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Pilóta nélküli légi járművek alkalmazása a vizes élőhelyek modern felmérésében

Application of unmanned aerial vehicles as modern tools for wetland monitoring

Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors:
Réka Döbröntey
,
János Grósz
,
Judit Rita Keleti
,
Tamás Szegi
,
Márta Fuchs
,
Erika Michéli
, and
Ádám Csorba

A vizes élőhelyek a vízi és a szárazföldi ökoszisztémák között elhelyezkedő, igen változatos, és általában nehezen lehatárolható területek. Kiemelt jelentőségük annak köszönhető, hogy bár csak a globális szárazföldi területek mintegy 6–7%-át borítják, kulcsfontosságú szerepet játszanak az éghajlat szabályozásában, a vizes ökoszisztémák biodiverzitásának és hidrológiai viszonyainak fenntartásában, valamint számos további ökológiai és társadalmi funkciót is szolgáltatnak, beleértve az árvízvédelmi, víztisztítási, szén-dioxid-tárolási, élőhelytámogatási és kulturális, rekreációs előnyöket. A vizes élőhelyek azonban mind természetes, mind antropogén hatások következtében térben és időben is dinamikusan változnak, ezért védelmük és megfigyelésük napjainkra igen fontos kutatási területté nőtte ki magát. A műholdas távérzékelés nagyobb területek egyidejű megfigyelését teszi lehetővé, azonban érzékeny a felhőzetre és a légköri hatásokra, bizonytalanságot okozva ezzel az eredményekben. A hagyományos monitoring technológiák mellett a pilóta nélküli légi járművek térnyerése egyre kifejezettebb, köszönhetően rugalmasságának, hatékonyságának és alacsony költségének, miközben nagy térbeli és időbeli felbontású, szisztematikus adatszolgáltatásra képes. Tanulmányunk a pilóta nélküli légi járművek alkalmazási lehetőségeibe nyújt betekintést a vizes élőhelyek felmérésében, valamint áttekinti és összehasonlítja az egyéb távérzékelés technológiák alkalmazhatóságát ezen területek megfigyelésében. Célja, hogy elősegítse a dróntechnológia további terjedését és széles körű alkalmazását a vizes élőhelyek monitorozásában.

Open access

Abstract

Introduction

APC and TP53 are the two most regularly mutated genes in colon adenocarcinoma (COAD), especially in progressive malignancies and antitumoral immune response. The current bioinformatics analysis investigates the APC and TP53 gene expression profile in colon adenocarcinoma as a prognostic characteristic for survival, particularly concentrating on the correlated immune microenvironment.

Methods

Clinical and genetic data of colon cancer and normal tissue samples were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)-COAD and Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) online databases, respectively. The genetic differential expressions were analyzed in both groups via the one-way ANOVA test. Kaplan–Meier survival curves were applied to estimate the overall survival (OS). P < 0.05 was fixed as statistically significant. On Tumor Immune Estimation Resource and Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis databases, the linkage between immune cell recruitment and APC and TP53 status was assessed through Spearman's correlation analysis.

Results

APC and TP53 were found mutated in 66.74% and 85.71% of the 454 and 7 TCGA-COAD patients in colon and rectosigmoid junction primary sites, respectively with a higher log2-transcriptome per million reads compared to the GTEx group (318 samples in sigmoid and 368 samples in transverse). Survival curves revealed a worse significant OS for the high-APC and TP53 profile colon. Spearman's analysis of immune cells demonstrated a strong positive correlation between the APC status and infiltration of T cell CD4+, T cell CD8+, NK cell, and macrophages and also a positive correlation between status and infiltration of T cell CD4+, T cell CD8+.

Conclusions

APC and TP53 gene mutations prevail in colon cancer and are extremely associated with poor prognosis and shortest survival. The infiltrating T cell CD4+, T cell CD8+, NK cell, and macrophages populate the colon microenvironment and regulate the mechanisms of tumor advancement, immune evasion, and sensitivity to standard chemotherapy. More comprehensive research is needed to demonstrate these results and turn them into new therapeutic outlooks.

Open access

Abstract

Incidence rates of human Campylobacter jejuni infections are progressively increasing globally. Since the risk for the development of post-infectious autoimmune diseases correlates with the severity of the preceding enteritis and campylobacteriosis treatment usually involves symptomatic measures, it is desirable to apply antibiotic-independent compounds to treat or even prevent disease. Given its health-promoting including anti-inflammatory properties carvacrol constitutes a promising candidate. This prompted us to test the disease-alleviating including immune-modulatory effects of carvacrol prophylaxis in acute murine campylobacteriosis. Therefore, human gut microbiota-associated IL-10−/− mice were orally challenged with synthetic carvacrol starting a week before C. jejuni infection and followed up until day 6 post-infection. Whereas carvacrol prophylaxis did neither affect gastrointestinal pathogen loads, nor the human commensal gut microbiota composition, it improved the clinical outcome of mice, attenuated colonic epithelial cell apoptosis, and dampened pro-inflammatory immune responses not only in the intestinal tract but also in extra-intestinal organs including the liver and the spleen. In conclusion, our preclinical placebo-controlled intervention study provides convincing evidence that oral carvacrol pretreatment constitutes a promising option to mitigate acute campylobacteriosis and in turn, to reduce the risk for post-infectious complications.

Open access
European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors:
Niraj Jatin Patel
,
Sahaja Thippani
,
Jasmine Jathan
,
Gauri Gaur
,
Janhavi Y. Sawant
,
Jay M. Pandya
, and
Eva Sapi

Abstract

Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, has recently been demonstrated to infect and enhance the invasive properties of breast cancer cells, while also influencing the expression of inflammatory chemokines (CXCL8 and CXCL10). This study investigates the presence of B. burgdorferi in invasive breast cancer tissues using commercially available, FDA-approved breast cancer tissue microarrays consisting of 350 ductal, 32 lobular, and 22 intraductal invasive breast carcinomas, alongside 29 normal breast tissues. Employing fluorescent immunohistochemical staining and high-resolution imaging, the findings revealed that approximately 20% of invasive lobular and ductal carcinomas, followed by 14% of intraductal carcinomas, tested positive for B. burgdorferi, while all normal breast tissues tested negative. PCR analysis further confirmed the presence of B. burgdorferi DNA in breast cancer tissues. Moreover, 25% of B. burgdorferi-positive tissues exhibited expression of both chemokines, CXCL8 and CXCL10, which was not observed in B. burgdorferi-negative tissues. Analysis of available patient data, including age, indicated a correlation between older patients and B. burgdorferi-positive tissues. This study validates the presence of B. burgdorferi in invasive breast cancer tissues and highlights the involvement of key CXCL family members associated with inflammatory processes.

Open access

Abstract

In this work, an assessment of effective solvents and extraction methods was carried out to recover the bioactive compounds from hawthorn fruit (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.). Extractions assisted by heat, microwave, and ultrasound were carried out using various organic solvents (methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol). pH differential, Folin–Ciocalteu's, and aluminum chloride methods were used to determine total monomeric anthocyanin (TMA), total phenolic compound (TPC), and total flavonoid content (TFC), consecutively. Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP), 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl Hydrate (DPPH), and 2,2′- azino- bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6- sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assays were used to measure the antioxidant activity (AA) of the extracts. The outputs revealed that extraction methods and solvents significantly affect anthocyanin concentration, TPC, TFC, AA, and color values of hawthorn fruit extracts. Due to the highest recovered TMA (0.152 ± 0.002 mg ECy3Gl/g of dry weight), TPC (49.14 ± 0.38 mg gallic acid equivalents/g of dry weight), and TFC (18.38 ± 0.19 mg quercetin equivalents/g of dry weight) contents, the ultrasonic-assisted extraction is superior to heat and microwave-assisted extractions. Accordingly, it was also observed that the methanol solvent is more profound than ethanol and isopropanol. Further, the bioactive compounds' content and the extracts' antioxidant activity are shown to be highly correlated. Thus, hawthorn extracts are considered to have antioxidant properties because of their concentrated bioactive compounds.

Open access

Abstract

Vitamin C plays a multifaceted role in various biological processes and is well-known to facilitate pleiotropic activities in both innate and adaptive immune responses, where the antioxidant capacity of vitamin C is most likely highly relevant since immune responses mainly occur in reducing environments. Beyond its antioxidant properties, vitamin C can enhance the transcription potential of genes by promoting DNA demethylation through ten-eleven-translocation (Tet) methylcytosine dioxygenases, which have been recently demonstrated to be critical for the development and differentiation of T cells. In this minireview, we will provide a broader overview on the impact of vitamin C on signaling and regulatory activities in both innate and adaptive immune cells. Particularly, we will summarize recent findings on the decisive role of finely tuned vitamin C concentrations for T cell development, T helper cell differentiation, and optimal T cell-mediated immune responses.

Open access
European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors:
Péter Pallós
,
Márió Gajdács
,
Edit Urbán
,
Yvett Szabados
,
Klaudia Szalai
,
Lívia Hevesi
,
Anna Horváth
,
Anna Kuklis
,
Devina Morjaria
,
Wajiha Iffat
,
Helal F. Hetta
,
Nicola Piredda
, and
Matthew Gavino Donadu

Abstract

The clinical role of Acinetobacter baumannii has been highlighted in numerous infectious syndromes with a high mortality rate, due to the high prevalence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates. The treatment and eradication of this pathogen is hindered by biofilm-formation, providing protection from noxious environmental factors and antimicrobials. The aim of this study was to assess the antibiotic susceptibility, antiseptic susceptibility and biofilm-forming capacity using phenotypic methods in environmental A. baumannii isolates. One hundred and fourteen (n = 114) isolates were collected, originating from various environmental sources and geographical regions. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out using the disk diffusion method, while antiseptic susceptibility was performed using the agar dilution method. Determination of biofilm-forming capacity was carried out using a microtiter-plate based method. Resistance in environmental A. baumannii isolates were highest for ciprofloxacin (64.03%, n = 73), levofloxacin (62.18%, n = 71) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (61.40%, n = 70), while lowest for colistin (1.75%, n = 2). Efflux pump overexpression was seen in 48.25% of isolates (n = 55), 49.12% (n = 56) were classified as MDR. 6.14% (n = 7), 9.65% (n = 11), 24.65% (n = 28) and 59.65% (n = 68) of isolates were non-biofilm producers, weak, medium, and strong biofilm producers, respectively. No significant differences were observed between non-MDR vs. MDR isolates regarding their distribution of biofilm-producers (P = 0.655). The MIC ranges for the tested antiseptics were as follows: benzalkonium chloride 16–128 μg mL−1, chlorhexidine digluconate 4–128 μg mL−1, formaldehyde 64–256 μg mL−1 and triclosan 2–16 μg mL−1, respectively. The conscientious use of antiseptics, together with periodic surveillance, is essential to curb the spread of these bacteria, and to maintain current infection prevention capabilities.

Open access
Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
V. László
,
D. Szakos
,
V. Csizmadiáné Czuppon
, and
Gy. Kasza

Abstract

Consumer trust is essential to any market but particularly relevant to the food sector. Sustainable food systems require integration of small-scale food producers, for them consumer trust is pivotal. However, comprehensive measurement of consumer trust regarding local food is a less explored area. Based on the adjusted version of Benson's trust toolkit, local food trust was measured on four levels. This approach, connecting locality/proximity to food-related trust, was tested with a representative quantitative consumer survey (n = 1,001) in Hungary. Interpersonal trust, general organisation trust, local food chain trust, and local food product trust were measured on a 5-point Likert scale. Correlation and boxplot analysis conducted revealed that trust levels correlate significantly but remain independent from demographic characteristics, indicating that trust in local food is not region-, education-, or income-specific amongst Hungarian consumers. A relatively high level of consumer trust was measured for local food products and producers compared to other stakeholders, strengthening the assumption for the proximity-trust relationship regarding food. This is a key factor for small-scale food producers: only shared values with the local community and earned trust can attract customers despite less flexibility with pricing and limited capacity for advertising.

Open access

Abstract

Extensive use of carbapenems may lead to selection pressure for Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (SM) in hospital environments. The aim of our study was to assess the possible association between systemic antibiotic use and the incidence of SM. A retrospective, observational study was carried out in a tertiary-care hospital in Hungary, between January 1st 2010 and December 31st 2019. Incidence-density for SM and SM resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) was standardized for 1000 patient-days, while systemic antibiotic use was expressed as defined daily doses (DDDs) per 100 patient-days. Mean incidence density for SM infections was 0.42/1000 patient-days; 11.08% were were resistant to SXT, the mean incidence density for SXT-resistant SM was 0.047/1000 patient-days. Consumption rate for colistin, glycopeptides and carbapenems increased by 258.82, 278.94 and 372.72% from 2010 to 2019, respectively. Strong and significant positive correlations were observed with the consumption of carbapenems (r: 0.8759; P < 0.001 and r: 0.8968; P < 0.001), SXT (r: 0.7552; P = 0.011 and r: 0.7004; P = 0.024), and glycopeptides (r: 0.7542; P = 0.012 and r: 0.8138; P < 0.001) with SM and SXT-resistant SM incidence-density/1000 patient-days, respectively. Implementation of institutional carbapenem-sparing strategies are critical in preserving these life-saving drugs, and may affect the microbial spectrum of infections in clinical settings.

Open access

Abstract

Lycium barbarum contains a variety of phytochemicals, primarily polysaccharides, and other potent compounds. L. barbarum is a plant that has several uses in contemporary society, including food processing and everyday eating. However, through traditional processing methods the medicinal or edible value of L. barbarum cannot be fully exploited, to further improve the utilisation rate of L. barbarum and enrich the variety of L. barbarum market. The L. barbarum compound beverage, which uses L. barbarum as its primary ingredient, was created through a series of trials, including the creation of tea beverage recipes and research on the most suitable content of stabilisers, flavouring agent formulations and so on. In addition, several validation tests, including those involving hypoglycaemic and lipid-lowering were conducted. The results indicated that 0.1 g mL−1 stabiliser CMC-Na, 0.2 g mL−1 erythritol, 3 g mL−1 citric acid, 8% L. barbarum juice, and 6% chrysanthemum tea cold brew extract were the best combinations for food additive formulations. Additionally, compound beverages have hypoglycemic and lipid-lowering effects. In conclusion, the research and development of L. barbarum compound beverages can not only increase the rate at which L. barbarum is utilised but also offer fresh ideas for the research and development of L. barbarum as they transition from cash crop agricultural products to market-oriented standardised processed products.

Restricted access