The present manuscript demonstrates the work undertaken to optimise and validate a slow-release amylase-assisted extraction of polyphenols from peach fruit peel. A careful investigation and optimisation revealed that peach peel when hydrolysed with 1.50% (w/w) of SRA containing enzyme formulation at 40 °C and 6.1 pH, for 35 min significantly (P < 0.05) increased the extraction yield, levels of polyphenol contents (242.89 ± 1.56 mg gallic acid equivalents – GAE), and coumaric, chlorogenic, ferulic acids or their conjugate esters in extracts. Moreover, the extracts produced through SRA-assisted extraction exhibited ample level of free radical scavenging capacity (DPPH IC50 2.67 ± 0.03 μg mL−1), Trolox equivalent (TE) antioxidant capacity (450.52 ± 24.58 µmol of TE g−1), inhibition of peroxides in linoleic acid (85.68 ± 0.21%), and ferric reducing power of 3.11 ± 0.20 ppm gallic acid equivalents. The results suggested that the incorporation of SRA containing enzyme formulation may enhance the recovery of peach peel polyphenols while hydrolysing the glycosidic linkages without deteriorating their antioxidant character.
Food, water, and energy scarcity threaten India's future, and they must be addressed first. To meet the country's ever-increasing population needs, agricultural productivity must be expanded. For the crop-land suitability, we have studied an area of about 6,539 km2 in Vizianagaram district. The majority of the land is used for paddy agriculture (Kharif). The crop-land suitability has been evaluated based on the different parameters identified in that study area. “Remote sensing (RS)” and “geographic information system (GIS)” were combined for the crop-land suitability using nine parameters. The slope, elevation, rainfall, soil texture, lithology, groundwater, land use–land cover (LULC), TWI, and land surface temperature are the primary criteria used to determine the crop-land suitability in the Vizianagaram district (AP). Thematic maps were created using Landsat 8 images and SRTM DEM images from USGS Earth Explorer. Based on these maps and the influence of these parameters, we may assign weights to the parameters and then rank them, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) allowing us to identify which area is more suitable for good crop productivity and which is not. In this study, the soils are divided into four categories: low suitability, moderate suitability, high suitability, and extremely high suitability. The suitability index is found to be in the range of 0–55.2%, which indicates the lack of outstanding agricultural lands in the sudy region.
This study aims to examine the effect of hydrolysis degree (DH) on both antioxidant activity and functional properties of Acetes japonicus proteolysate (AP). Consequently, the AP showed the highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity (SA) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) at DH of 66.7%. Whereas, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) cation radical (ABTS•+) SA and superoxide anion radical (O2•–) SA of the AP peaked at DH of 75.8%. In addition, its strongest Fe2+-chelating rate was found at DH of 72.1%. In the pH range from 3 to 8, the AP showed solubility over 55% even after heat treating, foaming capacity (FC) of 5.7–80.0%, foaming stability (FS) of 2.9–77.0%, emulsifying-activity index (EAI) of 16.1–56.3 m2 g−1, and emulsifying stability index (ESI) of 12.4–156.7 min. The highest water-holding capacity (WHC) and oil-holding capacity (OHC) of the AP were observed at DH of 66.7% and 50.6%, respectively. This study enhanced value of the Acetes by producing antioxidant AP possessing functionalities.
The effect of processing parameters on microencapsulation of oregano essential with maltodextrin:gum arabic using a disk atomiser spray-dryer was evaluated. By means of response surface methodology, the feed flow rate and inlet air temperature were optimised. Powder yield, moisture content, essential oil retention, and antioxidant activity of microparticles were evaluated. The best conditions to produce microencapsulated oregano essential oil were 0.6 L h−1 for feed flow rate and 200 °C for inlet air temperature. With this combination a microencapsulated powder with 89.8% powder yield, 2.1% moisture content, 92.1% essential oil retention, 76 s solubilisation time, 12.9 g of water/100 g of dry matter, 0.3371 g mL−1 bulk density, 0.5826 g mL−1 tapped density, and 8.2 μm of average particle size was produced. The microencapsulation of oregano essential oil preserves the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of its bioactive compounds.
This study evaluated the effect of surfactant-assisted enzymatic extraction on the quality of tiger nut milk (TNM). TNM was extracted from tiger nuts using different concentrations of xylanase (0.010–0.100%) and Tween 20 (0.005–0.010%). The yield, stability, nutritional, antioxidant, and sensory properties of the samples were determined. The yield of TNM significantly increased, by 32.72–50.67%, following surfactant-assisted enzymatic extraction. Optimum yield and stability of TNM were obtained using 0.010% xylanase and Tween 20. Enzymatic extraction significantly increased total sugar and flavonoids, however, starch, dietary fibre, protein, carotenoids, lycopene, total phenolic content, and antioxidant properties reduced significantly. The incorporation of Tween 20 stabilised these parameters. There was no significant difference in panellists' preference for the control (sample extracted without enzyme and surfactant), enzymatically-extracted, and surfactant-assisted enzymatic extracted samples in mouthfeel and aroma, however, the surfactant-assisted enzymatic extracted sample was most preferred in colour, consistency, taste, and overall acceptability. Using surfactant-assisted enzymatic extraction could prove invaluable for the production of TNM.
Cultivation of specialty mushrooms on lignocellulosic wastes represents one of the most economical organic recycling processes. Compared with other cultivated mushrooms, very little is known about the nature of the lignocellulolytic enzymes produced by the edible fungus Calocybe indica, its enzymatic activity profiles during submerged and solid state fermentation. The intracellular activity of laccase (7.67 U mg−1), manganese peroxidase (7.48 U mg−1), cellobiohydrolase (5.46 U mg−1), and endoxylanase (4.21 U mg−1) was best obtained in C. indica on 14th and 21st day of incubation. The extracellular activity of laccase (11.57 U mL−1), lignin peroxidase (8.45 U mL−1), and endoxylanases (6.22 U mL−1) were found to be highest on the 14th day. Ligninolytic enzyme activity was substantial during substrate colonisation but quickly dropped during fruiting body development. C. indica, on the other hand, showed relatively modest hydrolase activity during substrate colonisation. The activity of hydrolytic enzymes increased dramatically when primordia formed and peaked at the mature fruiting body stage. The yield of the crude enzyme-treated wheat straw utilised for mushroom production was 52.47%. These findings showed that the activities of lignocellulolytic enzymes were regulated in line with developmental phase of growth of C. indica.
This study aims to formulate the optimal pectin-curcumin-lemongrass oil emulsion (PE) for coating of chicken fillet at 50:50%, 70:30%, and 90:10%, based on microbial growth inhibition, freshness consistency, and fat absorption during frying. Throughout the 7 days of storage, chicken fillet coated with 70:30% PE showed significant (P < 0.05) suppressive activity against psychrophilic bacteria (8.09 ± 0.00 log10 CFU g−1) compared to non-coated sample (8.27 ± 0.06 log10 CFU g−1). In contrast, 90:10% PE coating inhibited the growth of yeasts or moulds on chicken fillet at 8.24 ± 0.28 log10 CFU g−1, compared to non-coated sample (9.16 ± 0.14 log10 CFU g−1). The 70:30% PE coating showed a better fillet's toughness (18.30 ± 1.32 N mm−1 s−1) and firmness (1.49 ± 0.22 N mm−1) when compared to fillet without coating. After 7 days of storage, coated and uncoated samples showed the same total colour difference (E value) indicating PE coating preserved the texture of fillet and colour. Both coated samples (70:30% and 90:10%) reduced fat uptake during frying by 13.70%–14.25%. The application of PE coating at 90:10% was effectively functioned as an excellent coating to preserve the quality and safety of fillet.