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Abstract

This study investigates sustainable methods for producing protein from soybean expeller via pH-shifting processes, aiming to reduce water usage in alkaline extraction by adjusting solid-to-liquid ratios per cycle and employing isoelectric precipitants like lactic acid and lactic acid bacteria (Lactiplantibacillus plantarum and Lactococcus Lactis) to enhance functional and antioxidant properties over a wide pH range. Results indicate that the most efficient approach involves three 1:10 (w/v) extraction cycles with lactic acid bacteria as precipitants, demonstrating high productivity and low specific water consumption. Protein content and recovery yield showed no significant differences compared to alternatives with higher water consumption or less eco-friendly precipitants. Despite lower solubility, protein products precipitated with lactic acid bacteria formed stable emulsions, exhibiting superior free radical scavenging activity.

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Abstract

The present paper deals with a marginal divergent spelling consisting in the geminatio of a consonant littera in pre- or post-consonantal position. The phenomenon is found in both Latin and Greek non-literary texts. The analysis is conducted on two levels, one grapho-phonological and one historical. In fact, the phenomenon results to be particularly relevant as for the relation between spelling and syllabic representation of heterosyllabic clusters and as for the dimension of contact between Latin and Greek scripts. First, a synchronic cut of Latin non-literary texts is examined to evaluate the occurrence of this geminatio and its ratio of distribution along the different types of clusters. It can be stated that the geminatio at hand represents a metagraphic signal of syllab(ific)ation indeterminacy, as is further corroborated by the examination of metalinguistic sources. Secondly, the historical perspective is then addressed. This spelling can be interpreted as a feature, albeit marginal and stemming from ephemeral slips, of writing koine, as is further evidenced by the examination of two sample clusters of texts.

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Abstract

The present study analyzes the transformation of the vowel system and especially the process of vowel mergers based on the Latin inscriptions of the Danubian provinces. With the help of the Computerized Historical Linguistic Database of the Latin Inscriptions of the Imperial Age (http://lldb.elte.hu/), it tries to draw and then compare the phonological profiles of the selected provinces and to describe the dialectal position of the Danubian provinces regarding vocalism in the first four centuries AD. The analysis, which also covers comparisons with certain provinces of Italy and Dalmatia, is carried out considering four aspects: the ratio of vocalic versus consonantal changes, the ratio of vowel mergers compared to vocalic changes, the ratio of e-i and o-u mergers compared to each other, and the ratio of vowel mergers by stressed and unstressed syllable. As a result of the present study, it was revealed that Danubian provinces cannot be treated as a unit or as clearly separate from the other areas studied according to either aspect of the study. The Dacian development, which can only be observed in the 2nd–3rd century, can easily be placed among the Danubian provinces, so it is not necessary to connect it with the developmental trends in southern Italy. The present study, which continued József Herman's research, managed to explore the hitherto little-known linguistic and dialectological features of Latin in the Danubian provinces.

Open access

Abstract

Oral Squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the 14th most frequent cancer with 300,000 new cases and 100,000 deaths reported annually. Even with advanced therapy, the treatment outcomes are poor at advanced stages of the disease. The diagnosis of early OSCC is of paramount clinical value given the high mortality rate associated with the late stages of the disease. Recently, the role of microbiome in the disease manifestation, including oral cancer, has garnered considerable attention. But, to establish the role of bacteria in oral cancer, it is important to determine the differences in the colonization pattern in non-tumour and tumour tissues. In this study, 16S rRNA based metagenomic analyses of 13 tumorous and contralateral anatomically matched normal tissue biopsies, obtained from patients with advanced stage of OSCC were evaluated to understand the correlation between OSCC and oral microbiome. In this study we identified Fusobacterium, Prevotella, Capnocytophaga, Leptotrichia, Peptostreptococcus, Parvimonas and Bacteroidetes as the most significantly enriched taxa in OSCC lesions compared to the non-cancerous tissues. Further, PICRUSt2 analysis unveiled enhanced expression of metabolic pathways associated with L-lysine fermentation, pyruvate fermentation, and isoleucine biosynthesis in those microbes associated with OSCC tissues. These findings provide valuable insights into the distinctive microbial signatures associated with OSCC, offering potential biomarkers and metabolic pathways underlying OSCC pathogenesis. While our focus has primarily centred on microbial signatures, it is essential to recognize the pivotal role of host factors such as immune responses, genetic predisposition, and the oral microenvironment in shaping OSCC development and microbiome composition.

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Abstract

Changes in RNase activities were investigated in extracts from barley near isogenic lines without or with various powdery mildew resistance genes and were compared to changes in wheat and Brachypodium distachyon leaves after powdery mildew infections. In barley, the compatible interaction with powdery mildew induced the highest increase in RNase activity as measured spectrophotometrically. The incompatible interaction that accompanied with hypersensitive reaction in Mla leaves gave less increase, whereas incompatible interactions in Mlg and mlo barley leaves without visible symptoms gave the least increase of RNase activity. In wheat, the largest RNase activity was found in leaves infected with the compatible wheat powdery mildew or wheat stem and leaf rusts. RNase activity in B. distachyon was higher than that in healthy wheat and especially barley leaves. The electrophoretic RNase enzyme activity patterns were different in barley, wheat and B. distachyon plants, but showed similar activities as determined spectrophotometrically. Barley genes encoding endonuclease 2 and ribonuclease 3-like protein X3 showed the highest expression in the compatible barley - barley powdery mildew interaction as measured by RT-qPCR. This correlated with RNase activities in leaf extracts suggesting that RNases in barley and wheat may act as susceptibility factors of powdery mildew and rust diseases.

Open access

Abstract

The study aims to investigate how the transfer of matrix materials from eroded asbestos cement products induces stress responses in plants. The paper evaluates the exposure and risk factors of plants, water, and soil to asbestos cement materials. Additionally, the experimental results provide empirical evidence for plant stress responses based on physiological and germination parameters. Contamination of irrigation water with asbestos cement raises environmental concerns due to its potential toxicity to plants and soil quality. Asbestos in irrigation water can lead to toxic stress for plants, affecting germination processes and growth. The paper analyzes the effects of preset doses of irrigation water containing asbestos cement matrix on the germination process and physiological parameters of Solanum lycopersicum in a controlled experiment setting. This research proposes methodological developments that could be valuable for environmental plant protection professionals.

Open access

Az autoimmun gyulladás hátterében álló folyamatok megismerésének lehetőségei

Discovering the pathogenesis of autoimmune inflammation

Orvosi Hetilap
Authors:
Katalin Oláh
and
Tamás Németh

Az autoimmun betegségek az immuntolerancia károsodása következtében létrejövő kórállapotok, melyeknek szervspecifikus és szisztémás formáit különítjük el. Az autoimmun kórképek krónikus lefolyásuk, sokszor szervet vagy életet veszélyeztető megjelenésük, valamint növekvő incidenciájuk miatt komoly kihívást jelentenek mind a betegek, mind pedig az egészségügyi ellátórendszer számára. Mivel az alkalmazott terápiákra a betegek egy része nem vagy csak kevéssé reagál, az újabb potenciális gyógyszercélpontok feltérképezése és hatóanyagok kifejlesztése elengedhetetlen. Ehhez ugyanakkor jobban meg kell ismerni a betegségek hátterében álló folyamatokat. Jelen közleményünkben néhány autoimmun betegség példáján keresztül szeretnénk a teljesség igénye nélkül betekintést nyújtani abba, hogy milyen lehetőségek állnak rendelkezésre e kórképek patomechanizmusának részletesebb megismerésére. A kutatásban gyakran alkalmazunk az autoimmun betegségek vizsgálatára állatmodelleket vagy páciensek vér- és szövetmintáit, amelyek segítségével a patogenezis jobban feltárható, illetve a klinikumban még nem törzskönyvezett, célzott inhibitorok preklinikai vizsgálatai is elvégezhetők. Célunk, hogy rövid betekintést adjunk az autoimmun betegségek transzlációs szemléletű, izgalmas kutatási lehetőségeibe. Orv Hetil. 2024; 165(26): 983–996.

Open access

Abstract

This paper looks at the alternations introduced by the Old Hungarian regressive labialization of front vowels through the example of a lexical set, the derivational family based on the stem dics- ‘glory, praise’. This alternation was highly variable, but in a patterned way. All the data found in the Old Hungarian codices have been investigated with the help of the online Old Hungarian Corpus, and the distribution of the relevant forms has been mapped, along with a discussion of a highly interesting exceptional form recurring in several of the source texts.

Open access

Abstract

In order to provide for a linguistically and cognitively sound theory of negation, we argue for the introduction of a dyadic negation predicate lack and a force dynamic account of affirmation and negation in general.

Free access