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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors:
Niraj Jatin Patel
,
Sahaja Thippani
,
Jasmine Jathan
,
Gauri Gaur
,
Janhavi Y. Sawant
,
Jay M. Pandya
, and
Eva Sapi

Abstract

Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, has recently been demonstrated to infect and enhance the invasive properties of breast cancer cells, while also influencing the expression of inflammatory chemokines (CXCL8 and CXCL10). This study investigates the presence of B. burgdorferi in invasive breast cancer tissues using commercially available, FDA-approved breast cancer tissue microarrays consisting of 350 ductal, 32 lobular, and 22 intraductal invasive breast carcinomas, alongside 29 normal breast tissues. Employing fluorescent immunohistochemical staining and high-resolution imaging, the findings revealed that approximately 20% of invasive lobular and ductal carcinomas, followed by 14% of intraductal carcinomas, tested positive for B. burgdorferi, while all normal breast tissues tested negative. PCR analysis further confirmed the presence of B. burgdorferi DNA in breast cancer tissues. Moreover, 25% of B. burgdorferi-positive tissues exhibited expression of both chemokines, CXCL8 and CXCL10, which was not observed in B. burgdorferi-negative tissues. Analysis of available patient data, including age, indicated a correlation between older patients and B. burgdorferi-positive tissues. This study validates the presence of B. burgdorferi in invasive breast cancer tissues and highlights the involvement of key CXCL family members associated with inflammatory processes.

Open access

Abstract

In this work, an assessment of effective solvents and extraction methods was carried out to recover the bioactive compounds from hawthorn fruit (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.). Extractions assisted by heat, microwave, and ultrasound were carried out using various organic solvents (methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol). pH differential, Folin–Ciocalteu's, and aluminum chloride methods were used to determine total monomeric anthocyanin (TMA), total phenolic compound (TPC), and total flavonoid content (TFC), consecutively. Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP), 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl Hydrate (DPPH), and 2,2′- azino- bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6- sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assays were used to measure the antioxidant activity (AA) of the extracts. The outputs revealed that extraction methods and solvents significantly affect anthocyanin concentration, TPC, TFC, AA, and color values of hawthorn fruit extracts. Due to the highest recovered TMA (0.152 ± 0.002 mg ECy3Gl/g of dry weight), TPC (49.14 ± 0.38 mg gallic acid equivalents/g of dry weight), and TFC (18.38 ± 0.19 mg quercetin equivalents/g of dry weight) contents, the ultrasonic-assisted extraction is superior to heat and microwave-assisted extractions. Accordingly, it was also observed that the methanol solvent is more profound than ethanol and isopropanol. Further, the bioactive compounds' content and the extracts' antioxidant activity are shown to be highly correlated. Thus, hawthorn extracts are considered to have antioxidant properties because of their concentrated bioactive compounds.

Open access

Abstract

Vitamin C plays a multifaceted role in various biological processes and is well-known to facilitate pleiotropic activities in both innate and adaptive immune responses, where the antioxidant capacity of vitamin C is most likely highly relevant since immune responses mainly occur in reducing environments. Beyond its antioxidant properties, vitamin C can enhance the transcription potential of genes by promoting DNA demethylation through ten-eleven-translocation (Tet) methylcytosine dioxygenases, which have been recently demonstrated to be critical for the development and differentiation of T cells. In this minireview, we will provide a broader overview on the impact of vitamin C on signaling and regulatory activities in both innate and adaptive immune cells. Particularly, we will summarize recent findings on the decisive role of finely tuned vitamin C concentrations for T cell development, T helper cell differentiation, and optimal T cell-mediated immune responses.

Open access
European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors:
Péter Pallós
,
Márió Gajdács
,
Edit Urbán
,
Yvett Szabados
,
Klaudia Szalai
,
Lívia Hevesi
,
Anna Horváth
,
Anna Kuklis
,
Devina Morjaria
,
Wajiha Iffat
,
Helal F. Hetta
,
Nicola Piredda
, and
Matthew Gavino Donadu

Abstract

The clinical role of Acinetobacter baumannii has been highlighted in numerous infectious syndromes with a high mortality rate, due to the high prevalence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates. The treatment and eradication of this pathogen is hindered by biofilm-formation, providing protection from noxious environmental factors and antimicrobials. The aim of this study was to assess the antibiotic susceptibility, antiseptic susceptibility and biofilm-forming capacity using phenotypic methods in environmental A. baumannii isolates. One hundred and fourteen (n = 114) isolates were collected, originating from various environmental sources and geographical regions. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out using the disk diffusion method, while antiseptic susceptibility was performed using the agar dilution method. Determination of biofilm-forming capacity was carried out using a microtiter-plate based method. Resistance in environmental A. baumannii isolates were highest for ciprofloxacin (64.03%, n = 73), levofloxacin (62.18%, n = 71) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (61.40%, n = 70), while lowest for colistin (1.75%, n = 2). Efflux pump overexpression was seen in 48.25% of isolates (n = 55), 49.12% (n = 56) were classified as MDR. 6.14% (n = 7), 9.65% (n = 11), 24.65% (n = 28) and 59.65% (n = 68) of isolates were non-biofilm producers, weak, medium, and strong biofilm producers, respectively. No significant differences were observed between non-MDR vs. MDR isolates regarding their distribution of biofilm-producers (P = 0.655). The MIC ranges for the tested antiseptics were as follows: benzalkonium chloride 16–128 μg mL−1, chlorhexidine digluconate 4–128 μg mL−1, formaldehyde 64–256 μg mL−1 and triclosan 2–16 μg mL−1, respectively. The conscientious use of antiseptics, together with periodic surveillance, is essential to curb the spread of these bacteria, and to maintain current infection prevention capabilities.

Open access
Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
V. László
,
D. Szakos
,
V. Csizmadiáné Czuppon
, and
Gy. Kasza

Abstract

Consumer trust is essential to any market but particularly relevant to the food sector. Sustainable food systems require integration of small-scale food producers, for them consumer trust is pivotal. However, comprehensive measurement of consumer trust regarding local food is a less explored area. Based on the adjusted version of Benson's trust toolkit, local food trust was measured on four levels. This approach, connecting locality/proximity to food-related trust, was tested with a representative quantitative consumer survey (n = 1,001) in Hungary. Interpersonal trust, general organisation trust, local food chain trust, and local food product trust were measured on a 5-point Likert scale. Correlation and boxplot analysis conducted revealed that trust levels correlate significantly but remain independent from demographic characteristics, indicating that trust in local food is not region-, education-, or income-specific amongst Hungarian consumers. A relatively high level of consumer trust was measured for local food products and producers compared to other stakeholders, strengthening the assumption for the proximity-trust relationship regarding food. This is a key factor for small-scale food producers: only shared values with the local community and earned trust can attract customers despite less flexibility with pricing and limited capacity for advertising.

Open access

Abstract

Extensive use of carbapenems may lead to selection pressure for Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (SM) in hospital environments. The aim of our study was to assess the possible association between systemic antibiotic use and the incidence of SM. A retrospective, observational study was carried out in a tertiary-care hospital in Hungary, between January 1st 2010 and December 31st 2019. Incidence-density for SM and SM resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) was standardized for 1000 patient-days, while systemic antibiotic use was expressed as defined daily doses (DDDs) per 100 patient-days. Mean incidence density for SM infections was 0.42/1000 patient-days; 11.08% were were resistant to SXT, the mean incidence density for SXT-resistant SM was 0.047/1000 patient-days. Consumption rate for colistin, glycopeptides and carbapenems increased by 258.82, 278.94 and 372.72% from 2010 to 2019, respectively. Strong and significant positive correlations were observed with the consumption of carbapenems (r: 0.8759; P < 0.001 and r: 0.8968; P < 0.001), SXT (r: 0.7552; P = 0.011 and r: 0.7004; P = 0.024), and glycopeptides (r: 0.7542; P = 0.012 and r: 0.8138; P < 0.001) with SM and SXT-resistant SM incidence-density/1000 patient-days, respectively. Implementation of institutional carbapenem-sparing strategies are critical in preserving these life-saving drugs, and may affect the microbial spectrum of infections in clinical settings.

Open access

Abstract

Lycium barbarum contains a variety of phytochemicals, primarily polysaccharides, and other potent compounds. L. barbarum is a plant that has several uses in contemporary society, including food processing and everyday eating. However, through traditional processing methods the medicinal or edible value of L. barbarum cannot be fully exploited, to further improve the utilisation rate of L. barbarum and enrich the variety of L. barbarum market. The L. barbarum compound beverage, which uses L. barbarum as its primary ingredient, was created through a series of trials, including the creation of tea beverage recipes and research on the most suitable content of stabilisers, flavouring agent formulations and so on. In addition, several validation tests, including those involving hypoglycaemic and lipid-lowering were conducted. The results indicated that 0.1 g mL−1 stabiliser CMC-Na, 0.2 g mL−1 erythritol, 3 g mL−1 citric acid, 8% L. barbarum juice, and 6% chrysanthemum tea cold brew extract were the best combinations for food additive formulations. Additionally, compound beverages have hypoglycemic and lipid-lowering effects. In conclusion, the research and development of L. barbarum compound beverages can not only increase the rate at which L. barbarum is utilised but also offer fresh ideas for the research and development of L. barbarum as they transition from cash crop agricultural products to market-oriented standardised processed products.

Restricted access

Abstract

Prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are dreaded arthroplasty complications often caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Due to methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains or biofilm formation, successful treatment remains difficult. Currently, two-stage revision surgery constitutes the gold standard therapy of PJIs, sometimes replaced or supplemented by debridement, antibiotics, and implant retention (DAIR). Given the dire consequences of therapeutic failure, bacteriophage therapy might be another treatment option. Here we provide a comprehensive literature review addressing the efficacy of phages applied against S. aureus as causative agent of PJIs. The included 17 publications had in common that the applied phages proved to be effective against various S. aureus isolates including MRSA even in biofilms. Experiments with mice, rats, rabbits, and moth larvae confirmed favorable features of phage preparations in PJI treatment in vivo; including its synergistic with antibiotics. Case reports of PJI patients unanimously described the bacterial eradication following, alongside other measures, intravenous and intra-articular phage administration. Generally, no major side effects occurred, but in some cases elevated liver transaminases were observed. To conclude, our review compiled promising evidence suggesting the safety and suitability of phage therapy as an adjuvant to DAIR in S. aureus PJIs, and thus, underscores the significance of further research.

Open access
European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors:
Kantima Choosang
,
Siriphan Boonsilp
,
Kanyanan Kritsiriwuthinan
,
Palin Chumchuang
,
Nanthawan Thanacharoensakun
,
Aminoh Saai
, and
Sawanya Pongparit

Abstract

Plasmodium vivax is the most prevalent cause of malaria in Thailand and is predominant in malarial endemic areas worldwide. P. vivax infection is characterized by low parasitemia, latent liver-stage parasites, or asymptomatic infections leading to underreported P. vivax cases. These are significant challenges for controlling and eliminating P. vivax from endemic countries. This study developed and evaluated a dot-blot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using PvMSP1-42 recombinant antigen for serological diagnosis based on the detection of antibodies against P. vivax. The optimal PvMSP1-42 concentration and dilutions of anti-human IgG horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated antiserum were tested on 88 serum samples from P. vivax, Plasmodium falciparum and bacterial infection, including healthy individuals. A cut-off titer of 1:800 produced optimal values for sensitivity and specificity of 90.9 and 98.2%, respectively, with an accuracy of 95.5%. The positive and negative predictive values were 96.8 and 94.7% respectively. The results from microscopic examination and dot-blot ELISA showed strong agreement with the 0.902 kappa index. Thus, the dot-blot ELISA using PvMSP1-42 antigen provided high sensitivity and specificity suitable for serodiagnosis of P. vivax infection. The test is a simple and quick diagnostic assay suitable for field testing as it does not require specific equipment or particular skills.

Open access
Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
R. Habibi
,
A. Khosrowshahi Asl
,
L. Roufegarinejad
,
S. Zomorodi
, and
N. Asefi

Abstract

Plant-based proteins are being rapidly explored in the food industry to produce healthy and nutritious foods. Herein, the effects of soy protein isolate (SPI) ratio to oat germ powder (OGP) (0:0, 3.7: 6.3, 5:5, 0:10, 10:0, and 6.3:3.7%) were studied on the physicochemical, colour, rheological, microbial, antioxidant, and sensory properties of wheyless cheese. The results showed that by increasing SPI and OGP levels, ash, white index value, elastic modulus, and complex viscosity decreased, while pH, fat in dry matter, Chroma, and total colour (ΔE) increased. Also, syneresis was only observed in the control sample and was not observed in other samples. Control sample together with sample containing 10% of OGP showed the highest microbial count (i.e., mesophilic bacteria and yeasts-moulds), while samples containing 10% of SPI showed the lowest microbial count. Furthermore, the growth of both coliform and psychrophilic bacteria in all samples was negligible. Based on the results of sensory evaluation, with increasing SPI and OGP, the sensory evaluation score of samples decreased but they were within the acceptable range. According to the results obtained in this study, the combinations of 5% SPI and 5% OGP or 3.7% SPI and 6.3% OGP are recommended to be used in wheyless cheese production.

Restricted access