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A successful management and preservation of the natural populations depend on accurate assessment of genetic diversity. Knowing the genetic diversity within a population is important for choosing the conservation strategies for the species. The genus Carpinus belonging to Coryloideae, Betulaceae, has significant economic and ornamental importance. Determination of the taxa in the genus Carpinus in Iran is one of the most controversial issues among the researchers; for example, we can see this claim in the recent botanical literatures such as Sabeti and Browicz. However, two good species namely C. betulus L. and C. orientalis Mill. are the main species in Iran, adjacent regions and also in Europe. In general, taxonomic and biosystematics studies of the Carpinus are not known in Iran, moreover, in few cases, inter-specific hybrids and intermediate forms are recognised. A detailed molecular (ISSR) study of the Carpinus is done here with the following objectives: 1) to delimitate the species; 2) to carry out population genetic study and produce information on genetic structure, genetic variability within each population in Carpinus betulus and C. orientalis. In present study, 85 randomly collected plants from 17 geographical populations of two Carpinus species were considered. Our results indicated that ISSR markers can be used as a reliable and informative technique for evaluation of genetic diversity and relationships among Carpinus species.

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Pollen morphology of 16 species belonging to 8 different families; Apocynaceae, Brassicaceae, Capparaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, Solanaceae and Zygophyllaceae were analysed from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa with the help of microscopic techniques. Both qualitative and quantitative features of pollen were examined including polar and equatorial diameter, colpus length and width, exine sculpturing, pores number, pollen shape, number of sterile and fertile pollen using Leica microscope (D1000) fitted with camera Meiji Infinity 1 and examined statistically by software IBM SPSS Statistics 20. Pollen observed were small to large with suboblate, oblate-spheroidal, prolate-spheroidal and subprolate shape. Exine ornamentations were reticulate and psilate type in all the studied plants. Colpi and pores of the selected plants observed are tricolporate, tricolpate and monoporate. The present study showed that both spring and autumn seasons are the prominent seasons for honey production and beekeeping industries in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Brassica camp-estris is the most visited species by honeybees in the study area. Melliferous plants gave knowledge about botanical origin of honey and geographical origin of honeybees. The current study identified numerous bee forage plants which may help to raise the concept of cultivation of melliferous herbaceous plants by the local people, to be used for honey production. The identification of these potential sources may help the beekeepers to increase the honey production and increase in agricultural yields through pollinations.

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Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors: T. Pócs, J. G. Graham, M. von Konrat, and J. Larraín

Enumeration and distributional data of 28 liverworts new to Peru are presented, accompanied by taxonomic annotations, phytogeographical evaluation and illustrations. Remarkable new Peruvian records include the very rare northern Andean endemic Platycaulis renifolia as well as Frullania pearceana, hitherto known only from its type locality in Bolivia. Oil bodies are described for the first time in the genus Platycaulis and male branches are newly observed in Radula yanoella, a species hitherto known only in sterile state.

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In view of the ongoing rarity of Ecbolium ligustrinum there is an urgent need for conservation of the species. For this, a detailed work was carried out regarding the untold story of its reproductive ecology. The work was done for three consecutive years (2015–2017) at Midnapore, West Bengal over three different populations collected from three different areas of West Bengal. Field data were also recorded from these three wild populations. The species produces gullet flowers with bi-labiate corolla having long slender tubes. The flowers exhibit one day of longevity. The flowers are visited by 10 species of insects. Among those, four species viz. Eristalis tenax, a Dipteran member and three ant species of Hymenoptera such as Camponotus sp., Formica sp. and Monomorium sp. are the effective pollinators. As per pollination efficiency, Eristalis tenax (PE i = 0.76) is the most successful one. The flowers are shortly protandrous (dichogamous) and passed by three distinct reproductive (male, bisexual and female) phases. The breeding system clearly depicts that the species is facultatively xenogamous supported by myophilous mode of pollination. However, geitonogamous type of pollination is also observed through myrmecophily, an atypical instance found in plants. Lastly, the plant retained some sort of autogamy through ‘fail-safe’ mechanism of pollination, an adaptation which might be developed in absence of pollinators. Therefore, undoubtedly it can be concluded that E. ligustrinum is a partially self-incompatible (ISI = 0.27) species having a mixed mating system, adapted for xenogamy through specialised mode of plant-pollinator interactions.

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The Carpathian Mts, showing the highest lichen biodiversity in Ukraine, i.e. 1,395 species of 2,106 of the total Ukrainian lichens, have been found to contain the highest proportion of regionally unique taxa (i.e. so far recorded only from the Carpathian Mts) (i.e. 551 species, or 39.5% of the Carpathian and 26.2% of the total Ukrainian lichen flora). Species diversity of widely distributed lichens (i.e. which hitherto known from all five macroregions of Ukraine), as well as ‘scarcely distributed’ lichens (i.e. missing at least in one or more macroregions) are also discussed. Representation of these three groups of lichens in the geomorphological districts of the Carpathian Mts and the administrative oblasts Zakarpattia, Lviv, Ivano-Frankivsk and Chernivtsi is shown.

The Chornohora Mts, a district of the Carpathian Mts, found to show the highest proportion of species so far recorded from this district of the Carpathian Mts, while the Eastern Beskydy and the Gorgany Mts are characterised hitherto by the highest species diversity of lichens. That is established that among geomorphological districts of Zakarpattia oblast, the Eastern Beskydy and the Gorgany Mts parts of Zakarpattia oblast territory are characterised by the highest number of species of lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi in the Carpathian macroregion (674 and 611 species, respectively), and the proportion of regionally unique taxa in these two florae is also the highest (483 species or 71.6% and 453 species or 74.1%, respectively). Lichens of the Chyvchyn Mts of Ivano-Frankivsk oblast are found to be the most diverse in this oblast (344 species totally), and they include the highest proportion of regionally unique taxa (171 species or 49.7%). The Eastern Beskydy Mts, part of Lviv oblast territory, the only part of this oblast in the Carpathian Mts, are found to be represented by 224 lichen species of which 32 (i.e. 14.3%) are regionally unique to the Carpathian Mts.

List of the rarest taxa of the regionally unique group (hitherto known from single or a few localities) proposed as candidates for including to regional red lists of Zakarpattia, Lviv, Ivano-Frankivsk and Chernivtsi oblasts since the whole nature protection activity in Ukraine is done according to oblast division. 254 lichen species are proposed for including in the red list of Zakarpattia oblast, while 44, 4 and 9 species in the red lists of Ivano-Frankivsk, Lviv and Chernivtsi oblasts, respectively. The smallest amount of these taxa is proposed for the red list of Lviv oblast, which includes also the Forest zone of the Ukrainian Plains.

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Mohsen Heidary, Maryam Shirani, Melika Moradi, Mehdi Goudarzi, Ramin Pouriran, Tayebe Rezaeian, and Saeed Khoshnood

Abstract

Early diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB), followed by effective treatment, is the cornerstone of global TB control efforts. An estimated 3 million cases of TB remain undetected each year. Early detection and effective management of TB can prevent severe disease and reduce mortality and transmission. Intrinsic and acquired drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) severely restricted the anti-TB therapeutic options, and public health policies are required to preserve the new medications to treat TB. In addition, TB and HIV frequently accelerate the progression of each other, and one disease can enhance the other effect. Overall, TB-HIV co-infections show an adverse bidirectional interaction. For HIV-infected patients, the risk of developing TB disease is approximately 22 times higher than for persons with a protective immune response. Analysis of the current TB challenges is critical to meet the goals of the end TB strategy and can go a long way in eradicating the disease. It provides opportunities for global TB control and demonstrates the efforts required to accelerate eliminating TB. This review will discuss the main challenges of the TB era, including resistance, co-infection, diagnosis, and treatment.

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Abstract

Antibiotic resistance constitutes a global threat to the health care systems. The number of infections due to multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria increases progressively resulting in an estimated annual number of 750,000 fatal cases worldwide. Additionally, the lack of novel antibiotic compounds worsens the dilemma. Hence, there is an urgent need for alternative ways to fight antibiotic resistance. One option may be natural compounds with antibacterial properties such as hop and its biologically active ingredients which are used in traditional medicine since ancient times. This prompted us to perform an actual literature survey regarding the antibacterial properties of biologically active ingredients in hop including humulone, lupulone and xanthohumol. The 20 included studies revealed that lupulone and xanthohumol do in fact inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria in vitro. In combination with distinct antibiotic compounds the hop ingredients can even exert synergistic effects resulting in enhanced antibiotic activities against defined Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In conclusion, biologically active ingredients in hop including lupulone and xanthohumol may be potential antibiotic compounds which either alone or in combination with other antibacterial substances open novel avenues in the combat of infections caused by pathogenic including MDR bacteria.

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Egy köles tájfajta műtrágya-reakciójának vizsgálata

Examination of the reaction to fertilization of regional millet variety

Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors: Zsembeli Zsadány, Sinka Lúcia, Tüdősné Budai Júlia, Kovács Györgyi, Tuba Géza, and Zsembeli József

Kutatómunkák általános célja olyan kísérletek végzése, amelyek feltárják az adott régióban perspektivikusan termeszthető fajták, illetve tájfajták optimális műtrágyázási igényeit. Tanulmányunkban a Karcagon nemesített és fenntartott ’Maxi’ köles tájfajta tápanyagreakciójának vizsgálatából származó eredményeinket mutatjuk be a módosított Országos Műtrágyázási Tartamkísérlet (OMTK) 2017. évi és az annak figyelembevételével 2021-ben beállított Műtrágyázási Kísérleti Kert (MKK) adatai alapján. A kísérleteket Karcagon, a MATE Karcagi Kutatóintézetben, egy mélyben szolonyeces réti csernozjom talajon állítottuk be. 2017-ben a módosított OMTK kezelései 4 nitrogén (40, 80, 120, 160 kg ha 1), 4 foszfor (0, 40, 80, 100 kg ha 1) és 3 kálium (0, 60, 90 kg ha 1) dózis kombinációjából adódtak, illetve volt egy műtrágyázás nélküli abszolút kontroll. 2021-ben az MKK kezelései 3 nitrogén (40, 80, 120 kg ha 1), 3 foszfor (0, 40, 80 kg ha 1) és 2 kálium (0, 60 kg ha 1) dózis kombinációját foglalták magukba, illetve mindegyik parcella felére növénykondicionáló szert juttatunk ki. A termesztett növény mindkét évben a karcagi nemesítésű ’Maxi’ kölesfajta volt. A különböző kezeléscsoportok termésre gyakorolt hatásának statisztikai értékelését egytényezős varianciaanalízissel végeztük el. Mindkét vizsgálati évben a 80 kg ha 1 hatóanyag mennyiségben kijuttatott nitrogén műtrágyázás bizonyult a leginkább megfelelőnek. A magas foszfor dózisok a legtöbb esetben termésdepresszióhoz vezettek. Eredményeink alapján még a közepes – jó kálium ellátottságú karcagi talajokon is hasznos lehet a kálium kijuttatása, bár a káliumtrágyázás termésre gyakorolt hatását a varianciaanalízis nem igazolta. Az Algomel PUSH szerrel végzett növénykondicionálás statisztikailag is igazolhatóan, mintegy 10%-kal növelte a termés nagyságát. Kutatómunkánk folytatásával pontosabban meghatározható lesz számos tájfajta tápanyagreakciója és fajtaspecifikus, a helyi agroökológiai viszonyokat is figyelembe vevő tápanyag dózisok és kombinációk ajánlhatók a gazdálkodóknak.

The general objective of our research is to carry out experiments that are suitable to reveal the optimal fertilization demand of regionally bred or potentially producible crop varieties for a specific region. In our recent study, the results gained from the examination of the nutrient reaction of the regional millet variety ‘Maxi’ bred and maintained in Karcag are introduced based on the data originating from the modified Long-term National Fertilization Experiments (OMTK) in 2017 and from the Fertilization Experimental Garden (MKK) established at Karcag in 2021. Both experiments were set up in the MATE Research Institute of Karcag on a meadow chernozem soil salty in the deeper layers. In 2017, there were 4 nitrogen (40, 80, 120, 160 kg ha−1), 4 phosphorus (0, 40, 80, 100 kg ha−1), and 3 potassium (0, 60, 90 kg ha−1) dosage combinations applied and one unfertilized absolute control in the OMTK trial. In 2021, in the MKK experiment, treatments involved 3 nitrogen (40, 80, 120 kg ha−1), 3 phosphorus (0, 40, 80 kg ha−1), and 2 potassium (0, 60 kg ha−1) dosage combinations, furthermore, on half of the plots a plant conditioner was sprayed. Millet variety ‘Maxi’ bred at Karcag was the indicator crop in both years. For the statistical analysis of the effect of the various treatment groups on yields, One-way ANOVA tests were used. We considered the 80 kg ha−1 nitrogen substance dose the most suitable in both years. High dosage of phosphorus application resulted in yield depression in most of the cases. Based on our results, potassium fertilization can be effective even on the soils of Karcag with medium to good potassium supplies, though the analysis of variance did not justify the effect of K-fertilization on yields. The 10% yields increase due to plant conditioning with Algomel PUSH was statistically proven. By continuing or research, the reaction to fertilization of several regional crop varieties can be determined more precisely, and variety-specific nutrient doses and combinations can be determined and suggested to the local famers taking the regional agri-ecological conditions into consideration.

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Abstract

Effect of adding foxtail millet flour (FMF) (10, 20, and 30% w/w) to refined wheat flour (RWF) on physicochemical and rheological properties of dough was studied. Qualitative properties of Brotchen bread including moisture, ash, crude fibre, specific volume, and colour of the breads were evaluated. Adding FMF to the flour increased crude fibre, fat, ash, and protein contents and reduced falling number, damaged starch and wet gluten contents, and sample lightness. Consistograph test indicated that addition of the FMF decreased water absorption capacity, maximum pressure, and tolerance, however, drops in pressure at 250 and 450 s became greater. Alveograph test revealed that with adding FMF, dough resistance to extension and dough strength decreased but an increase in dough extensibility was obtained at FMF30%. Increasing the amount of FMF resulted in a decrease in the volume of the bread, and the FMB (foxtail millet bread) 30% had the highest browning index and b*. The FMB20% had the highest resilience and springiness, while higher level of foxtail (30%) increased chewiness.

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Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine whether the physicochemical factors of the matrix and the traditional acid-set cheese-making conditions allow the growth of coagulase-positive staphylococci (CoPS) and the synthesis of enterotoxins, which should contribute to an objective risk assessment in cheese production related to CoPS. CoPS were isolated from 72% of acid-set cheeses ranging from 1.70 to 5.15 log10 CFU g−1. CoPS in a number ≥ 4 log10 CFU g−1 were determined in 5.56% of the acid-set cheese samples. Out of the total number of CoPS isolated from cheese, 37.62% of the isolates have been shown to produce enterotoxins. All isolated strains that produced enterotoxins were identified as Staphylococcus aureus based on the detection of spa gene by PCR. For cheese-derived isolates with CoPS number ≥ 4 log10 CFU g−1, it has been proven that they possess sec gene encoding staphylococcal enterotoxin C. According to our results, during the proper fermentation process of artisanal acid-set cheese, the conditions do not support the growth of a critical level of staphylococci or the production of enterotoxins.

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