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Grätzer and Lakser asked in the 1971 Transactions of the American Mathematical Society if the pseudocomplemented distributive lattices in the amalgamation class of the subvariety generated by 𝟐𝑛 ⊕ 𝟏 can be characterized by the property of not having a *-homomorphism onto 𝟐𝑖 ⊕ 𝟏 for 1 < 𝑖 < 𝑛.

In this article, their question from 1971 is answered.

Open access

Abstract

Mango fruits' quality, marketability, and shelf life are significantly influenced by postharvest decay. Mango fruit disease development during storage is inhibited by fungicides. The objective of this investigation was to assess the relative effectiveness of two fungicides, azoxystrobin 18.2% + difenoconazole 11.4% SC and hexaconazole 5% SC, in mitigating postharvest deterioration of mango cv. ‘Langra’ during low temperature storage. Three pathogens were found associated with postharvest decay of mango, i.e. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Alternaria alternata, and Penicillium expansum. In comparison to untreated ones, the preharvest application of fungicide treatments provided noticeably better disease control. The foliar application of azoxystrobin 18.2% + difenoconazole 11.4% SC (0.1%) 15 days before the harvesting of fruits significantly improved fruit firmness, soluble solid content, titratable acidity, reduced the disease incidence, percentage disease index, and lesion diameter followed by the application of hexaconazole 5% SC (0.1%) compared to the control. Furthermore, it was found that pre-harvest fungicide spraying of azoxystrobin 18.2% + difenoconazole 11.4% SC (0.1%) was an effective treatment for lowering postharvest deterioration and enhancing the physio-chemical characteristics of mango fruits during low-temperature storage.

Restricted access

Abstract

In this paper, a quantitative and qualitative analysis is conducted on the <b>/<v> alternations found in the epigraphic texts from three representative subsets of Roman African inscriptions from both urban centres and more peripheral areas (1st century BCE – 7th century CE). The distribution of the confusion has been related to the dating and provenance place of the inscriptions and the level of literacy of those involved in their crafting. The results show a difference in the distribution of <b>/<v> confusions in the three areas examined, with a higher incidence in later inscriptions from Sabratha. Thus, it is discussed whether the different distribution of the <b>/<v> confusions observed in the different regions might be a cue for internal diatopic variation.

Open access

Abstract

Ergosterol, as a precursor for synthesising useful molecules like vitamin D2, possesses significant physiological functions in both fungal and human systems. In fungi, ergosterol plays a crucial role in stress responses. In contrast to Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast, the changes in specific ergosterol content of Kluyveromyces marxianus under various stress conditions are less known. This study investigated how ergosterol content changes in response to different stress factors. Carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio was examined using experimental design. The effects of aeration and shear force beside constant overall volumetric mass transfer coefficient (KLa) were examined. Cell growth and specific ergosterol content were investigated using ethanol stress during a two-stage fermentation. Based on the results, contradictory settings regarding C/N ratio and shear force were found to be favourable for cell growth and specific ergosterol content. However, increased aeration consistently elevated specific ergosterol content and favoured cell growth as well (2.5-fold and 1.5-fold, respectively). In K. marxianus fermentations, higher ergosterol yield can be achieved through a two-stage fermentation (138.9 mg L−1 compared to 52.9 mg L−1), where the first stage provides favourable conditions for cell growth, and the second stage involves stress (beneficial for ergosterol production) conditions. Conclusions drawn from the two-stage fermentation results suggest that early transitioning of cell growth to the second phase will not result higher adaption and specific ergosterol content compared to the transition at the end of exponential growth phase.

Open access