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Es ist nicht alles Weiß, was so zu sein scheint •

Bemerkungen zur Interpretation einiger ungarischer und kroatischer Örtlichkeitsnamen

Not all is White that Looks White: Remarks on the Interpretation of Some Hungarian and Croatian Place-Names

Studia Slavica
Author:
István Vig

Adjektive, die Farben bezeichnen, kommen häufig in Örtlichkeitsnamen vieler Sprachen vor. Unter ihnen befindet sich auch das Adjektiv weiß. Die Motivation und Bedeutung des Farbadjektivs weiß in der Namensgebung einiger Örtlichkeitsnamen bilden den Gegenstand dieser Untersuchung. Der vorliegende Aufsatz ist in zwei Teile gegliedert. Im ersten Teil wird den Beweggründen für die Wahl des Adjektivs weiß in einigen ungarischen, kroatischen und serbischen Örtlichkeitsnamen nachgegangen. Im zweiten Teil werden einige kroatische Ortsnamen behandelt, in denen eine Komponente nur scheinbar die Bedeutung ‘weiß’ hat. In der Wirklichkeit haben die Denotate dieser Örtlichkeitsnamen keine weiße Farbe.

Zur ersten Gruppe gehören die ungarischen Örtlichkeitsnamen Székesfehérvár, Gyulafehérvár, Nándorfehérvár, das kroatische Biograd na moru und das serbische (und auch kroatische) Beograd. Sie sind Zusammensetzungen aus fehér, bio- / beo- ‘weiß’ + vár, grad ‘Burg’. Nach allgemeiner Meinung der Fachliteratur bezieht sich das Adjektiv weiß auf die weiße oder helle Farbe der Steine der Burgen.

In der ungarischen Sprachwissenschaft wurde auch erforscht, wie alt das Kompositum fehérvár sein könnte. Es wurde festgestellt, dass die Magyaren schon drei Burgen bzw. befestigte Städte kannten, bevor sie sich am Ende des 9. Jahrhunderts im Karpatenbecken niederließen.

Zwei Örtlichkeitsnamen davon befanden sich auf chasarischem Gebiet, Sarïγsïn und Šarkel / Sarkel. Der zweite Örtlichkeitsname hat die Bedeutung ‘hell, gelb, bleich, weiß’. Der erste ist ein Kompositum von sarï, sarïγ ‘weiß’ + kil / käl ‘Haus’. Nach der bisherigen Erklärung hätte die Komponente sarï, sarïγ eine Beziehung zur weißen Farbe der Festung. Diese Meinung beruht auf der fehlerhaften Interpretation der schriftlichen Quelle. Erstens: die Mauern der Burg wurden aus roten Ziegeln gebaut. Zweitens: die jüngsten turkologischen Forschungsergebnisse weisen darauf hin, dass die Farbe Weiß eine symbolische Bedeutung hatte. Sie ist die symbolische Farbe von Burgen und Gebäuden, die auf ein gehobenes und großes Prestige hindeuten.

Beim dritten Beispiel handelt es sich um den Namen einer Festung am Dnister-Liman, der in verschiedenen Sprachen wiedergegeben wird. Hier wird die Motivation der Komponente weiß durch die hellgraue Mauer der Festung bestätigt.

Fazit. Die Existenz des Namens fehérvár war schon in der urmagyarischen Periode der ungarischen Sprache möglich. Man kann nicht entscheiden, wie er entstand: als Lehnübersetzung oder aufgrund einer gene-rellen Anschauung.

Unter den analysierten kroatischen Örtlichkeitsnamen befinden sich Städtenamen und geographische Namen. Die Stadt Pélmonostor gehörte bis 1918 zu Ungarn. Der kroatische Name ist eine behördlich festgelegte Bezeichnung. Die Komponente monostor wurde übersetzt und der Eigenname Pél wurde durch das ähnlich lautende Adjektiv beli ‘weiß’ ersetzt. Das Adjektiv hat keinen Zusammenhang mit Pél. Der Stadtname Bjelovar ist ungarischer Herkunft (< Bélavár). Der Eigenname Béla wurde volksetymologisch als kroatisch bijel, bijela ‘weiß’ interpretiert und ersetzt. Bei den geographischen Namen Rt (‘Kap’) Bela und Uvala (‘Bucht’) Bela ist die Komponente Bela nicht als Adjektiv, sondern als ein italienischer Familienname zu interpretieren.

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The paper interprets M. Krleža’s political and psychotic bestiary on the example of his plays, beginning with the first fragmental drama Saloma, which opens Krleža’s diary entries (dated 26 February 1914) from the First World War (this is his diary-memoir book Davni dani, subsequently published in 1956), and ends with the screenplay Put u raj (1970), by which Krleža completed his drama work. Focusing on that period (1914– 1970), the paper considers Krleža’s dominant zoo-metaphors in the framework of his negative anthropology. In Saloma, for instance, the zoo-lexeme dog is reflected as the dominant zoo-metaphor. Specifically, for Saloma, everything that happens on war-like Earth is determined by the dog’s existence as a subservient ingratiator toward all forms of power in the government. Instead of O. Wilde’s somewhat precious Secessionist ornamental language, Krleža’s Saloma begins with her aggressive nihilism and with Kyon-metaphors: “Nothing! You are as boring as wet dogs!” (Davni dani, diary entry dated 26 February 1914). This paper identifies Krleža’s dramatic political and psychotic bestiary on select examples (one play per dramatic period), taking into account the classification of Krleža’s dramatic work (18 plays) in five stylistic-generic cycles as part of Krleža’s negative anthropology.

In the screenplay Put u raj, a cricket as the dominant zoo-metaphor discloses himself by his singing to the drama binomials (the ego and alter ego: Bernardo and Orlando) in the urinal, while they are urinating together (the male urinating topos) following their narcotic bliss. By combining two issues, the subject of meditation on the death from the novel Cvrčak pod vodopadom and the theme of the eternal repetition of Human Stupidity from the Finale (see the book of political essays Deset krvavih godina, 1937), Krleža rounds out his personal view of the global anti-utopia and dystopia in this anti-war requiem play.

We conclude that Krleža’s political and psychotic bestiary which we have examined on select examples using the drama menagerie on a timeline from 1913/1914 to 1970 is consistent: within the framework of a permanent negative anthropology, Krleža’s preoccupation with documenting the all-powerful human stupidity of the man-ape who, when it learned to fly, bombs other apes, although in speciesist zoo-metaphors, we can say that Krleža does not find utopia in nature “as there is no justice even among flowers”, as the title of one of his ballads states. In short, by negating Feuerbach’s anthropological thesis Man with manthe unity of I and Thouis God and by promoting the Ape to / as Man’s deputy, as Desmond Morris does with the cover of Naked Ape, Krleža shows that Man is at its core and being (the ontological structure of the human being) is not homo sapiens. Today’s pandemic picture of the world demonstrates all of this, or as Krleža would say in speciesist manner: man is still an ape, or as a non-speciesist statement: man is still man, the bloodiest animal.

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Mór Jókai’s novel And Yet It Moves [És mégis mozog a föld] was published in Lithuanian translation in 1892. The translator, Antanas Kriščiukaitis-Aišbė took as the basis the Polish translation of the book, which in turn was based on the German translation. In fact, it is not a translation in the traditional sense but a shortened, abridged version. The translation has attracted a great deal of interest, with numerous reviews by leading Lithuanian literary figures of the time, moreover, the influence of the Hungarian novel can be traced in several Lithuanian literary works. The impact of the work on Lithuanian culture is illustrated by the fact that several prominent figures of the time used the title of the novel as a kind of slogan of the Lithuanian national revival movement.

The aim of the study is to examine how the Lithuanian translation came into being, to analyze the text of the translation itself, to demonstrate how it was received by Lithuanian critics, which contemporary Lithuanian works show its influence, how the title of the work survived in Lithuanian culture, and what factors influenced its popularity in Lithuania. Accordingly, it briefly describes the original work, the most important bibliographical data of the German and Polish translations, the translator’s personality and his works, and examines the factors and aspects that may have played a role in the choice of the work to be translated. In addition to the bibliographical data of the Lithuanian edition and the circumstances of its publication, I will analyze the preface and then examine the translator’s retention or omission of certain passages, the internal logic behind these, the stylistic differences from the original version, and how these may have affected the reception of the work.

The paper briefly discusses contemporary reviews and tries to answer the question of how the Lithuanian reception was influenced by the characteristics of Lithuanian society at the time. The study also examines which Lithuanian literary works show the influence of Jókai’s novel, and analyzes Maironis’s poems Through Pains to Glory [Tarp skausmų į garbę] (1893) and Young Lithuania [Jaunoji Lietuva] (1905), where the similarities in plot and motives with Jókai’s work are so numerous that these works can clearly be considered to be inspired by Jókai; as well as Šatrijos Ragana’s short novels Viktutė (1901) and In the Old Manor House [Sename dvare] (1922), and Liudvika Didžiulienė-Žmona’s For the Fatherland [Del tevynes!] (1893).

Finally, it presents documented instances of the use of the novel’s title as a slogan and examines their context. The paper concludes that the success of the work in Lithuania can be explained by similarities in the historical and social development of the two countries and between the social conditions in Hungary pictured in the novel and prevailing in Lithuania at the time of the publication of the translation.

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Предложен комментарий, проливающий свет на темные места в одном из наиболее дискуссионных стихотворений О. Мандельштама. Результаты проведенного исследования позволяют утверждать, что концептуальную основу текста составляет метафора чтения книги природы. Судя по контексту, эта книга, представленная здесь как учебник, написана языком математики, что отражает отноше-ние поэта к математике как базисной науке, которая, по его мнению, выраженному в статье «Де-вятнадцатый век» (1922), единственная из всех иных способов познания мира способна привести к объективным решениям.

Текст существенно, вплоть до герметичности, затемнен в результате применения сложного ком-плекса элокутивных тактик. Этот комплекс, фактически превративший восьмистишие № 11 в се-миотическую энигму, в частности, составляют: 1. Ряд метафор, три из которых – развернутые: а) математическая метафора; б) метафора чтения; в) флористическая, уподобляющая человеческие познания запущенному саду. 2. Три зевгмы, соединившие звенья указанных развернутых метафор в многомерное ассоциативное целое. Характерная для акмеизма тактика «накладывания образа на образ» (А. Н. Толстой) существенно осложнила смысловую структуру восьмистишия, которое с этой точки зрения представляет собой семантический палимпсест, сформированный рядом об-разных наслоений. 3. Два переноса abstractum pro concreto.

В научной литературе, посвященной восьмистишию № 11, приняты буквальные трактовки ряда переносных выражений, что не способствует адекватному осмыслению этого сложного произведе-ния. Текст написан высоким стилем, чему отвечают: 1) длина стиха: девятисложный стих чередует-ся с восьмисложным, что характерно для жанра оды (этот же силлабический альтернанс находим в одах М. В. Ломоносова, Г. Р. Державина, И. А. Крылова, В. В. Капниста, П. Г. Антокольского и др.); 2) долгий (трехсложный) метр; 3) пространность синтаксических конструкций; 4) отсутствие рез-ких стиховых переносов и стиховых членений; 5) характерный для Библии полисиндетон на «и».

Следует полагать, что в лирической поэзии, в частности в текстах Мандельштама, высокий сти-левой регистр коррелирует с элокутивной затемненностью. Толкование темных мест требует при-менения конситуативного, а также контекстуального анализа, современная версия которого обли-гаторно предполагает обращение: а) к типологии элокутивных тактик, в частности семантических переносов; б) к приемам экспериментальной методики, прежде всего к трансформационному ана-лизу.

Результаты конситуативного тестирования должны быть верифицированы данными лингвисти-ческого анализа et vice versa; в противном случае, а также в случае удаленности исследователя от этих методов, оказываются искажены связи между художественным миром и отраженной в нем действительностью; именно в этих двух случаях наблюдаем методологические упущения в сфере исследования поэтики Мандельштама.

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Abstract

The present paper aims at giving a text edition of Antonio Cassarino's humanist Latin translation of Plutarch's dialogue Bruta animalia ratione uti. This is the earliest of three translations made of this dialogue in the course of the 15th century. The text itself is extant in three different manuscripts, one of which is a codex of the Vatican Library (Vat. lat. 3349), compiled after Cassarino's death by Panormita. A comparison of the text variants has led to several results. First, some of the errors shared by all three manuscripts show that they go back to a common archetype already at some distance from the translator's original copy. Second, Panormita relied heavily on a codex of the Biblioteca della Società Siciliana per la Storia Patria in Palermo (MS Lodi XII E 13) in preparing his own version. Third, the Vatican codex is far from being the best representative of Cassarino's original translation. Though Panormita corrected several of the common inherited errors, he made changes to the text without consulting the Greek. In almost every instance, it is a codex of the Biblioteca Casanatense of Rome (Bibl. Casan. 665 C II 8) which gives the best reading, providing the clue for a successful reconstruction of the text. An attempt will be made to trace the version contained in this codex back to a certain person named Balbi, referred to in the dedicatory letter as being a learned expert of both languages, Greek and Latin. Along with the establishment of the text, it will also be possible to define the original Greek source codex Cassarino used for his translation (Vat. Pal. gr. 170).

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Im Wald des Hippolytus •

Zur Intertextualität von Plin. ep. 1. 6 und Sen. Phaedr. 1–83; 483–504

Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Author:
Boris Hogenmüller

Abstract

Pliny's Epistle 1.6 is a relatively short, apparently personal letter within the first book of Epistles, addressed to his friend Cornelius Tacitus. Besides intertextual references to Lucretius, Calpurnius Siculus and Tacitus, there is also an interesting allusion to Seneca's tragedy Phaedra, which influenced Pliny in the conception of the letter's frame story, as the present study aims to prove.

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Abstract

In this discussion note we explore why and how we need a pragmalinguistic and speech act-anchored approach to systematically study a key pragmatic phenomenon: phatic interaction. By so doing, we aim to draw attention to a special issue which we plan to publish in Acta Linguistica Academica. First, we present a general model through which phatic interaction can be replicably studied across different data types and linguacultures, by breaking it down to speech act types occurring in different slots of an interaction. Second, we provide a case study involving Chinese learners of English as a foreign language, in order to illustrate how the proposed framework can be put to actual use.

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The main goal of this paper is to analyze, depict, and characterize the semantic construction of the latest novel Przewóz [The Carriage] (2021) written by one of the most significant contemporary Polish writers Andrzej Stasiuk. A key way of organizing Stasiuk’s novel is juxtaposing semantically distant wholes, which creates strong tensions not only at the level of language but above all at the level of meaning. Categories of different meaning interpenetrate in the novel, creating a conglomerate of new meanings, showing the fractures of the world described by the novelist, the incoherence of a reality infected by war.

Such construction of the novel, based on contrasts and the tensions resulting from their occurrence, allows Stasiuk to reflect the tragedy of wartime experience. War is a catalyst that makes us aware of the uncertain anchoring of concepts and categories, hitherto considered unchanging and permanent, it allows us to capture the illusory nature of human beliefs, the incoherence of human actions, and the naivety of human recognition. The marginal comes to the fore, becoming a model of the world under a microscope, a theatre of history, revealing the nakedness of human existence. Such basic and key concepts as strength, courage, beauty, sacrifice, patriotism, culture, universality, boundary, and truth are questioned.

Stasiuk’s ontology is based upon a constant play of tensions between particular categories that make up reality. Nonetheless, the writer does not propose a coherent, unambiguous assessment of reality but rather draws attention to its complexity, impossibility of complete cognition, elusiveness, and delusion. These tensions, so pronounced in Stasiuk’s novel, reveal the illusory nature of the concepts in which a human is immersed, and at the same time, as one of the fundamental elements determining the artistic value of artwork, they are expected to lead to a catharsis, to a release of emotions, they also help to understand better the situation into which a person is thrown at the border moments. Thus, works designed in this way – as cleansing and releasing, and saturated with tension and contrasts – become, as it were, automatically universal, going far beyond transient vogues.

The goal of the paper is also to focus on these aspects of Stasiuk’s novel, to demonstrate how war as a border situation can lead to a relativization of concepts, how it can introduce confusion and chaos into a well-established, as it would seem, axiological system, which the writer demonstrates precisely by creating clear tensions. In his novel, Stasiuk does not offer a zero-one vision of the world, tensions are not created mechanically, and the writer uses contrasts and paradox, but what is really important for him are halftones, ambiguities, multivocalities, and a smooth transition in between categories. This is what sets Stasiuk’s world in motion.

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