities of unions of events. These bounds are sharp. They are stronger than earlier ones. General bounds may be applied in arbitrary measurable spaces. We have improved the method that has been introduced in previous papers. We derive new generalizations of the first and second parts of the Borel-Cantelli lemma.

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It is proved that there exists an NI ring R over which the polynomial ring R[x] is not an NLI ring. This answers an open question of Qu and Wei (Stud. Sci. Math. Hung., 51(2), 2014) in the negative. Moreover a sufficient condition of R[x] to be an NLI ring is included for an NLI ring R.

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A space X is almost star countable (weakly star countable) if for each open cover U of X there exists a countable subset F of X such that \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $\bigcup {_{x \in F}\overline {St\left( {x,U} \right)} } = X$ \end{document} (respectively, \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $\overline {\bigcup {_{x \in F}} St\left( {x,U} \right)} = X$ \end{document}. In this paper, we investigate the relationships among star countable spaces, almost star countable spaces and weakly star countable spaces, and also study topological properties of almost star countable spaces.

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Let G be a nilpotent group with finite abelian ranks (e.g. let G be a finitely generated nilpotent group) and suppose φ is an automorphism of G of finite order m. If γ and ψ denote the associated maps of G given by
\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $$\gamma :g \mapsto g^{ - 1} \cdot g\phi and \psi :g \mapsto g \cdot g\phi \cdot g\phi ^2 \cdots \cdot \cdot g\phi ^{m - 1} for g \in G,$$ \end{document}
then · kerγ and · ker ψ are both very large in that they contain subgroups of finite index in G.
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Let
\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $$\mathbb{F}_q ((X^{ - 1} ))$$ \end{document}
denote the formal field of all formal Laurent series x = Σ n=ν a n X n in an indeterminate X, with coefficients a n lying in a given finite field
\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $$\mathbb{F}_q$$ \end{document}
. For any
\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $$\beta \in \mathbb{F}_q ((X^{ - 1} ))$$ \end{document}
with deg β > 1, it is known that for almost all
\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $$x \in \mathbb{F}_q ((X^{ - 1} ))$$ \end{document}
(with respect to the Haar measure), x is β-normal. In this paper, we show the inverse direction, i.e., for any x, for almost all
\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $$\beta \in \mathbb{F}_q ((X^{ - 1} ))$$ \end{document}
, x is β-normal.
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In the paper, the authors introduce a new concept of geometrically r-convex functions and establish some inequalities of Hermite-Hadamard type for this class of functions.

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We prove:

  1. (A) Let
    \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $$\Delta _c (x) = \log \frac{{\Gamma (x + 1)}}{{\sqrt {2\pi } (x/e)^x }} - \frac{1}{2}\psi (x + c) (x > 0; c \geqq 0).$$ \end{document}
    1. (i) −Δc is completely monotonic on (0, ∞) if and only if c ≧ 2/3.
    2. (ii) Δc is completely monotonic on (0, ∞) if and only if c = 0.
  2. (B) The inequalities
    \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $$\frac{1}{2}\psi (x + a_0 ) < \log \frac{{\Gamma (x + 1)}}{{\sqrt {2\pi } (x/e)^x }} < \frac{1}{2}\psi (x + b_0 )$$ \end{document}
    hold for all x > 0 with the best possible constants a 0 = 0.52660… and b 0 = 2/3.

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