The common feature of streams in steep sloping watersheds is that there is a significant change from base-flow to flash-flood; sometimes two or three orders of magnitude. In Hungary, these streams are usually ungauged, with lack of available data, and models. The watershed features both urban and natural land use conditions, but the main area is quite homogenic.
This paper evaluates the impact of different model parameterizations, and rainfall duration on flash-flood events in the Morgó-creek watershed. The goal is to find the main parameters that can represent the uncertainty of a flash-flood sensitive area, and how the calibrated and determined parameters take effect on a model if these values are shifted on given intervals.
Nowadays, the use of plastic is very widespread, especially in packaging materials. Most packaging materials are made from fossil-based polymers, which contribute significantly to greenhouse gas emissions. The unprecedented leakage of single-use plastic waste into the environment is a major problem, with negative impacts on both ecosystems and human health. In this study we examine the development of packaging waste and recycled packaging in the European Union over a period of more than 20 years, highlighting changes in the regulatory context; assess the achievements of Hungary so far and forecast the expected developing of packaging volumes and recycling rates; and consider recycling and waste reduction options, including alternative sustainable packaging options. Our forecast based on the evidence shows that Hungary (47.62%), Germany (61.46%), Malta (26.27%), Romania (58.64%) and Croatia (49.41%) are not expected to reach the target set (65% by 2025) in EU legislation. Out of the 27 countries surveyed, 6 (Belgium 88.2%, the Netherlands 87.81%, Luxembourg 76.96%, the Czech Republic 77.79%, Finland 78.75% and Denmark 83.7%) exceeded the expectations, so we show their waste management and waste recycling good practice, as they can serve as good examples for Hungary and other countries.
In this paper, a comprehensive statistics-based review of islanding detection methods (IDMs) in microgrids (MGs) is presented. Islanding detection is the situation of isolating the MG from the main grid whether programmed as a result of load managing purposes or un-programmed due to the occurrence of faults. Islanding detection is a vital issue in MG's analyses due to the prevention of subsequent protection problems in the power system. In other words, when the MG's operation mode changes, the current passing through the protective devices changes subsequently and the protection system should be able to adapt the new settings to the protective devices. So, IDMs are vital for electrical engineers to overcome the abovementioned protection issue. This review paper surveys the existing literature in IDMs by concentration on total publications, type of publications (journal, conference paper, or book), five authors with the highest number of publications (including the affiliations), and five most published sources. Also, the five most cited publications and state-of-the-art IDMs are investigated in detail, utilizing some known and novel categorizations. This paper will be useful for the MG's researchers to know the most desirable IDMs, especially in recent years, and provides an insightful overview for future studies.
The technical and economic effects of the two methods of retrofitting with buckling restrain bracing and using concrete shear wall were investigated. The results of this study showed that using reinforcement, the amount of target displacement in the models was significantly reduced and it was observed that the concrete shear wall had a greater impact on the structure in this regard. The reinforcement methods used in this research have a significant impact on improving the technical performance of structures, which has been more in the strengthening method with concrete shear wall. Also, the evaluations showed that despite the fact that the shear wall of reinforced concrete has a better effect on the performance of the structure from a technical point of view, but in terms of weight, it can be seen that using a buckling brace can be more economical.
This study revealed the system of a lower limb exoskeleton created for knee rehabilitation. The exoskeleton has been extensively used in rehabilitation robotic device research, but its practical applicability is limited due to its high nonlinearity and uncertain behavior. As a result, the control technique is critical in increasing the efficacy of rehabilitation devices. For the rehabilitation and help of a patient with a lower-limb condition, a sliding mode control (SMC) with proportional derivative (PD) control approach are used as parallel loops. Active disturbances rejection control (ADRC) is used by these controllers to cancel any external influences. To overcome the degradation of disturbance rejection and robustness caused by a failure to fully adjust for the entire disturbance, a (SMC) loop was introduced to the control regulation. By assessing performance indices related to the estimated inaccuracy, the results demonstrate the effectiveness of the suggested controller. Simulink is used for simulation and analysis.
Nowadays, there is an increasing demand on environmentally friendly materials, so the environmentally conscious architecture and the use of environmentally friendly materials have also become preferred. It is becoming increasingly important to turn from artificial materials to products made from renewable raw materials. The straw quilt, which is considered to be a new, innovative product on the Hungarian construction market, can provide an alternative for this need. The aim of this research was to investigate the material properties and possible uses of straw quilt thermal insulation. Laboratory tests were performed before the product was placed on the market. The results have shown that it has several advantageous properties that can make it competitive in the market of thermal insulation materials.
A Cross-Vault System’s Relative Periodisation Based on Geometric Analysis •
The Vaulting System of the Apse of the Inner City Parish Church of Budapest
Egy keresztboltozat-rendszer relatív periodizációja •
A Budapest-Belvárosi Nagyboldogasszony Főplébánia-templom szentélyboltozat-rendszere
The cross-vault system of the Inner City Parish Church of Budapest was the subject of numerous scientific works so far. In our present article, we aimed to supplement the information known about the vaults by providing exact geometric data gathered via laser scanning. Based on this data, we attempted to filter out common characteristics of the individual vaults, regarding the geometry of their ribs, their webs and the positions of their keystones. As a result, we proved that the cross vaults composing the system cannot be hallmarked as the remains of a given building period, and even within a given cross vault, more building periods can appear. Combining the results of the different geometric analyses, we concluded six distinct scenarios concerning the relative periodisation of the elements composing the cross-vault system, complemented by the evaluation of these. Thus, in the present article, we give an example of how to use point cloud-based building survey techniques to approach the questions of a given building’s relative periodisations.
A historizmus léptékváltó építkezései a budai polgárvárosban
Large Scale Residential Building Investments in Buda Castle District Between the Compromise and the First World War
A gótika építészetén nem szokás számon kérni, hogy a 15. században miért bontottak le egy román kori félköríves szentélyt egy sokszor ugyanakkora sokszögzáródású kedvéért, és egy barokk kastélytól sem várjuk, hogy a korábbi épületperiódusokhoz érzékenyen viszonyuljon léptékében egy 18. századi építészeti megoldás. A historizmus is megérdemli, hogy saját vonatkoztatási rendszerében szemléljük, és egy pillanatra eltekintsünk attól a szereptől, amibe a jelenkor kényszeríti a várbéli – nagyrészt már rég elpusztult – házakat. A budai vár területe a kiegyezés után lendületes fejlődésen ment keresztül, a királyi palota Ybl Miklós, majd Hauszmann Alajos tervei szerint kiépült, és nagy állami intézmények kaptak működésükhöz szükséges korszerű és monumentális épületeket elsősorban a Várhegy déli felén. Elkészült a Mátyás-templom purista szellemű helyreállítása és festői látványkerete, a Halászbástya Schulek Frigyes tervei szerint. Eközben a polgárváros telkein kisebb telekösszevonások, átalakítások és nagyobb léptékű építkezések is történtek, melyekre nagyrészt már nem is emlékszünk. A II. világháború rombolása után a napvilágra került – és a műemlékvédelem-tudomány fejlődése nyomán már más súlyon értékelt – középkori egyedi emlékek és a korai települési karakter új szemléletű helyreállításokat hoztak. A léptékükben nagyobb volumenű historizáló épületek megőrzése a 20. század közepének szemléletébe nem illeszkedett. Az előadás olyan példákat mutatott be, ahol a később már elavult, de a maga idejében korszerűnek tartott elképzelések szerint terveztek átépítéseket és új palotákat a budai vár polgárvárosába.
Appliances used in everyday life, like smart phones, notebooks; do-it-yourself machineries usually operate with battery instead of power supply. It means comfort to users however; they expose them to different dangers. In the last few years, several fire cases happened in connection with these appliances while charging and usage, which have driven the attention to the dangers of battery technology. Regarding the actuality of the topic, combustion products developing during the burning process of batteries with 1:1 ratio burning experiments were investigated, experiences and results from that are represented in this paper. The aim of the research is to call the attention to the flammability properties of lithium-ion and other batteries, the possible dangers and in case of fire to support the involved personnel.
Most error-resilient media processing applications use multipliers as their basic building blocks. These are power-consumption and computationally intensive modules. In the existing works, several types of the multipliers were used to improve the hardware capacity, but those methods did not provide sufficient results. Therefore, in this manuscript, a Baugh-Wooley Multiplier design using Multiple Control Toffoli (MCT) and Multiple Control Fredrick gate (MCF) Reversible Logic gate (BWM-MCT-MCF) will be analyzed. Initially, Reversible Full Adder (RFA) is designed using Multiple Control Toffoli and Multiple Control Fredrick gate Reversible Logic gates. Then the proposed Reversible Full Adder is used in Baugh-Wooley Multiplier. By this, it reduces the hardware complexity with higher speed, lower area, lower power consumption. The proposed BWM-MCT-MCF multiplier is implemented in MATLAB, its performance shows lower Garbage output 22.78%, 24.88%, 20.95% compared with the existing designs, like BWM-FG-FRG, BWM-RL-TG, BWM-TG-FG respectively. Then the designed BWM-MCT-MCF is implemented using Xilinx ISE tool with the Virtex 5 device. From this, the performance of the proposed FPGA-BWM-MCT-MCF method shows lower delay 23.77%, 16.86% compared with the existing designs, like FPGA-BWM-RL-TG, FPGA-BWM-TG-FG respectively.