Browse

You are looking at 21 - 30 of 1,715 items for :

  • Architecture and Architectonics x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All

Abstract

This work aims to highlight gravity segmental retaining walls with their varied advantages. The paper investigates the dynamic behavior analysis of segmental retaining walls. The stability analysis is conducted on the basis of a pseudo-static Mononobe-Okabe theory that provides safety factors against sliding and overturning failure. The results demonstrate that the crucial safety factor of internal stability is the safety factor against overturning. Moreover, the positive wall inclination angle contributes to an improvement in the stability of the segmental retaining walls and the effect of the vertical seismic coefficient on the stability can be disregarding. Finally, a new equation is proposed for the elementary design of the segmental retaining walls.

Open access

Methods for Creating an Architectural and Artistic Image of Penitentiary Complexes

Módszerek büntetés-végrehajtási intézetek építészeti és művészi arculatának kialakítására

Építés - Építészettudomány
Author:
Yuliia Tretiak

The analysis of the world experience in the design, construction, and operation of penitentiary complexes revealed an urgent need to modernize the architectural environment of correctional institutions in post-Soviet countries. Several problems of the life of modern correctional institutions have been identified, namely: the inconsistency of the quality of their architectural environment with the modern needs of the penitentiary system; low level of adaptability and flexibility of urban planning, functional planning, and subject-spatial forms; morally outdated, emotionally negative, unaesthetic architectural and artistic image of penitentiary buildings and complexes. The purpose of this study was to identify traditional and innovative methods and means of forming an architectural and artistic image of penitentiary complexes for their further use in the field, covering their design and modernization. Based on the functional-typological and socio-psychological requirements, the criteria for harmonizing the architectural environment were determined and the patterns, methods, and means of creating a humane aesthetic architectural and artistic image of such complexes.

Restricted access

Abstract

This study focuses on exploring the impact of urban forms and vegetation combination patterns on the microclimate in a complex urban environment. Results shown that the closed urban form has higher air temperature resulting in pedestrians are easier to feel heat stress; instead, the open urban form usually has higher wind speed. Vegetation can effectively reduce wind speed while reducing the change rate of the mean radiant temperature. However, the effect on air temperature and humidity are most distinct in the morning. Trees and shrubs could improve the surrounding thermal comfort conditions by reducing heat stress, but this effect depends on the density of the leaf area. More importantly, study has not found that the ground cover plants contribute to the improvement of thermal comfort.

Open access

Abstract

This paper classifies the architecture, engineering, and construction enterprises in the South Transdanubia Region, Hungary, according to the size and function of the firms. It is a primary step for later investigation about the implementation of building information modeling in small and medium-sized enterprises within the region. It introduces digital construction in the sector, includes most construction firms based in the region, and systematically gathers data. It analyzes the data to introduce a new sorting method based on the local construction market, unlike the international classification, which leans on the global perspective.

Open access

Abstract

This paper focuses on the relationship between the composition of foam glass and its thermal conductivity and density. In this experimental research, three levels of glass particle size and foaming agent (SiC) quantity were tested. The results showed that the thermal conductivity increased by increasing the ratio of fine glass particles. On the contrary, the thermal conductivity was not affected by changing the foaming agent weight ratio. The density of foam glass increased by decreasing the foaming agent ratio, and there was no linear relation between the size of glass particles and the density of foam glass.

Open access

Abstract

Scour is the leading cause of bridge collapse beneath any bridge pier located within the waterway. A numerical-based hydraulic model named the Hydrologic Engineering Centre River Analysis System and a mathematical model of the Florida Department of Transport were implemented to investigate their performance and accuracy in estimating the maximum scour depth beneath bridge piers where large and small-scale physical prototypes are used as a benchmark. The main findings are that a hydraulic model is an effective tool when employing the Colorado State University equation, which compares well with physical prototypes irrespective of the variation in piers' size and shape. Also, it has achieved more consistent results than the Froehlich and the Florida Department of Transport methodologies.

Open access

Abstract

In the present study, a comparison has been conducted to investigate the efficiency of using the near-surface mounted steel bars technique for strengthening and repairing the damaged reinforced concrete corbels. Three configurations for installing the steel bars have been considered; horizontal, diagonal, and combined. Results revealed that is better to use this technique within the early stages of loading. Moreover, results proved that the strengthening by the diagonal scheme yielded a better response in terms of cracking and failure loads with values of 166 and 95% relative to the control specimen. Also, it is found that for damage of 45%, the horizontal arrangement yielded the highest failure load of 99% whereas for damage of 65%, the diagonal system yielded the optimum value of 50% relative to the control specimen.

Restricted access

Abstract

Speech scrambler is used to transform clear speech into an unintelligible signal to prevent eavesdropping. The speech scrambling algorithm involves the permutation of speech segments depending on a specific permutation matrix which may be fixed or dynamic during encryption. A fixed permutation matrix is easy to break and has given high residual intelligibility in the scrambled signal. The proposed scheme used a particle swarm optimization algorithm to generate a dynamic permutation array that can attain a high degree of security. The outcome of the scrambled speech signal does not have any residual intelligibility, and the quality of the descrambled speech is extremely satisfying, with zero mean squared error.

Restricted access

Abstract

One of the most expensive components of constructing a cellular network is frequency planning. The cost of building and maintaining a network will be reduced if a set of base stations can be established with minimal service and preparation. Planning and optimization are carried out to guarantee that the scarce frequency is used to its maximum capability. The goal of this paper is to provide an autonomous method for planning and optimizing frequency in cellular networks. The method substitutes the inefficient, inaccurate, and time-consuming manual method. The automatic technique makes work easier for radio frequency (RF) engineers and lowers operating costs. Also, this article provides an autonomous planning and optimization technique that reduces intra-system interference levels to acceptable levels within the key performance indicators (KPIs) set for any suitable cellular network.

Open access

Abstract

A mathematical model is developed to determine the steady-state electric current flow through in non-homogeneous isotropic conductor whose shape has a three-dimensional hollow body. The equations of the Maxwell's theory of electric current flow in a non-homogeneous isotropic solid conductor body are used to formulate the corresponding electric boundary value problem. The determination of the steady motion of charges is based on the concept of the electrical conductance. The derivation of the upper and lower bound formulae for the electrical conductance is based on Cauchy-Schwarz inequality. Two numerical examples illustrate the applications of the derived upper and lower bound formulae.

Open access