The experiment was conducted within a framework of a two-factor long-term trial at the Research Institute for Fisheries, Aquaculture and Irrigation, in Szarvas, Hungary. This was a special field experiment, in which lysimeters have been installed in the middle of 32 m2 field plots. The main factor was the water supply with 4 levels: i1: non-irrigated control; i2: irrigated with one third of the optimal water supply; i3: irrigated with two thirds of the optimal water supply; i4: optimum irrigated plot, according to the requirement of sweet corn test plant. The amount of released irrigation water was 0, 54, 106 and 158 mm per year on average over 5 years. Within every water supply treatment there were 4 nutrient supply rates (N): N1, N2, N3, N4 = 100, 200, 300 and 400 kg ha−1 NPK fertiliser substance in ratio 2:1:1. The number of replications was 4, and the experiment was arranged in split-plot design. In the studied years, the amount of precipitation varied between 92 and 264 mm from sowing to harvesting.
The effect of fertiliser was less in the non-irrigated treatments compared to that of the irrigated ones, and the yield was increased only up to 200 kg ha−1 NPK treatment level. The NPK dose of 300 kg ha−1 proved to be optimal in the irrigated treatments in which the utilization of fertilizer doses increased parallel to the improving water supply. In addition, the ratio of first class products (cobs longer than 20 cm) increased to a greater extent than the yield as a result of irrigation and fertilization. Water requirement of sweet corn proved to be between 400–450 mm resulting in an average yield of 20–24 t ha−1, of which 18–20 t ha−1 came from marketable cobs. The amount of evapotranspiration fluctuated between 270–440 mm during the five years, depending on the quantity of water supply, but it changed to a lesser extent than the amount of the yield. Increasing the fertilizer dose practically did not affect ET in non-irrigated plants, but increased it by 20–30 mm in irrigated ones. The change was not significant.
The productivity of ET was only 30–45 kg ha−1 mm−1 in the non-irrigated treatment, while it was 50–55 kg ha−1 mm−1 in the irrigated treatments, with higher values at the higher fertiliser rates. The productivity of irrigation water exceeded far over the productivity of ET at adequate nutrient supply. The yield increase per 1 mm of irrigation water was on average 60 kg ha−1 mm−1, which was considerably higher than the productivity of ET of non-irrigated plants (39 kg ha−1 mm−1). There was a positive correlation between the yield and ET, and a negative correlation between the yield and specific water consumption. Irrigation and fertilization increased the average yield to a greater extent than evapotranspiration, so as the average yield increased, the ET per unit of yield decreased, i.e. the productivity of evapotranspirated water increased.
It is necessary to estimate the number of animals slaughtered outside slaughterhouses in countries like Türkiye, where slaughterings in non-slaughterhouses are relatively high. This paper presents the estimation of red meat production including all slaughterings both in slaughterhouses and in non-slaughterhouses by using a re-established model based on change in the inventory of animals including imported and exported animals, slaughtering rate for the slaughtered animals raised domestically in Türkiye, and total red meat consumption per capita per year in Türkiye. Total red meat production in Türkiye was estimated as 1 million 952 thousand 38 tonnes, bovine meat production was estimated as 1 million 471 thousand 550 tonnes, sheep and goats meat production was estimated as 480 thousand 488 tonnes in 2021. Total red meat human consumption per capita in Türkiye was estimated as 23 kg carcass weight per capita per year and 17 kg retail weight per capita per year. 17 kg of total red meat human consumption came from bovine meat, and 6 kg came from sheep and goats meat. According to the result of cluster analysis of European countries, Türkiye was clustered in the group of lowest total red meat consumption with Albania, Ukraine, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republic of Moldova, North Macedonia, Czech Republic, and Serbia.
The research aim was to evaluate the Portuguese honey consumers’ profile, their attitudes, perceptions, and trends towards the product, production, and consumption, to allow the development of marketing strategies. With this purpose, a questionnaire was developed in accordance with the Ajzen's Planned Behaviour Theory and was then completed by 784 interviewees to retrieve quantitative and qualitative data. These included demographic, consumption pattern, and behavioural pattern variables collected in a Likert scale. Spearman correlations were performed between ordinal and continuous variables, and chi-squared tests of independency applied to contingency tables between nominal variables. A positive correlation was found between age and frequency of purchasing. Men consume honey more frequently than women. Portuguese honey has a good reputation, and it is preferred in relation to imported honey. The Portuguese consumer is not completely aware of the different floral characteristics of honey, other hive products, and positive externalities associated with beekeeping. By filling the marketing gap identified, production and consumption of honey could be increased in Portugal. Marketing campaigns promoting the health benefits of honey and other hive products, as well as the externalities of beekeeping may be advantageous.
Reducing sugars are known to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), mainly by means of the glycation reaction. The hydroxyl radical, a prominent entity of ROS, is known to alter cellular DNA and induces damage to DNA, and plays a role in diseases such as diabetes mellitus. In this study, the oxidative damage of DNA induced by the lysine/Fe3+/MG reaction was investigated. Silybum marianum seeds extract (SlyE), standard silymarin (Sly), and vitamin B6 derivatives, pyridoxal-5-phosphate (PLP), pyridoxamine (PM), and pyridoxine (P) in reversing glycation-induced damage in DNA were evaluated. In addition, different sugars and sugar phosphates were incubated with plasmid pBR 322 DNA to control and compare their harmful effects. Our results revealed that SlyE protected lysine/Fe3+/MG induced oxidative DNA damage more effectively than Sly. Vitamins, on the other hand, prevented this DNA damage in the order of PLP>P>PM. The DNA altering and damaging intensity of sugars and sugar phosphates tested increased considerably in the following order: Ribose-5-phosphate > fructose-6-phosphate > ribose > fructose > fructose-1,6 biphosphate > glucose-6 phosphate > glucose. The results show that the lysine/Fe3+/MG glycation reaction can cause oxidative damage of DNA through a mechanism involving hydroxyl radicals. It also provides evidence that ribose-5-phosphate and fructose and its phosphate metabolites can alter DNA more rapidly in vitro than glucose and its phosphate metabolites.
In this study, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was used to identify bacteria from environmental matrices. The aim of this work was to determine the efficacy of this rapid technique and the bacterial community of agricultural samples. Environmental samples included the collection of irrigation waters and manures, and bacteria from the surface of vegetables were also investigated. From food safety point of view, the investigation of these microbial communities is inevitable considering their potential hazardous impact on the food production chain. Altogether 235 bacterial isolates were identified with the most frequent genera being Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Acinetobacter and Aeromonas. Our results indicated that MALDI-TOF MS can be used to identify causative agents of foodborne illnesses, food spoilage and common plant pathogens. However, limitations of the rapid identification technique were also encountered as we obtained correct identification at species level for 30.2% and at genus level for 69.8% of the isolates.
Carrageenan-induced paw oedema is a widely used model of acute inflammation. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of the flavonoid fustin on carrageenan-induced acute paw inflammation in rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were distributed equally between three groups – control, F10, and F20. In the course of 1 week, animals were treated once daily by intragastric gavage as follows: control group – with distilled water (10 mL kg−1) containing 50 μL Tween 80; groups F10 and F20 – with 10 mL kg−1 suspensions containing fustin in two doses (10 mg kg−1 and 20 mg kg−1, respectively) and 50 μL Tween 80. After the treatment period, carrageenan was injected in the left hind paw and paw oedema was evaluated 0, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240, and 300 min after the injection using a plethysmometer. In the control group, paw oedema increased gradually and peaked at the 180th minute. Fustin treatment reduced the oedema in all time intervals and the effect was significant on the 30th and 60th minute after the injection. The present study indicated that fustin could suppress acute inflammation.
A közösségi tudomány – citizen science – már évtizedek óta működő kutatási forma, ahol egy-egy kutatás a lakosság segítségével valósul meg. Az „Alsóban az élet” kampány az érdeklődők bevonásával 2021 tavaszán indult hazánkban. A kutatásban résztvevők kézhez kaptak egy pamut alsóneműt, amelyet kb. 20 cm-es mélységben kellett elásniuk, ezzel „táplálékot” szolgáltatva a talajlakó élőlények számára. Több mint két hónap elteltével az alsónemű kiásása után megfigyelhetők a bomlási jelek, amelyek mint indikátor jelzik a talajélet aktivitását, közvetett módon a talaj egészségi állapotát. A visszamaradt alsóneműk digitális fotójának elemzésével becsülhető a talajlakó élőlények munkája az alsónadrágok bomlásának százalékos aránya alapján.
A közösségi médiában megjelent felhívások és célzott csoporthirdetések segítségével mintegy 1193-an jelentkeztek a programra összesen 1966 helyszínnel, ezzel országos lefedettséget biztosítva a kutatás részére. Az adatok elemzése alapján a gondozott konyhakertekben elásott pamut alsók mutatták a legnagyobb átlagos bomlási értékeket (27,67%). Talajtípust tekintve a réti talajok és a közép- és délkeleteurópai barna erdő-, valamint a csernozjom-, és a váztalajok (köztük nagyrészt a humuszos homoktalajok) esetén tapasztaltuk a legmagasabb, közel azonos, 25,47%; 25,43%; 24,22%; 24,21%-os bomlási értéket. A programban résztvevő helyszínek közül a legnagyobb mértékű bomlás (93%) konyhakert hasznosítású (mulcsozott veteményes és polikultúra ágyás) váztalajon (homoktalajon) volt megfigyelhető. Az országos átlagos bomlási érték 24,57% volt. A bomlási adatok alapján eredménytérképet szerkesztettünk Magyarország teljes területére, melyet nyilvánossá tettünk, s a résztvevőknek a visszaküldött fotó feldolgozása alapján rövid, a saját talajának biológiai aktivitását minősítő válaszlevelet küldtünk.
Seedless barberry is a medicinal shrub and has been cultivated in Iran for more than two centuries. It is perishable with short shelf-life. Irradiation has shown to improve microbial safety and expands durability of raw fruits. Undoubtedly, current food processes undesirably affect bioactive compounds such as anthocyanins. Fresh barberry fruit was harvested in Birjand city by methods including “cutting branches” and “collecting fallen fruit under shrubs”, which locally are known as “puffy barberry” and “jewel barberry”, respectively. Some of the fresh barberries were treated by osmotic solution and then they have been dried. Untreated dried fruit was processed by freezing. Osmotic and frozen treatments were packed in polyamide film. Some of the dried jewel/puffy barberries packed in polyamide film were irradiated at doses of 0, 3, 5, and 10 kGy. All samples were stored at 4 and 25 °C for 6 months. Effects of barberry types (puffy/jewel), processes, storage time and temperature on chemical, microbial, and pest characteristics of dried barberry fruit were evaluated. Puffy barberry gamma irradiated with 5 kGy after 6 months of storage at 4 °C showed acceptable properties. Irradiation and storage at 4 °C were reported as optimal processing and storage conditions for barberry fruit.
This study aimed to compare and evaluate the effects of different protein coatings on maintaining the quality of eggs stored for six weeks at 20 °C. 308 brown table eggs from ISA Brown hens were used for four treatments: uncoated eggs, coated with rice protein concentrate – RPC, soy protein concentrate – SPC, and whey protein concentrate – WPC. Eggs started with Haugh Units (HU) of 82.01 and reduced in proportions of 28.75% (control), 12.82% (RPC), 12.90% (SPC), and 10.54% (WPC) on the last day of storage. Coated eggs showed smaller reductions (P < 0.0001) in this response. Protein coatings can effectively maintain the quality of eggs stored for six weeks at 20 °C. However, the WPC coating maintained the highest egg rate and the best yolk index for eggs stored for six weeks at 20 °C.