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Large firm effect in enterprise risk management

Empirical evidence of Hungarian corporations

Acta Oeconomica
Author:
Barbara Dömötör

Abstract

Micro-level risk awareness affects macro-level financial stability as well. Thus, the corporate risk management practice impacts the exposures and the potential fragility of an economy. While corporate risk management is accepted to create value in an imperfect market, the effect of the firm size is not straightforward. Smaller, financially constrained firms can benefit more by engaging in risk management programs, but larger corporations face more complex risks and have more resources for this activity. Empirical studies on risk management focusing mainly on the US market, highlight a positive relation between the firm size and the quality of risk management that includes not just the hedging of financial risks, but the concept of integrated risk management as well. The aim of this paper is two-fold: first, to summarize the existing literature on corporate risk management with a special focus on the effect of corporate size; second, to contribute to the existing literature by investigating a Central European market, Hungary. The findings are similar to those of the existing global literature, as derivatives usage, and applications of an integrated risk management concept increase with firm size. Although all firms in the sample manage their foreign exchange risk, interest rate hedging and more sophisticated derivatives, like options, are much less widespread in Hungary, compared to the US and Asian peers. The size effect is proven for the objective criteria of risk management quality by comparative analysis and a structured modelling framework, however, the subjective self-evaluation was uncorrelated to the size.

Open access

Abstract

This paper shows how the three economic policy uncertainties (EPUs), namely global economic uncertainty, US economic policy uncertainty and German economic policy uncertainty, impact the industrial production of 8 Central and Eastern European countries. The investigation is done in both time and frequency domains, using the wavelet coherence and wavelet correlation approaches. The US EPU has the strongest effect on all industrial productions, while this effect was recorded during the global financial crisis and the corona virus pandemic. The most intense effect was found in the time-horizon between 4 and 8 months. The Czech Republic and Hungary suffer the strongest impact from EPU, probably because these two economies have relatively high ratio of export (import) vis-à-vis GDP. We fail to find very strong and wide areas of coherence in the Slovakian plot, although Slovakia has the highest level of export (import) to GDP. However, the wavelet correlation findings indicate that Slovakia has relatively high negative correlation at third wavelet scale, which is perfectly in compliance with its high export (import) share in GDP.

Restricted access

Abstract

This paper examines the effect of factors of national competitiveness measured by the Global Competitiveness Index (GCI). It aims to identify the key factors that determine GCI of the European Union (EU-28) countries. We observe the composite indicator of GCI and the 12 factors of competitiveness in the period of 2008–2019 focusing on the links between the GCI and the factors of institutions, infrastructure, macroeconomic environment and its stability and market size. The GCI is determined using correlation and regression analyses and Structural Equation Model. A significantly positive relationship with the GCI is confirmed for institutions, infrastructure, macroeconomic environment and stability, labour market efficiency, market size, technological readiness in terms of information and communication technologies, and business sophistication and dynamism, but not for higher education and training and financial market development. The quality institutions are confirmed as a fundamental positive factor for the GCI together with macroeconomic environment and stability and market size. The study contributes with an empirical analysis that confirms the relationship between the selected factors of competitiveness and the GCI in the EU-28 countries.

Restricted access

Abstract

I examine the relationship between the internationalisation of family firms and innovation. After the review of the relevant literature, I group together the narrow research topics addressed in the literature, which largely confirm the positive relationship between the two categories. Moreover, I demonstrate a theoretical framework which, according to the literature, can be implemented to put socio-emotional welfare and entrepreneurial orientation, which are restraining the internationalisation of family firms, on a common path, so that they can contribute to enhancing the innovative and international performance of family firms in a mutually supportive way.

Open access

Abstract

The paper takes a special perspective to summarise what researchers have revealed on global value chains in Hungary. The ‘space-time’ structure is how the ‘force field’ of the amount of value added is shared and how the process it creates characterises specific global value chain networks. There is a growing literature that reveals the ‘dents’ of the GVC force field: the uneven distribution of value-added content, and mainly the controversial possibilities to upgrade in the network. Hungary is a typical example of a semi-peripheral or integrated periphery country. The paper discusses the lessons of different global value chain relations of the country in different geographical environments in terms of the two dimensions of ‘space’ and ‘time’; that is the potential and structure of value added and its dynamics, as well as compares them through an automotive industry case study.

Open access

Abstract

This paper investigates Hungary's inflationary exposures to global price movements using a simple cost-push input-output price model and a database of inflation-to-output price elasticities (Global Inflation-to-Output Price Elasticity Database, GIOPED) developed on the basis of the OECD's Inter-Country Input-Output Tables. Inflation elasticities are decomposed into local, simple, and complex global value chain effects by applying Wang's decomposition scheme (Wang et al. 2017) to price movements and inflation. Our empirical analysis based on GIOPED elasticities shows that Hungary is highly exposed to global value chain price transmissions originating in Germany, Austria, and Russia; and in particular to changes in energy prices. The crude oil and natural gas price boom and the resulting energy crises caused a significant increase in consumer price levels in Hungary; however, this explains only a fraction of current inflation rates.

Open access

Abstract

Trade analysis for open economies is strategically important. Even though Hungarian trade relations are oriented towards the EU, the direct and indirect influence of Asia, mainly China, needs special attention. The paper focuses on direct bilateral relations between Hungary and China. The global value chain perspective enables the research to detect inter- and intra-industry dependencies and unfold and compare the industry focuses and dynamics of backward and forward linkages between 2000 and 2018. We used a mixed methodology, combining input-output analysis with company case studies based on a wide range of literature both from Chinese and East-Central European researchers. The findings support the significance of global value chain relations, highlight the restructuring of Hungarian trade relations with China over the past twenty years, and indicate the strong concentration of relations in terms of the number of companies.

Open access

Abstract

Multinational companies in the fashion industry operate on a global level. Fashion was one of the first industries that outsourced production to developing countries and allowed exploitation and environmental pollution to remain hidden. But concerns regarding the industry's (un)sustainability are rising, regarding both the environmental and the social aspects. Fashion consumption is on the rise and the industry is among the most polluting ones. With this paper, I join the debate on how to force fashion MNCs to operate sustainably. There are two opposing views on where change should come: from above (regulation) or from below (change in customer habits and the activity of sustainable fashion NGOs). According to one view, fashion is underregulated and only legislation can be a solution: MNCs will only operate sustainably if they are forced by law. The other group claims that customers should drive green initiatives as their demand catalyzes MNC production. I claim that neither side is enough, as sustainability is not necessarily the number one consideration for customers or policymakers. In this conceptual paper, I use document analysis as a qualitative approach, and descriptive statistics to support my position.

Open access

Abstract

This research investigates the proactive and reactive measures applied by Czech and Hungarian automotive companies following Russia's invasion of Ukraine. We apply a qualitative methodology and analyse interviews with company managers to learn about the applied measures. The results reveal that the resilience gained during the COVID-19 pandemic involved proactive measures, which companies have kept in place. Reactive measures involved production replanning and alternative transportation. Adopting multiple sourcing strategies in the automotive sector is limited and more reactive rather than proactive. The important antecedents of agility are information sharing and cooperation within multinationals.

Open access

Abstract

The Environmental Protection Agency classifies healthcare as one of the leading energy-consuming industries. Extensive energy is needed around the clock in healthcare institutions for lighting, ventilation, and operating medical equipment. However, there is a growing concern over the sustainability of energy utilization by healthcare institutions worldwide. This narrative review thus seeks to examine energy efficiency and utilization in healthcare institutions and energy management and conservation techniques and make recommendations for future optimal usage. The paper notes that healthcare institutions use different quantities of energy from diverse sources, including hydropower, biomass, solar energy, and wind power. However, energy consumption varies from one institution to another, with the number of beds and intensity of healthcare operations, with an average of 0.27 MWh m−2. Moreover, this review also identified various techniques and measures to enhance energy efficiency, such as the variant refrigerant flow technology and the combination of renewable energy sources with diesel generators to reduce the cost of electricity. Overall, healthcare institutions need energy management systems such as automated energy monitoring technologies, to check the systems' efficiency. The same techniques can also help Middle Eastern healthcare institutions with efficient energy utilization. Ultimately, the literature review aims to introduce an approach that focuses on reducing site-level consumption of energy while increasing the quality of the energy used and hence, helping reduce energy costs while conserving the environment.

Open access