In order to develop the quality of urban spaces, street furniture seems to be the significant element that defines the city’s social attraction points. It stimulates outdoor spaces because of its location, buildings and sidewalk meet. This study explores the issues of design criteria that introduce sustainability into street furniture design in urban public space in Tunisia. This research is based on the role of street furniture and its importance in urban public spaces, and the possibility of supplementing a recycling design. This paper aims to explore the necessary criteria to design sustainable street furniture in order to present its importance in a way that helps to ameliorate the quality of living in urban areas and cities.
Authors:Muhammad Saad Waheed, Muhammad Jamal, and Manzoor Elahi
Bitumen is a critical component in asphaltic pavements and is often the cause of many road failures. The commercial modifiers that are being used to enhance the properties of bitumen are quite expensive; therefore, this article is dedicated to explore the potential of local crumb rubber as bitumen modifier. Two grades of bitumen pen grade (60/70 and 80/100) were modified with local crumb rubber. Rheological properties of modified and unmodified bitumen were evaluated using Dynamic Shear Rheometer. The results indicated an increase in the rutting resistance of bitumen. This indicates that Local crumb rubber can be used to enhance the properties of bitumen.
In watershed modeling research, it is practical to subdivide a watershed into smaller units or sub-watersheds for modeling purposes. The ability of a model to simulate the watershed system depends on how well watershed processes are represented by the model and how well the watershed system is described by model input. This study is conducted to evaluate the impact of watershed subdivision and different weather input datasets on streamflow simulations using the soil and water assessment tool model. For this purpose, Cuhai-Bakonyér watershed was chosen as a study area. Two climate databases and four subdivision variations levels were evaluated. The model streamflow predictions slightly effected by subdivision impact. The climate datasets showed significant differences in streamflow predictions.
Present paper focuses on the modeling of size effect on the compressive strength of normal strength concrete with the application of discrete element method, considering specimen of different concrete mixes and shapes. An equation was derived to estimate the parallel bond strength from the compressive strength. The results showed a good agreement with the literature and the derived estimation models showed strong correlation with the measurements. The results indicated that size effect is stronger on concretes with lower strength class and that it is more significant on cube specimens than on cylinders. The relationship of model size and computational time was analyzed and a method to decrease the computational time (iterations) was proposed.
Authors:Xue Kang, Gabriella Medvegy, and Yufang Zhou
With the development of economic globalization and the information age, architecture has gradually become a kind of seal of politics, capital and culture, and is divorced from the spirit and life experience of the existing places in the region. Therefore, the field of architecture constantly seeks new research paradigm from the interdisciplinary perspective and reconsiders the creative activities of architecture. From the late last century, with the introduction of architecture by postmodern philosophy, semiotics, geographical psychology, phenomenology and cultural anthropology, there has been a cross-research between architecture and narratology. The recent research hopes to conduct an in-depth analysis of the theory of architectural spatial narrative and its development in the context of complex disciplines, and to research spatial narrative as a design methodology for architecture.
Authors:Seyed Ali Hasheminejad, Khadijeh Valipour, and Hamid Khoshnood
Supply chain management intends to integrate supply chains' activities such as material flow, information flow and financial issues. Material flow management is the most significant issue since the inventory level in the whole supply chain could be optimized by an integrated plan. In other words, when one member of the supply chain plans to reduce its inventory level solely, despite reducing inventory in this node the inventory will be stocked in other partners' warehouses. Therefore, in this paper a new mathematical model has been developed to facilitate the process of finding the optimum solution in economic production, purchase and delivery lots and their schedules in a three-echelon supply chain environment; including raw material in suppliers, manufacturer and assembly facility as a customer. The manufacturer with a flow shop system provides its requirements from supplier, assemble multiple products, and delivers products to the customer (automotive OEM alike) on an optimum multiple delivery points. The delivery cycles would be identified through the production common cycle regarding the supply chain flexibility. Finally, a modified real-valued Genetic Algorithm (MRGA), and an Optimal Enumeration Method (OEM) are developed, and some numerical experiments have been done and compared as well.
Authors:Alaa Sulaiman, Yasser Hunaiti, Mu’tasim Abdel-Jaber, and Ma’en Abdel-Jaber
The axial capacity of light–gauge steel tube columns filled with concrete including recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) aggregates and recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) was investigated. A total of 51 specimens, including 6 bare steel tubes, 30 composite columns and 15 concrete-only columns were tested under uniaxial load. Fifteen concrete mixes were considered by replacing the weight of natural coarse aggregates (NA) with RCA and RAP at replacement levels of 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100%. In addition, RAP and RCA were combined in the same mixes with replacement levels of (1) 20% RAP and 80% RCA; (2) 40% RAP and 60% RCA; (3) 60% RAP and 40% RCA; and (4) 80% RAP and 20% RCA. Experimental results were analyzed by reporting the ultimate capacities and the patterns of failure. Moreover, the predictions of EUROCODE 4 (EC4) and American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) codes were checked. ABAQUS software was used to perform a finite element analysis (FEA) of the tested composite specimens. The results showed that using recycled aggregates decreased the carrying capacity of columns. Carrying capacity of light–gauge steel tubes filled with concrete including different combinations of RCA, NA and RAP aggregates can be conservatively predicted by the AISC and EC4 recommendations. Results of FEA showed a good agreement with the experimental results.
The aim of the study is to create an effective and standard risk assessment tool that provides the company with support and security in purchasing of new products. The goal was to create a tool that complements and standardizes risk assessment forms and shows rapid results. Using the procurement risk management system, the risk associated with a given product can be determined easily and in a short time. In the process, critical areas where hazards may occur can be clearly identified and the risk can be minimized if properly managed.
Authors:Abdulrazak A. Mohammed and Ghassan A. QasMarrogy
Fiber Optic Network is an advanced and modern system technology, which is used in sending pulses of laser light inside a glass of fiber over long distances, widely used in every environment with various sorts of applications in a different field. It is well-known that the main material of fiber optics is glass, therefore it is typical that the temperature can affect the glass during the thermal expansion. This effect will be applied to the properties of the optical components such as refractive index, radius curvature of the fiber optics layers, and also there is an effect on the data transfer through the fiber optics network units. In this paper, the effect of temperature degree on the optical signal and the functions of the fiber optic network will be simulated, measured, and analyzed. The result will be discussed and the conclusion will show the serious points of thermal effects on the optical signal of a fiber-optic network.
Using alternative fuels (AF) in industry high consuming energy where fossil fuels are largely consumed may be a great solution to decrease CO2 emission and cost production. Or, when using these alternative fuels, the combustion may be difficult to control regarding the different components of AFs compared to fossil fuels. In this case, the use of the computational fluid dynamics CFD tools is a great solution to predict the AFs combustion behavior. This paper represents a computational study of petcoke and olive pomace (OP) co-combustion in a cement rotary kiln burner, established on the commercial CFD software ANSYS FLUENT. This study presents a useful key to choose an adequate simulation model that well predicts co-combustion problems. The performance of the K-ϵ turbulence models varieties (standard, Realizable, and Re-Normalization Group) combined with the hybrid finite rate/eddy dissipation model and the simple eddy dissipation model for predicting the co-combustion characteristics was investigated. The particle phase solutions are obtained using the Lagrangian approach. The performance of the mentioned model was evaluated based on the mesh accuracy, convergence time, temperature shape, and important chemical elements concentration. The predicted values of species concentrations and temperature are compared to the results obtained from the real case study and available literature. The standard K-ϵ model combined with the hybrid finite rate/eddy dissipation model gives the best results and the lower computational resources required for the 2-D model realized.