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Abstract

The study focuses on the examination of today's ethnographical approaches and theoretical-methodological paradigms of cultural heritage, as well as everyday social practices related to heritagization (preparing lists of local values and Hungarikums, monumentalization, festivalization, musealization, etc.). In the first part of the paper, the author briefly describes the most common ethnographic approaches to the concept of cultural heritage, as well as the most important related analytical models. He argues for approaching heritage phenomena and their various manifestations (objects, places, and practices) through a kind of ontological framework. Through an empirical example — the analysis of the collection/preservation of values that started after 2010 among the Hungarian minority in Transcarpathia — the study presents the local/regional practices and ritual and symbolic patterns of heritage making in the Western Ukrainian region. Examining the activities of minority political–cultural elites, the author analyzes the transformations of meanings through which the individual local cultural assets or certain accentuated elements become global social realities, for example national/translocal heritage objects.

Open access

Abstract

The spread of antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest challenges of our time, making it difficult to treat bacterial diseases. Pasteurella multocida is a widespread facultative pathogenic bacterium, which causes a wide range of diseases in both mammals and birds. In the present study, antibiotic susceptibility of 155 P. multocida strains were tested using the broth microdilution method to obtain the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for 15 antibiotics. The most effective antibiotics against pasteurellosis were ceftiofur, tetracycline, doxycycline, florfenicol and tilmicosin. Of the strains, 12 proved to be multi-drug resistant (MDR). To combat antibiotic resistance, it is important to establish a pre-treatment antibiotic susceptibility profile. A well-chosen antibiotic would not only make the treatment more successful but may also slow down the spread of resistance and the evolution of MDR strains.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Anna-Chiara Schaub
,
Maximilian Meyer
,
Amos Tschopp
,
Aline Wagner
,
Undine E. Lang
,
Marc Walter
,
Flora Colledge
, and
André Schmidt

Abstract

Background

Exercise dependence (ED) is characterised by behavioural and psychological symptoms that resemble those of substance use disorders. However, it remains inconclusive whether ED is accompanied by similar brain alterations as seen in substance use disorders. Therefore, we investigated brain alterations in individuals with ED and inactive control participants.

Methods

In this cross-sectional neuroimaging investigation, 29 individuals with ED as assessed with the Exercise Dependence Scale (EDS) and 28 inactive control participants (max one hour exercising per week) underwent structural and functional resting-state magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Group differences were explored using voxel-based morphometry and functional connectivity analyses. Analyses were restricted to the striatum, amygdala, and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Exploratory analyses tested whether relationships between brain structure and function were differently related to EDS subscales among groups.

Results

No structural differences were found between the two groups. However, right IFG and bilateral putamen volumes were differently related to the EDS subscales “time” and “tolerance”, respectively, between the two groups. Resting-state functional connectivity was increased from right IFG to right superior parietal lobule in individuals with ED compared to inactive control participants. Furthermore, functional connectivity of the angular gyrus to the left IFG and bilateral caudate showed divergent relationships to the EDS subscale “tolerance” among groups.

Discussion

The findings suggest that ED may be accompanied by alterations in cognition-related brain structures, but also functional changes that may drive compulsive habitual behaviour. Further prospective studies are needed to disentangle beneficial and detrimental brain effects of ED.

Open access

Abstract

Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) have become a major public health problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate efficacy of ceftazidime/avibactam and plazomicin on carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli isolates. Susceptibility of imipenem, meropenem, ertapenem, ceftazidime/avibactam and plazomicin was investigated by broth-microdilution method. Major carbapenemases NDM, VIM, IMP, KPC, OXA-48 as well as other β-lactamases namely, TEM, SHV, OXA-1-like, CTX-M, ACC, FOX, MOX, DHA, CIT, EBC, VEB, GES, PER were investigated by PCR. A total of 120 carbapenem-resistant isolates (60 E. coli and 60 K. pneumoniae) were included in this study and bla OXA-48-like was found in 78.33%, bla NDM in 26.66%, bla KPC in 7.5%, bla IMP in 5.83%, and bla VIM in 5%. Among 94 isolates with the bla OXA-48-like gene, 22.3% were resistant to ceftazidime/avibactam and 51.1% were resistant to plazomicin. Of 32 isolates with bla NDM, 31 (96.9%) were resistant to ceftazidime/avibactam and 30 (93.75%) were resistant to plazomicin, and both antibiotics had limited effects against bla NDM carriers (P < 0.001). Of the 12 isolates with bla NDM+OXA-48 combination, 11 (91.7%) were resistant to ceftazidime/avibactam and plazomicin. The effect of both antibiotics was significantly lower in strains with bla NDM+OXA-48 combination (P < 0.005).

The most common carbapenemase genes in this study were bla OXA-48-like and bla NDM. Ceftazidime/avibactam demonstrated a good efficacy among OXA-48 producing K. pneumoniae and E. coli, however, plazomicin had a significantly lower antibacterial effect in our study. Both antimicrobial agents should be considered as an option by evaluating combined susceptibility results and gene patterns obtained by regional and global molecular data in the treatment of CRE infections.

Restricted access
Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors:
Nadia El mrimar
,
El Mehdi Belouad
,
Elmostafa Benaissa
,
Fatna Bssaibis
,
Mohammed Jazouli
,
My abdelaziz El alaoui
,
Adil Maleb
, and
Mostafa Elouennass

Abstract

The rate of pandrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains is on the rise in all continents. This bacterium can acquire resistance to all antibiotics, even to colistin. Alterations in the lipid A or/and the two-component pmrAB were earlier detected in colistin resistance. We investigated and analyzed two strains of A. baumannii (ABRC1 and ABRC2) isolated from two patients admitted to intensive care unit with a septic shock. Both strains were resistant to all tested antibiotics including colistin with a MIC >256 mg L−1. Colistin resistance genes (pmrA, pmrB, lpxA, lpxC, lpxD, and lpsB) of two strains (ABRC1 and ABRC2) were investigated by PCR and sequencing. Obtained nucleic acid sequences were aligned with reference sequences of ATCC 19606 and 17987. In this study two amino acid mutations, N287D in the lpxC gene and E117K in the lpxD gene, were detected in both ABRC1 and ABRC2 strains. ABRC1 had an additional H200L mutation in the pmrA gene. Both colistin resistant strains harbored the same A138T mutation in the pmrB gene. The ABRC2 strain also had an alteration in the kinase domain, specifically an R263S substitution of the histidine kinase domain. Three identical mutations were found in the lpsB gene of both A. baumannii strains: Q216K + H218G + S219E. As a result, a newly deduced protein sequence in both ABRC1 and ABRC2 strains differed from those described in ATCC 17978 and 19606 strains was determined. Colistin resistance is multifactorial in A. baumannii. In our study we detected novel mutations in colistin resistant A. baumannii clinical isolates.

Restricted access

Abstract

Botrytis cinerea is one of the fungal pathogens with the widest host plant spectrum, causing serious yield losses and significant economic damage in vineyards from year to year. As an ubiquitous, polyphagous fungal pathogen, with both saprophytic and parasitic lifestyle. The sequential use of active substances belonging to the same chemical family to protect vineyards can lead to an increase in fungal chemical resistance, which is reflected in the enrichment of point mutations in the genomic regions coding proteins involved in the mechanism of action of different pesticides. The aim of our studies was to compare the sensitivity to different fungicides of B. cinerea populations in two wine regions with different pest management practices: the Tokaj region, where the presence of B. cinerea is necessary to produce noble rot wines, and the adjacent Eger Region, where a total protection against B. cinerea is desired. Our study is the first Hungarian report of some previously studied resistance mutations in ERG27 and SDHB protein-coding genes. We identified point mutations in ERG27 transmembrane domain that have not been previously described but may affect the emergence of resistance to certain fungicides. Our study shows that the B. cinerea population of the Northern Hungary region is consistently characterized by an increase in fenhexamid resistance.

Open access

Abstract

Conversion of economic microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) into high value-added prebiotic glucans, is not only stimulates utilisation of renewable lignocellulosic biomass, but also provides cheap prebiotics to reduce high incidence of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Herein, glucans (C0.25–C0.50–C1.00) from MCC were prepared by pre-impregnation with dilute sulphuric acid (0.25–0.50–1.00%) and ball-milling treatment for 1 h. NMR spectroscopy and gel-permeation chromatography of the glucan products showed a significant reduction in the degree of polymerisation (DP) and molecular weights (Mw). All prepared glucans improved gut stress evaluated by in vitro digestion and fermentation (young and aging mouse faecal inocula). C1.00 with lower DP and Mw showed better water solubility, earlier peak, and exhibited increased 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl activity, higher ratios of Lactobacillus to Escherichia coli, and a higher level of short chain fatty acids better than C0.25 and C0.50 treatment (P < 0.05). Better prebiotic effects were observed in aging mice than in young mice. The highest ratio of Lactobacillus to E. coli was a 2.13-fold increase for aging mice compared to a 1.79-fold increase for young mice, relative to the initial value after C1.00 treatment. The study provides a novel pathway and a new resource for producing glucan.

Restricted access

NMR characterization of the permeability and structure of Boda Claystone Formation (BCF)

BCF - reservoir rock by NMR

A Bodai Aleurolit Formáció (BAF) permeabilitásának és szerkezetének NMR jellemzése

Scientia et Securitas
Authors:
Vanda Papp
,
Róbert Janovics
, and
Mónika Kéri

Summary

High-level radioactive waste can be safely disposed of in deep geological repositories, for which a possible geological environment in Hungary is the Boda Claystone Formation. In the repository site selection, the geochemical investigation of the host rock is necessary including the structural characterization. In this study, the porosity (p%~1.5% and 5.84%) and the T2cutoff value (0.12 ms and 0.10 ms) of two siliciclastic rock was determined by desktop low-field NMR, the value of which differed from the 3 ms accepted for clay-bound water and the 33 ms for movable water in clastic reservoirs. Based on the T2cutoff, the producible porosity was found to be high, however, based on the T2 distributions, the bound-water types dominate the composition of the water phase of the rock.

Open access

Abstract

Despite growing interest in psychedelic-assisted therapy (PAT) research, there remains a lack of consensus about key issues relevant to difficulties in predicting acute drug effects, and the role of therapeutic support in clinical trials. In the absence of a clear theoretical model to conceptualize multifaceted components in PAT research, dialogue across contexts (e.g., popular media, peer reviewed journals, conference settings) is becoming increasingly polarized and siloed. This has even contributed to somewhat unusual recommendations by the FDA and others that removing critical aspects of psychological and medical safety could enhance our ability to investigate the impact of these drugs on clinical outcomes. Considering the importance of determining and maximizing safety in ongoing PAT research, this commentary suggests that an ecological systems theory (EST) approach provides a structure to make contextual and practical factors a more explicit and testable component of research. Utilizing systems theory and Bronfenbrenner’s EST approach adapted for healthcare settings, we propose that a more detailed conceptual model in PAT research would enable more explicit consideration of contextual factors informing and influencing outcomes. This commentary is accompanied by a custom figure that illustrates application of this model for psychedelic research and highlights the limitations of current measurement of acute subjective experience.

Open access