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Abstract

Extensive use of carbapenems may lead to selection pressure for Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (SM) in hospital environments. The aim of our study was to assess the possible association between systemic antibiotic use and the incidence of SM. A retrospective, observational study was carried out in a tertiary-care hospital in Hungary, between January 1st 2010 and December 31st 2019. Incidence-density for SM and SM resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) was standardized for 1000 patient-days, while systemic antibiotic use was expressed as defined daily doses (DDDs) per 100 patient-days. Mean incidence density for SM infections was 0.42/1000 patient-days; 11.08% were were resistant to SXT, the mean incidence density for SXT-resistant SM was 0.047/1000 patient-days. Consumption rate for colistin, glycopeptides and carbapenems increased by 258.82, 278.94 and 372.72% from 2010 to 2019, respectively. Strong and significant positive correlations were observed with the consumption of carbapenems (r: 0.8759; P < 0.001 and r: 0.8968; P < 0.001), SXT (r: 0.7552; P = 0.011 and r: 0.7004; P = 0.024), and glycopeptides (r: 0.7542; P = 0.012 and r: 0.8138; P < 0.001) with SM and SXT-resistant SM incidence-density/1000 patient-days, respectively. Implementation of institutional carbapenem-sparing strategies are critical in preserving these life-saving drugs, and may affect the microbial spectrum of infections in clinical settings.

Open access

Abstract

Lycium barbarum contains a variety of phytochemicals, primarily polysaccharides, and other potent compounds. L. barbarum is a plant that has several uses in contemporary society, including food processing and everyday eating. However, through traditional processing methods the medicinal or edible value of L. barbarum cannot be fully exploited, to further improve the utilisation rate of L. barbarum and enrich the variety of L. barbarum market. The L. barbarum compound beverage, which uses L. barbarum as its primary ingredient, was created through a series of trials, including the creation of tea beverage recipes and research on the most suitable content of stabilisers, flavouring agent formulations and so on. In addition, several validation tests, including those involving hypoglycaemic and lipid-lowering were conducted. The results indicated that 0.1 g mL−1 stabiliser CMC-Na, 0.2 g mL−1 erythritol, 3 g mL−1 citric acid, 8% L. barbarum juice, and 6% chrysanthemum tea cold brew extract were the best combinations for food additive formulations. Additionally, compound beverages have hypoglycemic and lipid-lowering effects. In conclusion, the research and development of L. barbarum compound beverages can not only increase the rate at which L. barbarum is utilised but also offer fresh ideas for the research and development of L. barbarum as they transition from cash crop agricultural products to market-oriented standardised processed products.

Restricted access

Abstract

Prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are dreaded arthroplasty complications often caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Due to methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains or biofilm formation, successful treatment remains difficult. Currently, two-stage revision surgery constitutes the gold standard therapy of PJIs, sometimes replaced or supplemented by debridement, antibiotics, and implant retention (DAIR). Given the dire consequences of therapeutic failure, bacteriophage therapy might be another treatment option. Here we provide a comprehensive literature review addressing the efficacy of phages applied against S. aureus as causative agent of PJIs. The included 17 publications had in common that the applied phages proved to be effective against various S. aureus isolates including MRSA even in biofilms. Experiments with mice, rats, rabbits, and moth larvae confirmed favorable features of phage preparations in PJI treatment in vivo; including its synergistic with antibiotics. Case reports of PJI patients unanimously described the bacterial eradication following, alongside other measures, intravenous and intra-articular phage administration. Generally, no major side effects occurred, but in some cases elevated liver transaminases were observed. To conclude, our review compiled promising evidence suggesting the safety and suitability of phage therapy as an adjuvant to DAIR in S. aureus PJIs, and thus, underscores the significance of further research.

Open access
European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors:
Kantima Choosang
,
Siriphan Boonsilp
,
Kanyanan Kritsiriwuthinan
,
Palin Chumchuang
,
Nanthawan Thanacharoensakun
,
Aminoh Saai
, and
Sawanya Pongparit

Abstract

Plasmodium vivax is the most prevalent cause of malaria in Thailand and is predominant in malarial endemic areas worldwide. P. vivax infection is characterized by low parasitemia, latent liver-stage parasites, or asymptomatic infections leading to underreported P. vivax cases. These are significant challenges for controlling and eliminating P. vivax from endemic countries. This study developed and evaluated a dot-blot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using PvMSP1-42 recombinant antigen for serological diagnosis based on the detection of antibodies against P. vivax. The optimal PvMSP1-42 concentration and dilutions of anti-human IgG horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated antiserum were tested on 88 serum samples from P. vivax, Plasmodium falciparum and bacterial infection, including healthy individuals. A cut-off titer of 1:800 produced optimal values for sensitivity and specificity of 90.9 and 98.2%, respectively, with an accuracy of 95.5%. The positive and negative predictive values were 96.8 and 94.7% respectively. The results from microscopic examination and dot-blot ELISA showed strong agreement with the 0.902 kappa index. Thus, the dot-blot ELISA using PvMSP1-42 antigen provided high sensitivity and specificity suitable for serodiagnosis of P. vivax infection. The test is a simple and quick diagnostic assay suitable for field testing as it does not require specific equipment or particular skills.

Open access
Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
R. Habibi
,
A. Khosrowshahi Asl
,
L. Roufegarinejad
,
S. Zomorodi
, and
N. Asefi

Abstract

Plant-based proteins are being rapidly explored in the food industry to produce healthy and nutritious foods. Herein, the effects of soy protein isolate (SPI) ratio to oat germ powder (OGP) (0:0, 3.7: 6.3, 5:5, 0:10, 10:0, and 6.3:3.7%) were studied on the physicochemical, colour, rheological, microbial, antioxidant, and sensory properties of wheyless cheese. The results showed that by increasing SPI and OGP levels, ash, white index value, elastic modulus, and complex viscosity decreased, while pH, fat in dry matter, Chroma, and total colour (ΔE) increased. Also, syneresis was only observed in the control sample and was not observed in other samples. Control sample together with sample containing 10% of OGP showed the highest microbial count (i.e., mesophilic bacteria and yeasts-moulds), while samples containing 10% of SPI showed the lowest microbial count. Furthermore, the growth of both coliform and psychrophilic bacteria in all samples was negligible. Based on the results of sensory evaluation, with increasing SPI and OGP, the sensory evaluation score of samples decreased but they were within the acceptable range. According to the results obtained in this study, the combinations of 5% SPI and 5% OGP or 3.7% SPI and 6.3% OGP are recommended to be used in wheyless cheese production.

Restricted access

Abstract

This study investigates the potential of utilising oleosomes extracted from hazelnuts in the formulation of liquid margarines. Aqueous extraction methods were employed to isolate oleosomes from hazelnuts, revealing approximately 83.07% fat and 2.48% protein content in hazelnut oleosomes. The stability of oleosomes at various pH levels (3–10) was examined, showing stability at pH 7 but instability at extreme pH values. Evaluation at pH 7 indicated small particle size (D3,2 ≈ 3.58 μm) and a ζ-potential of approximately −33.8 mV for isolated oleosomes. Subsequently, double emulsions were formulated by substituting traditional oil with varying oleosome concentrations (0–30%) in liquid margarine. Rheological and oxidative analyses of these margarines demonstrated decreased elastic and viscous moduli, hardness, and spreadability, alongside enhanced oxidative stability with increasing oleosome concentration. These findings suggest hazelnut-derived oleosomes offer significant stability advantages over conventional liquid margarine, presenting a promising avenue for functionally enhanced food products in the food industry.

Open access
European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors:
Verner N. Orish
,
Sylvester Y. Lokpo
,
Precious K. Kwadzokpui
,
Rufai Safianu
,
Aleksandra Marinkovic
,
Stephanie Prakash
,
Chuku Okorie
,
Ricardo Izurieta
,
Rajashree Pandit
, and
Adekunle Sanyaolu

Abstract

Background

Although, several studies have reported abnormal Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) values and anaemia associated with malaria infections with a focus on Plasmodium falciparum among patients with complicated and uncomplicated malaria, none has looked at the association with asymptomatic malaria. This study aimed to assess this association.

Methods

We conducted a cross-sectional study using 3 mL of blood samples from 549 children aged 5–17 years attending 5 schools selected in the Volta Region. Semi-structured questionnaires were administered to the children to obtain demographic data. Blood samples were collected to estimate the children's full blood count (FBC) and malaria status. Data obtained were analysed using STATA 15 software. P-values of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.

Results

Most of the children in this study (49.9%) had normal MCV (81.3–91.3 fL) with an overall malaria prevalence of 55.6 % (95% CI: 51.3–59.8) and anaemia prevalence of 48.6% (95% CI 44.4–52.9). Most anaemic children had normal MCV (81.3–91.3 fL) (49.8, 95% CI 43.7–56.0). The predicted probability of malaria was highly likely among children with normal MCV (81.3–91.3 fL) but with high variability and uncertainty among those with low MCV (<81.3 fL) and high MCV (>91.3 fL).

Conclusion

This study shows a reduced predicted probability of malaria among children with low and high MCV, playing a protective function against malaria. Further studies are required to elucidate the interaction.

Open access

Abstract

This article presents an analysis of the impact of blanching and Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) on the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Cantonese bacon using gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (GC-IMS). The study aims to investigate how different processing techniques influence the composition of volatile compounds in meat products, thereby contributing to the understanding of flavour release patterns.

The experiment involved dividing pork belly into six groups: conventional (C), heat treatment (H, 50 °C, 15 s), high-temperature treatment (S, 80 °C, 5 s), conventional treatment with GBE (CG, 0.5% GBE), heat composite treatment with GBE (HG, 50 °C, 15 s, 0.5% GBE), and high-temperature heat composite treatment with GBE (SG, 80 °C, 15 s, 0.5% GBE). The researchers identified a total of 36 compounds in the GC-IMS spectrum. The results showed that the ethanol content decreased in the H group samples after blanching treatment, while it increased in the S group samples. The CG, H, HG, and SG groups exhibited more significant changes compared to the C group. The H group had the highest number of VOCs among all the groups. Additionally, the flavour of the H, CG, and HG group products was notably enhanced.

In conclusion, GC-IMS allows for real-time visual analysis of VOCs, and both blanching treatment and the addition of GBE significantly affect the composition of VOCs in the samples.

Restricted access

Abstract

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the phenolic profile, antioxidant capacity, and biological activity of Inula helenium subsp. pseudohelenium extracts, for the first time. Phenolic substances in leaf ethanol (L-EtOH), leaf pure water (L-PW), root ethanol (R-EtOH), and root pure water (R-PW) extracts of I. helenium subsp. pseudohelenium plant were investigated by HPLC. Also, the antimicrobial (hollow agar), antioxidant, antiproliferative, and DNA protective activities of the samples were examined in vitro. Gallic acid was not detected in the extracts, the presence of curcumin was detected only in EtOH extracts. L-EtOH exhibited the best antimicrobial activity. According to the antioxidant results, the L-EtOH extract had an activity profile close to the standard antioxidants in general. It was also found that the L-EtOH extract stabilised the DNA by disrupting the scavenging effect of H2O2+DMSO. According to the antiproliferative activity results, EtOH extracts exhibited the strongest effect, especially against MCF7 cancer cell lines. When evaluated in general terms, it was found that L-EtOH extract showed better activity than other extracts. It is important to conduct more in vivo and in vitro studies after isolating the active components of extracts e.g. L-EtOH, which have good effects in terms of biological activity.

Restricted access

Abstract

As a byproduct from the deep processing of longan fruit, longan kernel is rich in starch and is a good source for starch production. In this study, the rheological properties of longan kernel starch (LS) extracted by protease-assisted alkali method were investigated. When the shear rate was from 1 to 100 s−1, the pastes containing 4%–7% (w/v) of LS showed a non-Newtonian fluid with a pseudoplastic fluid characteristic. Their shear stress, apparent viscosity, complex viscosity, storage modulus (G′), and loss modulus (G″) positively correlated with starch concentration. The loss factor (tan δ) of all LS pastes was less than 1. At same concentration, LS paste showed a stronger pseudoplastic fluid characteristic and higher elasticity than corn starch and pea starch pastes. Based on this, LS has potential in processing of jelly, soft sweets, ham sausage, and some other sauces.

Restricted access