Browse

You are looking at 21 - 30 of 61 items for :

  • Materials and Applied Sciences x
  • Social Sciences and Law x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All

Előszó

Foreword

Scientia et Securitas
Author: Valéria Csépe
Open access

Erőművek életciklus-elemzése a fajlagos anyagfelhasználás tükrében

Life-cycle analysis of power plants in the light of specific material use

Scientia et Securitas
Author: Zoltán Korényi

Összefoglaló. A dolgozat témája a különböző erőműfajták életciklusra vonatkozó fajlagos anyagigényének a vizsgálata. Az elemzések a nemzetközi szakirodalmi források felhasználásával történtek. Módszere, a bázisadatok elemzése, majd az anyagigényeknek az erőmű beépített teljesítményére és az életciklus alatt megtermelt villamosenergiára vonatkoztatott fajlagos értékek meghatározása. Az eredmények azt mutatják, hogy a nap- és szélerőművek elterjedésével a hagyományos erőművek által felhasznált fosszilis energiaforrások (pl. a szén) bent maradnak ugyan a földben, de cserébe az új technológia legyártásához a hagyományos anyagokból (beton, acél, alumínium, réz stb.) fajlagosan jóval nagyobb mennyiségekre lesz szükség. Emellett megnő a ritkán előforduló fémek (gallium, indium stb.) felhasználása, ami Európában, a lelőhelyek hiányában, új kockázatokkal jár.

Summary. The topic of the study is to determine the material use of different power plant types. This is a part of the known life cycle analysis (LCA). The aim of LCA is to determine the impact of human activity on nature. The procedure is described in the standards (ISO 14040/41/42/42). Under environmental impact we mean changes in our natural environment, air, water, soil pollution, noise and impacts on human health. In the LCA, the environmental impact begins with the opening of the mine, continues with the extraction and processing of raw materials, and then with the production of equipment, construction and installation of the power plant. This is followed by the commissioning and then operation of the power plants for 20-60 years, including maintenance. The cycle ends with demolition, which is followed by recycling of materials. The remaining waste is disposed of. This is the complex content of life cycle analysis. Its purpose is to determine the ecological footprint of man.

The method of the present study is to isolate a limited area from the complex LCA process. This means determining the amount of material needed to build different power plants, excluding mining and processing of raw materials. Commercially available basic materials are built into the power plant’s components.

The research is based on the literature available in the international area. The author studied these sources, analysed the data, and checked the authenticity. It was not easy because the sources from different times, for different power plants showed a lot of uncertainty. In overcoming the uncertainties, it was a help that the author has decades of experience in the realisation of power plants. It was considered the material consumption related to the installed electricity capacity of the power plant (tons/MW) as basic data.

The author then determined the specific material consumptions, allocated to the electric energy generated during the lifetime, in different power plants.

The calculation is carried out with the help of the usual annual peak load duration hours and the usual lifetime of the power plants.

The results show that with the spread of solar and wind energy, the fossil energy sources previously needed for conventional power plants will remain inside the Earth, but in exchange for the production of new technological equipment from traditional structural materials (concrete, steel, aluminium, copper and plastic), the special need multiplies. If we compare the power plants using renewable energy with the electric energy produced during the life cycle of a nuclear power plant, the specific installed material requirement of a river hydropower plant is 37 times, that of an onshore wind farm it is 9.6 times, and that of an outdoor solar power park is 6.6 times higher.

Another important difference is that wind turbines, solar panels and batteries also require rare materials that do not occur in Europe (e.g. gallium, indium, yttrium, neodymium, cobalt, etc.). This can lead to security risks in Europe in the long run.

Open access
Scientia et Securitas
Authors: Mónika Lakatos, Zita Bihari, Beatrix Izsák, and Olivér Szentes

Összefoglaló. A WMO 2021 elején kiadott állapotértékelője szerint a COVID–19 miatti korlátozások ellenére az üvegházhatású gázok légköri koncentrációja tovább emelkedett. A tengerszint emelkedés a közelmúltban gyorsult, rekordmagas volt a jégvesztés Grönlandon, az Antarktisz olvadása is gyorsulni látszik. Szélsőséges időjárás pusztított, élelmiszer-ellátási gondok léptek fel, és 2020-ban a COVID–19 hatásával együtt nőtt a biztonsági kockázat több régióban is. Az éghajlatváltozás felerősíti a meglévő kockázatokat, és újabb kockázatok is fellépnek majd a természeti és az ember által alkotott rendszerekben.

Az éghajlatváltozás hatása a hazai mérési sorokban is megjelenik. Az Országos Meteorológiai Szolgálat (OMSZ) homogenizált, ellenőrzött mérései szerint 1901 óta 1,2 °C-ot nőtt az évi középhőmérséklet. Két normál időszakot vizsgálva egyértelmű a magasabb hőmérsékletek felé tolódás, a csapadék éven belüli eloszlása megváltozott, az őszi másodmaximum eltűnőben van. Nőtt az aszályhajlam, gyakoribbá váltak a hőhullámok, intenzívebb a csapadékhullás, emiatt az éghajlatvédelemi intézkedések mellett a jól megalapozott alkalmazkodás is indokolt. A biztonsági kockázatok csökkenthetők az OMSZ és Országos Katasztrófavédelmi Főigazgatóság közötti együttműködés által.

Summary. The first part of the article gives an overview of the state of the global climate in 2020 based on the report compiled by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO, 2021) and network of partners from UN. According to this report, the 2020 was one of the three warmest years on record, despite a cooling La Niña event. The global mean temperature for 2020 (January to October) was 1.2 ± 0.1 °C above the 1850–1900 baseline, used as an approximation of pre-industrial levels. The latest six years have been the warmest on record. 2011-2020 was the warmest decade on record. The report on the “State of the Global Climate 2020” illustrates the state of the key indicators of the climate system, including greenhouse gas concentrations, increasing land and ocean temperatures, sea level rise, melting ice and glacier and extreme weather. It also highlights impacts on socio-economic development, migration and displacement and food security. All key climate indicators and associated impact information published in this report highlight continuing climate change, an increasing occurrence and intensification of extreme events, and severe losses and damage, affecting people, societies and economies. Extreme weather events triggered an estimated 10 000 000 displacements in 2020. Because of COVID-19 lockdowns, response and recovery operations were leading to delays in providing assistance. After decades of decline, the increase in food insecurity since 2014 is being driven by conflict and economic slowdown as well as climate variability and extreme weather events. Climate change will amplify existing risks and create new risks for natural and human systems. Risks are unevenly distributed and are generally greater for disadvantaged people and communities in countries at all levels of development.

The global changes have local effects in Hungary as it is shown in the second part of the article. The climate monitoring at the Hungarian Meteorological Service is based on measurements stored in the Climate data archive. We apply data management tools to produce high quality and representative datasets to prepare climate studies. The data homogenization makes possible to eliminate inhomogeneities due to change in the measuring practice and station movements. Applying spatial interpolation procedure for meteorological data provide the spatial representativeness of the climate data used for monitoring. The surface temperature increase is slightly higher in Hungary than the global change from 1901. The annual precipitation decreased by 3% from 1901, although this change is not significant statistically. The monthly temperatures shifted to warmer monthly averages in the most recent normal period between 1991 and 2020 comparing to the 1961–1990 in each months. The annual course of the monthly precipitations changed, especially autumn. The monthly sum in September and in October increased substantially. The frequency of heatwave days increased by more than two weeks in the Little Plain and in the southern part of the Great Hungarian Plain from 1981, which is the most intense warming period globally. The intensification of the precipitation in the recent years is obvious in our region. The cooperation of the Disaster Risk Management and the Hungarian Meteorological Service could expand the adaptive capacity of the society to climate change.

Open access

A gyógyszerkutatás új irányzatai: hatékonyság és biztonságosság

New directions in drug discovery: safety and efficiency

Scientia et Securitas
Author: András Kotschy

Összefoglaló. A betegségek mögött meghúzódó biokémiai, sejtbiológiai változások molekuláris szintű megértése a korszerű gyógyszerkutatás alapját képezi. A kiválasztott biológiai célpont, leggyakrabban egy fehérje, működésének gátlásától vagy fokozásától azt reméljük, hogy elősegíti a gyógyulást. A hagyományos gyógyszerkutatási megközelítések molekuláris alapját a kiválasztott fehérjével való közvetlen kölcsönhatás jelentette. Ugyanakkor a sejten belüli molekuláris biológiai folyamatok részletesebb megértése több új megközelítést nyitott a gyógyszerkutatás számára. A közlemény ezeket a gyógyszerkutatási irányzatokat mutatja be, külön kitérve biztonságosságukra.

Summary. Human diseases originate from and are accompanied by changes in the biochemistry of cells. The molecular level understanding of these deviations from normal functioning is key to the curing of the diseases, therefore a principal objective of drug discovery. The key-lock principle postulated by Emil Fischer serves well the understanding of most enzymatic processes and has been helping researchers both in academia and industry to discover new drugs. The binding of a small molecule to the target protein and inhibiting or activating its function is the basis for the efficient functioning of a long list of current drugs. Sometimes the desired biological effect comes from the selective action on a single protein, in other instances it is the combined effect on the working of several proteins. The appropriate selectivity profile is key to the safety and efficiency of the drug in both cases.

The completion of the Human Genome Project, in parallel with a significant improvement in the performance of the analytical instrumentation, increased our molecular and systemic level understanding of diseases immensely. Analysis of the differences between healthy and diseased cells and tissues led to the identification of new targets, a lot of which are not classical enzymes but proteins exerting their effect through molecular interactions with other proteins or nucleic acids. Although these proteins were considered undruggable some decades ago, their disease modifying potential led to the discovery of new approaches and modalities to target them. The inhibition of protein-protein interactions, for example, requires the selective targeting of hydrophobic surfaces, sometimes with very high affinity. Drug candidates acting through this molecular mechanism are typically beyond the size of classical drugs that might complicate their development.

Besides interacting directly with the protein of interest we might also impact its working through manipulating its quantity within the cell. Interference with the proteasomal degradation of cellular proteins, blocking its working, or hijacking it to selectively increase the degradation of our protein of choice are promising new modalities that are transitioning from research into clinical practice. Alternatively, one might also interfere with the transcriptional machinery. Selective blocking of the messenger RNA responsible for carrying the sequence information of the targeted protein by using so called antisense oligonucleotides, small interfering RNAs, or micro RNAs can result in a decreased synthesis of the protein. Appropriately designed oligonucleotides can also enhance protein synthesis or lead to an alteration of the sequence to synthesize for a given protein. Finally, we might also target the epigenetic regulatory machinery, which is in charge of unpacking the DNA double helix from its storage form and making it available for transcription. This interference typically leads to a more complex change, the parallel modulation of the level of several proteins at the same time.

Open access

Gyorsreagálás a pandémiára, ellátásbiztonság

Rapid response to pandemia, supply security

Scientia et Securitas
Author: István Greiner

Összefoglaló. A tavalyi évben kitört COVID–19 pandémia jelentős kihívások elé állította a világot. Nem pusztán a kormányok és az egészségügyi rendszerek szembesültek új, békeidőben eddig még nem gyakorolt feladatokkal, de a tudományos világnak is át kellett tekinteni mind a régi, mind a legmodernebb eszközöket ahhoz, hogy a vírus terjedésének, a betegek szenvedéseinek, a tömeges halálozásoknak végre véget lehessen vetni. Habár a járványnak még messze nincsen vége, és egyre újabb és újabb mutánsok ütik fel a fejüket a világ legkülönbözőbb részein, mégis azokat a tanulságokat, melyek már összegyűltek a gyógyszeripar területén, érdemes összefoglalni. Talán még ennél is fontosabb azonban, hogy azokat a hiányokat, amelyeket még be kell pótolni, szintén megemlítsük, hogy ezzel is segítsük az újabb hullámok vagy járványok leküzdését.

Summary. During the last 12 months the most serious issue was the SARS-CoV-2 virus generated pandemia around the world. There is no country which could be more or less intact and a huge amount of resources was sacrificed to rescue people from the fatal outcome of this disease. When it started a year ago or more, there were doubts about its future but later it was realised that this is an epidemic occurring worldwide, crossing international boundaries, and affecting a large number of people. According to the WHO, today the number of confirmed cases is about 157.8 million, confirmed deaths are 3.3 million and 1.2 billion vaccine doses have been administered. These numbers clearly show how important it is to elaborate the reaction of the pharma industry and investigate how to ensure safe drug supply for patients in every country. The topics discussed below are the basic and unique features of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the pandemia generated by it, and the role of the Hungarian pharma industry, especially Gedeon Richter plc, during this critical period. On one hand the author explains how the spread of virus can be decreased in general and at a production facility like Richter, and on the other hand R&D activity of the Company aiming to cure patients suffering from COVID-19 infection. Consortia including universities, academia and industrial entities made a substantial impact on handling this terrible epidemic. Gedeon Richter plc, the biggest and only independent Hungarian pharma company, in keeping with its roots started small molecule R&D to make favipiravir and remdesivir available to clinics. The latter production is a very difficult one but using its background in chemistry Richter was able to manage all R&D and industrial scale up activities in six months. Moreover, it has filed two patent applications about its new, more feasible and economical process steps justifying its innovative attitude. As a final conclusion it is stated that for the safe supply of necessary medication one critical step is missing from the capabilities of the Hungarian pharma industry, the vaccine R&D and production.

Open access

Hogyan befolyásolja a villamosenergia-hálózatról rendelkezésre álló információ a fizikai támadások által okozott sérülékenységről alkotott képet?

A hazai energiaszolgáltatás túlélőképessége

How grid information affects the perception of vulnerability of the power grid under physical attacks.

Robustness of the Hungarian power grid
Scientia et Securitas
Author: Bálint Hartmann

Összefoglaló. A villamosenergia-rendszerek fizikai támadásokkal szembeni ellenálló képessége a közelmúltban világszerte történt események ismeretében egyre nagyobb hangsúlyt kap a tématerület kutatásaiban. Az ilyen eseményekre való megfelelő felkészüléshez elengedhetetlen az üzemeltetett infrastruktúrának, elsősorban annak gyengeségeinek pontos ismerete. A cikkben Magyarország villamosenergia-hálózatának adatai alapján készített súlyozatlan és súlyozott gráfokon végzünk vizsgálatokat, hogy megértsük a különböző stratégia mentén kiválasztott célpontok elleni támadások milyen mértékben csökkentik a topológiai hatékonyságot. A cikk célja egyben a magyar hálózat sérülékenységének általános bemutatása is, mely hasznos bemeneti információ lehet a kockázati tervek elkészítésekor.

Summary. Tolerance of the power grid against physical intrusions has gained importance in the light of various attacks that have taken place around the world. To adequately prepare for such events, grid operators have to possess a deep understanding of their infrastructure, more specifically, of its weaknesses. A graph representation of the Hungarian power grid was created in a way that the vertices are generators, transformers, and substations and the edges are high-voltage transmission lines. All transmission and sub-transmission elements were considered, including the 132 kV network as well. The network is subjected to various types of single and double element attacks, objects of which are selected according to different aspects. The vulnerability of the network is measured as a relative drop in efficiency when a vertex or an edge is removed from the network. Efficiency is a measure of the network’s performance, assuming that the efficiency for transmitting electricity between vertices i and j is proportional to the reciprocal of their distance. In this paper, simultaneous removals were considered, arranged into two scenarios (single or double element removal) and a total of 5 cases were carried out (single vertex removal, single edge removal, double vertex removal, double edge removal, single vertex and single edge removal). During the examinations, all possible removal combinations were simulated, thus the 5 cases represent 385, 504, 73920, 128271 and 193797 runs, respectively. After all runs were performed, damage values were determined for random and targeted attacks, and attacks causing maximal damage were also identified. In all cases, damage was calculated for unweighted and weighted networks as well, to enable the comparison of those two models. The aims of this paper are threefold: to perform a general assessment on the vulnerability of the Hungarian power grid against random and targeted attacks; to compare the damage caused by different attack strategies; and to highlight the differences between using unweighted and weighted graphs representations. Random removal of a single vertex or a single edge caused 0.3–0.4% drop in efficiency, respectively, which indicates a high tolerance against such attacks. Damage for random double attacks was still only in the range of 0.6–0.8%, which is acceptable. It was shown that if targets are selected by the attacker based on the betweenness rank of the element, damage would be below the maximal possible values. Comparison of the damage measured in the unweighted and the weighted network representations has shown that damage to the weighted network tends to be bigger for vertex attacks, but the contrary is observed for edge attacks. Numerical differences between the two representations do not show any trend that could be generalised, but in the case of the most vulnerable elements significant differences were found in damage measures, which underlines the importance of using weighted models.

Open access

A koronavírus járvány hatása a villamosenergia-rendszerre mint kritikus infrastruktúrára

Impact of the coronavirus pandemic on the electricity system as critical infrastructure

Scientia et Securitas
Authors: Attila Aszódi and Bence Biró

Összefoglaló. Írásunk a magyar villamosenergia-rendszert vizsgálja a COVID–19 koronavírus-járvány időszakában. Bemutatjuk a járvány magyarországi alakulásának villamosenergia-fogyasztásra gyakorolt hatását. Elemezzük a magyar villamosenergia-fogyasztási adatokat a 2019. és a 2020. év vonatkozásában, összehasonlítjuk a fogyasztás és a GDP negyedéves változását 2020-ban, és összevetjük a magyar villamosenergia-rendszerben bekövetkezett változásokat egyes európai országok rendszerének adataival. Cikkünk végén röviden bemutatjuk a villamosenergia-rendszer mint kritikus infrastruktúra működtetésének mindennapjait a járvány alatt, amely rendszer ebben a mindenki számára megerőltető időszakban is folyamatosan biztosította a fogyasztók biztonságos és megbízható villamosenergia-ellátását.

Summary. The pandemic situation caused by the coronavirus has momentarily changed the lives of everyone in the world. With the closure of borders and the imposition of curfews, tourism practically stopped overnight, civil aviation shut down, offices and some manufacturing plants closed, people were forced to stay in their homes for months, worldwide. It must also be taken into account that intensive air travel and a globalised world economy clearly predispose the world to a greater frequency of pandemics in the future, and that society, the country and humanity as a whole must be prepared to deal more effectively with similar epidemics. This salutatory change is certainly worth analysing, as much can be learned from the current situation.

In this article, we analyse the energy aspects of the epidemic, as the virus has left a deep imprint even in this industry. For the analysis, it is essential to describe the behavior of the COVID-19 pandemic in Hungary and the measures taken in parallel to contain the outbreak, as these measures have had a significant impact on the country’s electricity system. We examined the electricity consumption trends for 2020 compared to 2019. We show how the consumer sides of different European electricity systems have reacted to the situation. We conclude by highlighting the changes in the critical energy infrastructure that, despite the difficulties caused by the epidemic, the Hungarian electricity system has provided the population with the electricity which is increasingly essential to our daily lives.

The current situation highlights even more that the main infrastructures of modern societies, such as industrial production plants, transport, commerce, health care, information technology and even households, cannot function without a reliable and secure electricity supply. It is therefore of paramount importance to ensure the operational conditions of the electricity system as critical infrastructure, even during a pandemic.

Open access

Monoklonális antitestek és egyéb biológiai terápiák a COVID–19 kezelésére

Monoclonal antibodies and other biologics for treatment of COVID-19

Scientia et Securitas
Author: Imre Kacskovics

Összefoglaló. A SARS-CoV-2 koronavírus által kiváltott pandémia az elmúlt mintegy 100 év legsúlyosabb közegészségügyi, gazdasági és társadalmi válságát okozza. Az emberiség soha nem látott tudással, példa nélküli sebességgel állította elő azokat a hatékony védőoltásokat, amelyek a megfelelő átoltottság mellett kontrollálhatják a COVID–19-járványt.

A SARS-CoV-2 fertőzéssel az emberiségnek meg kell tanulnia együtt élni, és mivel a vakcinák nem mindenkinek adhatók, vagy nem mindenkiben váltanak ki immunvédelmet, szükséges a jelenleginél hatékonyabb COVID–19-specifikus terápiák kifejlesztése. Több COVID–19 kezelésére kifejlesztett gyógyszerhatóanyagot is sikerrel tesztelnek, közülük is kiemelkednek a monoklonális antitestek, illetve más biológiai terápiák. Ezek egyfelől olyan gyógyszerek, amelyek a betegség korai fázisában semlegesítik a vírust, azaz megakadályozzák, hogy a sejteket megfertőzze, míg mások a már kialakult súlyos megbetegedésben csökkenthetik a gyulladás mértékét. Biologikumok közé tartozik a SARS-CoV-2-t semlegesítő hACE2-Fc fúziós fehérje is, amely a neutralizáló monoklonális antitestek hatásához hasonlítható; előnye, hogy minden mutáns ellen hatékony lehet.

Virológusok, járványügyi szakemberek szerint fel kell készülnünk arra, hogy a jelenlegihez hasonló járványok rendszeressé válnak. Ökológiai okok miatt egyre nő az állati eredetű kórokozók adaptálódása az emberhez, de nem zárhatók ki az ún. laborszökevény vírusok, sőt a bioterrorizmus veszélye sem. Mindezek hatékony kezelésére erősítenünk kell a hazai biotechnológiai kapacitásokat. A hatóanyagfejlesztésben a már kialakult hazai egyetemi-kutatóintézeti-ipari együttműködésekre számíthatunk, a gyártás során pedig a hazai korszerű biotechnológiai, gyógyszeripari kapacitásra, amelyek növelhetik az önellátásból származó biztonságot.

Summary. The SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus pandemic is causing the worst public health, economic and social crisis in the last 100 years. New and effective vaccines were developed and produced with the application of unprecedented know how and speed, which can control the COVID-19 epidemic with the right vaccination coverage.

Humanity needs to learn to live with the SARS-CoV-2 infection, and because vaccines cannot be given to everyone or cannot induce immune protection in all vaccinated individuals, it is necessary to develop more effective COVID-19-specific therapies than those presently available. Several drugs developed for the treatment of COVID-19 have been successfully tested, including monoclonal antibodies and other biological therapies. These are, on the one hand, drugs that neutralize the virus in the early stages of the disease, that is, it prevents it from infecting the cells, while others can reduce the rate of inflammation in a severe disease status. This review article provides an update about the current status of monoclonal antibodies that have been developed to treat COVID-19.

In early 2020 Eotvos Lorand University, Pecs University, Gedeon Richter Plc and ImmunoGenes Ltd formed a consortium to develop a molecular trap, the human ACE2-Fc fusion protein that binds to the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 and inhibits its binding to the ACE2 receptors on the cell surfaces. We successfully produced this recombinant protein and proved that it neutralizes this virus using VERO E6 cells and protects animals (Syrian hamster) from serious disease when administered before infection. We have also shown that it has a long half-life due to its (IgG) Fc-region component. Based on these proof of concept data, we created mutant versions of this drug candidate that do not have catabolic activity for angiotensin II and thus would not influence blood pressure. This is important since this drug should be administered in log-fold higher concentrations than ACE2 receptors in the body in order to efficiently neutralize the virus. The virus neutralization capacity of these new versions remained intact based on in vitro virus neutralization tests. We believe that after successful animal experiments, these drug candidates can be efficiently used in COVID-19 therapy in mild or moderate disease status. As compared to the COVID-19 specific monoclonal antibodies, we believe that these recombinant, mutant hACE2-Fc drugs can be more effective than the mAbs as they effectively bind and neutralize the new variants of SARS-CoV-2 (if they are able to bind the endogenous ACE2 receptor).

According to virologists and epidemiologists, we need to be prepared for epidemics like the current one becoming more regular. Due to ecological reasons, the adaptation of animal pathogens to humans is increasing, but there are threats due to lab leak viruses and even bioterrorism. To deal with all this effectively, we need to strengthen domestic biotechnology capacities. In the development of drug substances, we can count on the already established Hungarian university-research institute-industry collaborations, which can increase the safety resulting from self-sufficiency.

Open access

A személyre szabott terápia legújabb lehetőségei a molekuláris onkológiában

New Options for Personalized Treatment in Molecular Oncology

Scientia et Securitas
Authors: Otília Menyhárt, Virag Vas, Balázs Győrffy, and László Buday

Összefoglaló. A molekuláris onkológia térnyerésével számos új lehetőség érhető el a daganatos betegek hatékonyabb kezelésére. Ilyen a klinikai vizsgálatokban alkalmazott, a valóban személyre szabott kezelést elősegítő génpanelelemzés, illetve a célzott kezelés szövettípustól független alkalmazása. A személyre szabott terápiák jelentős hányada valamelyik kinázt gátolja. Az összefoglalónkban bemutatjuk a RAS jelátviteli út sejten belüli komplex szabályozását, valamint ismertetjük az útvonal további farmakológiai szempontból kiaknázható célpontjait nemzetközi és saját eredményeink alapján. A kinázokat érintő gyakori mutációk ellenére számos daganattípusban nem áll rendelkezésre személyre szabott terápia. A hagyományos terápiával nem kezelhető agydaganatok példáján keresztül bemutatjuk a tirozin-kinázok várható jövőbeli terápiás jelentőségét.

Summary. With the advent of molecular oncology, the identification of mutations in solid tumours is now clinically routine. The growing repertoire of targeted therapeutic agents has supported the rise of a new type of clinical trial in which the selection of the therapeutic agent is no longer restricted to a single option. Instead, a panel of genes is screened to identify the most suitable drug for each patient. Such trials have delivered objective response rates in 5–30% of patients. Most of the signal transduction pathways targeted by these agents involves RAS signaling.

Somatic mutations in RAS genes are common in human tumours. Such mutations generally decrease the ability of RAS to hydrolyze GTP, maintaining the protein in a constitutively active GTP-bound form that drives uncontrolled cell proliferation. Recent emerging data suggest that RAS regulation is more complex than the scientific community has appreciated for decades. We discuss a novel type of RAS regulation that involves direct phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of RAS tyrosine residues. The discovery that pharmacological inhibition of the tyrosine phosphoprotein phosphatase SHP2 maintains mutant Ras in an inactive state suggests that SHP2 could be a novel drug target for the treatment of Ras-driven human cancers.

In addition to RAS gene mutations, other common oncogenic events have also been identified, including mutation of EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) or BRAF (isoform B of rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma). EGFR has tyrosine kinase activity while BRAF acts as a serine/threonine kinase. In some tumours, mutant forms of these kinases over-activate cell proliferation, leading to uncontrolled tumour cell growth; therefore, it seems rational to develop inhibitor molecules that target these hyper-active oncogenic kinases to reduce tumour cell burden in cancer patients.

Fusion protein kinases activated via the RAS pathway represent target proteins with high clinical success rates. Recently approved TRK fusion protein kinase inhibitors have reached response rates in almost 80% of patients regardless of tumour type. Although these drugs can only be administered to patients whose tumours harbour a TRK fusion protein, such success stories pave the way for future development of agents that target similar genetic mutations.

Glioblastoma multiforme, a relatively frequent, almost uniformly fatal brain tumour, has ubiquitous alterations in tyrosine-kinase signalling. Nevertheless, to this day, no tyrosine-kinase inhibitors have been approved for its treatment. We have ongoing research projects to uncover associations between initial gene expression levels in untreated glioblastoma samples and treatment-related survival, and we have identified overexpression of druggable tyrosine-kinase receptors in chemotherapy-resistant patients. Our approach will help to identify patients who might benefit from concurrent use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors and conventional cytotoxic therapies.

Open access

Túl az etikán – a humán kutatások kockázatérzékenysége és pszichológiai aspektusai

Beyond ethics – risk sensitivity and psychological aspects of human research

Scientia et Securitas
Author: Valéria Csépe

Összefoglaló. A humán kutatások eredményeit bemutató közlemények számos adattal szolgálnak a megismerni kívánt jelenségre vonatkozóan. Általánosan elfogadott elvárás a vonatkozó etikai szabályok szigorú betartása, az előírt vizsgálati protokollok betartása. Az emberekkel végzett vizsgálatoknak azonban van egy olyan dimenziója, amelyre az etikai szabályok nem térnek ki, s amelyek a vizsgálati eredményeket, illetve azok reprezentativitását is befolyásolják. Ezek mindegyike a pszichológia vizsgálódási területéhez tartozik, legyen szó a pszichológiai kutatások etikai kérdéseiről, vagy az orvosbiológiai kutatások, orvosi beavatkozások, illetve azok elfogadásának pszichológiai aspektusairól. A tanulmány a pszichológia megváltozott etikai felfogásának rövid bemutatását követően a genetikai kutatások pszichológiai aspektusait és az egészség-magatartás kritikus kérdéseit elemzi. Az utóbbiak esetében a kockázatészlelés, valamint a bizalom, megbízhatóság pszichológiai modelljeiből kiindulva mutatja be az oltási hajlandóság és az oltásellenesség ismert pszichológiai faktorait.

Summary. Publications presenting the results of human research provide a wealth of data on the phenomenon to be explored. It is a generally accepted expectation to adhere strictly to the relevant ethical rules and to the required protocols. However, studies in humans have a dimension that is not fully covered by ethical rules and that also affects the studies’ results and their representativeness. All of these belong to the field of research in psychology, be it the ethical issues of psychological research or the psychological aspects of biomedical research, medical interventions, and their acceptance. Researchers of these and other scientific areas widely believe that science is morally neutral, that is, its task is the discovery of facts, the further development of the investigations’ tools and methods to perform correct analysis and draw reliable conclusions. However, research and development are characterized by a kind of moral neutrality, the essence of which is that the researcher not participating in the decisions on applications is neutral in general. This means that the curiosity driven research should not pay attention to risks associated with the use of results. However, many recent concerns related to the long-term effects of broadly applied inventions speaks for the need on consensus how the consequences could or should be forecasted.

Following a brief presentation of the changed ethical perception of psychology, I give some examples on the psychological aspects of genetic research and that of the critical issues in health behavior. Concerns psychological in nature have been articulated in the last decade and it became increasingly clear that genetic testing can also have psychological factors that must be considered. Moreover, the recent focus on psychological aspects of human research shed light on the complexity of health behavior, and questions have been raised about the known psychological factors of the human reactions to suggested therapies, especially those of the vaccination propensity, rejection, and anti-vaccination movements. Although there are only a few systematic studies on this issue, the proper solutions of the Covid-19 should consider the psychological aspects of the acceptance and rejection of vaccination. We may consider that the first waves of the Covid-19 epidemic created situations requiring altered psychological coping, to which psychological research responded primarily by examining the epidemiological situation, illness, and the resulting psychological aspects of lifestyle (treatment of social isolation, stress management, anxiety, depression). Therefore, scientific data on risk perception and psychological factors of vaccine acceptance may contribute to preparedness for globally predicted epidemics and decision-making processes.

Open access