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Abstract

Monitoring medications in biological fluids is an essential aspect of patient care, particularly in cases of altered mental status where accurate diagnosis, effective treatment, and even forensic examinations are crucial. In this study, a new approach combining hydrophobic-deep-eutectic and solvent-bar-microextraction (HDE-SBME) followed by a high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) was developed for the simultaneous determination of desipramine, clomipramine, as antidepressant and carbamazepine as antiepileptic agents in untreated human urine and plasma samples. The HDE solvents, synthesized using various ratios of menthol and fatty acids, were utilized in the SBME setups. Computational methods were employed to predict the structure and modes of interaction between HDE and the chosen analytes. Central composite design methodology (CCD) was used for multivariate optimization of the effects of different parameters influencing the extraction efficiency of the proposed method. Under optimized experimental conditions, the calibration graph of the spiked selected drugs in urine and plasma samples demonstrated excellent linearity (R 2 ≥ 0.994), with limits of detection/quantification below 0.60/2.02 μg L−1. The extraction recoveries achieved were 88–97%, and the repeatability/reproducibility (RSD%, n = 5) was less than 6.12/7.57. The proposed method was successfully applied to determine selected drugs in patients' urine and plasma samples. The proposed method detects three drugs in patients' urine and plasma samples without using toxic volatile organic solvents. The proposed microextraction technique exhibited a confident sensitivity, feasible operation, and simplicity compared with other published methods. Thus, it can be considered a promising method for monitoring the therapeutic levels of specific antidepressant and antiepileptic drugs in urine and plasma samples.

Open access

Személyes célok és társas világ – a jóllét és önszabályozás társas ökológiája

Personal goals and the social world – the social ecology of well-being and self-regulation

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors:
Tamás Martos
and
Viola Sallay

Háttér: A tanulmányban egy olyan elméleti keretet mutatunk be, mely a boldogság és a pozitív érzelmi állapotok mögött elsősorban a dinamikus önszabályozási folyamatok jelentőségét feltételezi. A jóllét egy jó személy-környezet illeszkedést biztosító mikrovilág, a „személyes niche” megalkotása révén érhető el. Ennek a tranzakcionális folyamatnak fontos alapegységei a személyes célok, melyek alapvetőek a személy ágenciájának megvalósításában: ezek segítségével egyszerre tudjuk önmagunk komplex belső állapotait szabályozni, és tudunk alkotó módon válaszolni környezetünk kihívásaira. Eredmények: Áttekintjük azokat az empirikus kutatásainkat, melyek összekapcsolják a személyes célok tapasztalatait a személyes niche aspektusaival. Az életcélok fontossága és a személyes célok belső integráltsága (énkonkordanciája) a jóllét fontos előfeltételének bizonyult. Ugyanakkor a párkapcsolatban élők számára a partnerrel közös célok és a közös célokban megélt közös megküzdés ugyanilyen fontos jellemzői lehetnek a kapcsolati integrációnak. Újabban pedig a személyes és társas integráció mellett már a környezeti tranzakciók szerepét is vizsgáljuk a célok elérésében és így a személyes niche alakításában. Következtetések: A „személyes niche” ígéretes fogalom a niche különböző aspektusaiban zajló komplex, tranzakcionális folyamatok leírására. Ezeket képviselik a személyes célok és a jóllét összefüggéseinek kutatásai. A jóllét társas-ökológiai beágyazottságának feltérképezése tehát segíthet jobban megérteni a pozitív emberi működést.

Open access

Technoferencia: okoseszközök hatása a társas interakciókra

Technoference: The impact of smart devices on social interactions

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors:
Eszter P. Remete
,
Orsolya Csilla Pachner
,
Petra Schrőter
,
Adél Csenge Simon
,
Vivien Hartmann
,
István Tafferner
, and
Gábor Aranyi

Az okoseszközök jelenléte mindennapjaink szerves része. Használatuk gyakorta megzavarja szemtől szembeni társas érintkezéseinket, mely jelenséget McDaniel és Coyne (2016) találóan a magyarul is intuitíven jól értelmezhető technoferencia kifejezéssel írták le. Téma-összefoglaló tanulmányunk empirikus kutatások áttekintésén keresztül mutatja be a technoferencia fogalmát és relevanciáját. Az okoseszközök által megzavart társas interakciók jellegzetességeit kapcsolati, párkapcsolati, szülő-gyermek kapcsolati, valamint munka-magánélet kontextusában tárgyaljuk. Összességében megállapítható, hogy a technoferencia minden életkorban jelentős rizikófaktor a társas kapcsolatok minősége és a mentális egészség szempontjából. A felsorakoztatott munkákhoz kapcsolódóan kitérünk a téma gyakorlati relevanciáira, és áttekintjük a további lehetséges és szükséges kutatási irányokat.

Open access

Abstract

Dissection of the matter into its constituents leads us to the smallest particles that we know. These particles form a material structure that is determined by the electromagnetic field generated and carried by those particles. Changes in any of the two major constituents leads to changes in that material system, be it a living organism or a lifeless object. The latter statement carries the mystery of life that is born from a continuous and programmed series of system changes fuelled by an energy source with a yet unknown functioning mechanism. The present work is a theoretical approach towards the understanding and potential discovery of the aforementioned, not-yet-known cellular energetic mechanism. Understanding the energetic basis of intracellular biochemistry is equally important in human and animal therapeutics. Additionally, as all such discoveries offer novel solutions in various fields of the global industry, the final outcome of this theoretical work also brings about the idea of a new discovery in electronics industry.

Open access

Abstract

Two new land snail species of the family Enidae, Serina xirong Chen, Dai, Wu & Ouyang sp. n. and Turanena jiuzhaigouensis Chen, Dai, Wu & Ouyang sp. n., are described from Jiuzhaigou County, Sichuan Province, China based on conchological morphology. Serina xirong can be distinguished from congeneric species by its ribbed teleoconch, and Turanena jiuzhaigouensis can be distinguished from congeneric species by its micro, conic, weakly keeled shell without color stripes before body whorl. This discovery further enhances our understanding of the enid species diversity in Sichuan Province.

Open access

Abstract

This study aims to analyse the time series properties of the unemployment rates in 10 Central and Eastern European countries after joining the European Union. Three types of unit root tests were conducted: (1) linear unit root tests, namely ADF, PP, LM, and RALS-LM tests; (2) LM and RALS-LM unit root tests with two structural breaks; and (3) LM and RALS-LM unit root tests with Fourier function. The results reveal that the hysteresis hypothesis is valid for Bulgaria, Czechia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania and Slovenia, whereas the structuralist hypothesis is valid for Estonia and Poland. However, the natural rate hypothesis holds only for Slovakia.

Restricted access

Abstract

This paper provides a comprehensive assessment of the total (market and non-market) gender-based production and consumption activities of Turkish men and women at different stages of their life-cycle. Turkey, one of the few emerging economies within the OECD, offers an interesting case-study as its female labour force participation rate is one of the lowest among OECD countries. Our results show that time spent by Turkish women on household activities is, on average, 30 h a week, basically three times as much as men. In fact, the women-to-men time use ratio for unpaid work is roughly twice as much as the OECD average. We estimate that the monetary value of women unpaid household production exceeds 29% of GDP, while the corresponding estimate for men is around 8%. Using the concept of life-cycle deficit, we also show that Turkish men are dependent on housework undertaken by women over their entire lifetime, which is an almost unique feature in comparison to the European and OECD countries. Finally, unlike other OECD countries that have introduced disincentives to early retirement, Turkish men continue to retire early but retain their acquired habits of not sharing the burden of household work.

Restricted access

Abstract

The Budapest Tree-Ring Laboratory (BTRL) is a fully equipped dendrochronological laboratory, established in 2002 at the Department of Paleontology and currently hosted by the Department of Physical Geography, Eötvös University, Budapest, Hungary. The lab has the proper sampling equipment for field work, a sanding workshop to prepare tree-ring samples for measurement and measuring-stages with software for recording and analyzing tree-ring data. Throughout the first 20 years of activity the BTRL collected and analyzed ∼360 living and ∼470 relict samples (including historical and subfossil material) from more than 33 sites distributed mainly in Europe but including a few localities in Asia. The most represented genera are Quercus and Pinus, both among the living and the relic subsets. Open access publication of the essential ancillary scientific information of the stored material will make the sample archive of the BTRL an actual national research infrastructure.

Open access

Abstract

This paper argues that the indefinite, definite, and kind interpretations belonging to nouns and noun phrases are independent universal semantic features realized by different linguistic means across and within languages. The investigations presented here take the viewpoint of the speaker: first the semantic content of the three features is characterized, then the linguistic expressions these interpretations belong to and arise from are examined. Cross-linguistic data support the conclusions that none of these features is derived from the other(s), their primary source is the intrasentential context, and they express “instructions” to the hearer to find more or less identifiable or more or less representative referents that pertain to the denotation of the noun (phrase).

Open access