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Abstract

Secondary abiotic (SAB) IL-10−/− mice constitute a valuable Campylobacter jejuni-induced enterocolitis model. Given that the host-specific gut microbiota plays a key role in susceptibility of the vertebrate host towards or resistance against enteropathogenic infection, we surveyed immunopathological sequelae of C. jejuni infection in human microbiota associated (hma) and SAB IL-10−/− mice. Following oral challenge, C. jejuni readily colonized the gastrointestinal tract of hma and SAB mice, but with lower numbers in the former versus the latter. Whereas hma mice were clinically less severely compromised, both, macroscopic and microscopic inflammatory sequelae of C. jejuni infection including histopathological and apoptotic cell responses in the colon of IL-10−/− mice were comparably pronounced in the presence and absence of a human gut microbiota at day 6 post-infection. Furthermore, C. jejuni infection of hma and SAB mice resulted in similarly enhanced immune cell responses in the colon and in differential pro-inflammatory mediator secretion in the intestinal tract, which also held true for extra-intestinal including systemic compartments. Notably, C. jeuni infection of hma mice was associated with distinct gut microbiota shifts. In conclusion, hma IL-10−/− mice represent a reliable C. jejuni-induced enterocolitis model to dissect the interactions of the enteropathogen, vertebrate host immunity and human gut microbiota.

Open access

Abstract

Multilevel inverters performance enhancement is a major topic, which has attracted the attention of most of the researchers, to evolve with newer topologies and modulation strategies. In this manuscript, two novel hybrid bidirectional multilevel inverter structures, which are suitable for bidirectional loads, are proposed. An enhancement in the voltage levels and reduction of the component count are achieved for these newly introduced structures. Modular expansion and series cascading are suggested systems for extension of the voltage levels. The prime requirement in most of the industrial drives is a controlled output. VSI fed induction motor drive satisfies this requirement. The Multicarrier PWM technique has been applied to the basic bidirectional seven level models and nine level model and its performance with induction motor as load has been analyzed for various modulation indices. The simulated results of the proposed structures are verified using MATLAB/SIMULINK platform. The characteristics such as stator current, rotor current speed and torque plots achieved as above model affirm that its performance is good. By then, the tracking time of the proposed work during reference speed change, load change and constant reference change is 0.185, 1.094 and 1.5 s. The tracking time of the VSI during reference speed change, load change and constant reference change is 0.5 s, 3.8 and 3.5 s. The tracking time of the MLI during reference speed change, load change and constant reference change is 0.2 s, 1.8 and 2 s.

Open access

Az „Alsóban az élet” című hazai talajállapotot célzó közösségi tudomány program első tapasztalatai és eredményei

The First experiences and results of the Hungarian citizen science program (’Life in Undies’) aimed at soil properties

Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors:
Mátyás Árvai
,
Tünde Takáts
,
Zsófia Adrienn Kovács
,
Katalin Takács
,
Kitti Balog
,
Péter László
,
Tünde Imréné Takács
,
János Mészáros
, and
László Pásztor

A közösségi tudomány – citizen science – már évtizedek óta működő kutatási forma, ahol egy-egy kutatás a lakosság segítségével valósul meg. Az „Alsóban az élet” kampány az érdeklődők bevonásával 2021 tavaszán indult hazánkban. A kutatásban résztvevők kézhez kaptak egy pamut alsóneműt, amelyet kb. 20 cm-es mélységben kellett elásniuk, ezzel „táplálékot” szolgáltatva a talajlakó élőlények számára. Több mint két hónap elteltével az alsónemű kiásása után megfigyelhetők a bomlási jelek, amelyek mint indikátor jelzik a talajélet aktivitását, közvetett módon a talaj egészségi állapotát. A visszamaradt alsóneműk digitális fotójának elemzésével becsülhető a talajlakó élőlények munkája az alsónadrágok bomlásának százalékos aránya alapján.

A közösségi médiában megjelent felhívások és célzott csoporthirdetések segítségével mintegy 1193-an jelentkeztek a programra összesen 1966 helyszínnel, ezzel országos lefedettséget biztosítva a kutatás részére. Az adatok elemzése alapján a gondozott konyhakertekben elásott pamut alsók mutatták a legnagyobb átlagos bomlási értékeket (27,67%). Talajtípust tekintve a réti talajok és a közép- és délkeleteurópai barna erdő-, valamint a csernozjom-, és a váztalajok (köztük nagyrészt a humuszos homoktalajok) esetén tapasztaltuk a legmagasabb, közel azonos, 25,47%; 25,43%; 24,22%; 24,21%-os bomlási értéket. A programban résztvevő helyszínek közül a legnagyobb mértékű bomlás (93%) konyhakert hasznosítású (mulcsozott veteményes és polikultúra ágyás) váztalajon (homoktalajon) volt megfigyelhető. Az országos átlagos bomlási érték 24,57% volt. A bomlási adatok alapján eredménytérképet szerkesztettünk Magyarország teljes területére, melyet nyilvánossá tettünk, s a résztvevőknek a visszaküldött fotó feldolgozása alapján rövid, a saját talajának biológiai aktivitását minősítő válaszlevelet küldtünk.

Open access

Die Wiener Weltausstellung 1873. •

Die Berichterstattung von Ármin Vámbéry und Max Nordau über die orientalische Abteilung sowie den Schah-Besuch in der Kaiserstadt.

Hungarian Studies
Author:
Hedvig Ujvári

Abstract

The oeuvre of the orientalist, Turkologist and traveler Ármin Vámbéry has been well researched, his long life full of adventures and his travels made him a famous personality on several continents during the Dualism-era, and so he has not succumbed to oblivion to this day. However, his creativity and work are multi-layered, so they require the approaches of various scientific disciplines, e.g. some facets of his widely ramified and not least unexplored journalistic work can be contributed to Vámbéry research. This article is devoted to Vámbéry's publication on the occasion of the Vienna World Exhibition of 1873, which also allow a comparison with the feuilletons of his friend, who later became a writer, cultural critic and Zionist, Max Nordau (1849, Pest–1923, Paris).

Open access

Proper names have always played a significant role in the history of language and culture of any nation. Besides, research on personal names in different epochs and in local regions are important both for history and onomastics. Surnames could reflect the history of a nation almost in every country because they are passed on from one generation to the next. Surnames are particularly interesting for studying traditions and they are strictly connected to the social and historical background in the analyzed region. The study of surnames can also be of benefit to other areas of onomastics such as toponomastics and socio-onomastics.

Although the topic of surnames has been exploited in many countries and languages for a long period, there are still some new aspects that can be presented on this topic. This research examines the surnames in the mass media in the Odesa Region. Historically, the Odesa region was multicultural that is why we came across with both Slavic and non-Slavic surnames but the object of this investigation is Slavic surnames. The analyzed mass-media texts are drawn from the 19th-century newspapers Odessa Vestnik and Odessa Advertisement Sheet. About 2,000 surnames were taken for the analysis from announcements and advertisements in these newspapers. The study of the surnames has concentrated on the names of all levels of the society. The purpose of the paper is to make the typology of the surnames and present the quantity of surnames in each group. Some historical events that impact the name-giving process are mentioned and social factors which influence the name-giving process are described.

The study has revealed that 19th-century surnames were created from anthroponyms, toponyms, ethnonyms, and appellatives. The last group contains occupational surnames, surnames with the semantics of fauna and flora as well as surnames derived from other concrete or abstract nouns. An additional complicating factor was that it was not always easy to interpret and identify the origin of some surnames. The results of this paper indicated that analyzed surnames from the 19th century in this region are part of culture. The surnames derived from appellatives represent a significant part of the studied surnames (56%), among them there are occupational surnames (13%); surnames with the semantics of flora and fauna (23%) as well as surnames having other concrete or abstract meanings (20%). Personal names make up 29%, toponyms are of 11%, and the least frequent category is surnames derived from ethnonyms (4%).

From the perspective of further research, it would be interesting to compare the received results with the typology of the modern surnames in the same region.

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Abstract

The paper offers a general overview of the place that Hungarian literature occupies in the polysystem of translated literature in Serbia. Unlike established philological disciplines with a longer tradition (English, German, French or Russian philology), which offer several different historical overviews of the history of a given literature, thus enabling the experts, the students and the general public to gain a more systematic insight into the respective literatures, there has only been one history of Hungarian literature published in Serbia so far. Given the fact that it was published back in 1976, and that many aspects of its methodology and insights have become outdated, it is an urgent necessity to produce a new work on the subject, specifically for the Serbian readership.

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Abstract

Parallel with the emergence of modern national identity and culture, from the late 18th to the early 20th century an emphasized consciousness underlined the attempt to create a ‘national’ dress. In the court cultures of Europe, a shift in the style of representation from ‘international’ to ‘regional/ethnic’ and ‘national’ served the aim of updating the monarch's role. Royals reaffirmed their sense of belonging to their own ‒ or adopted ‒ nations through the conscious introduction of national elements into the dress code of the court. Royal courts also played a leading role in the myth-making process surrounding the so-called national style. The connection between power, prestige, and the dynamics of costume as a fashion statement is obvious in this process.

Open access
Acta Ethnographica Hungarica
Authors:
Szabina Bognár
and
Janka Teodóra Nagy
Restricted access

O Bojničićevoj Gramatici madžarskoga jezika iz drugoga kuta: uzroci i narav mijena izdanja gramatike na razmeđu dvaju stoljeća

On Bojničić’s Hungarian Grammar from Another Angle: The Causes and Nature of Changes in its Editions at the Turn of the 20th Century

Studia Slavica
Authors:
Jadranka Mlikota
and
Rene Čipanj Banja

U sjeni Bojničićeva rada, obilježenoga iznimnim prinosom hrvatskoj kulturnoj povijesti i pomoćnim povijesnim znanostima, ostala je Gramatika madžarskoga jezika (1888., 1896., 1905., 1912.) koja je na razmeđu dvaju stoljeća, u vrijeme smjene filoloških škola (zagrebačke školom hrvatskih vukovaca), doživjela nekoliko izmijenjenih izdanja. Gramatiku je – točnije njezino prvo izdanje – kao udžbenik odobrio Odjel za bogoštovlje i nastavu Kr. ugarskoga ministarstva, potom ju nagradio 1889., a naposljetku je ipak negativno ocijenjena, i to u službenom glasilu istoga Odjela koji ju je i nagradio, u Nastavnom vjesniku, a gotovo jednako ocijenit će ju i neki mađarski izvori početkom 20. stoljeća.

Pritom je riječ o kritikama koje su se mahom odnosile na (hrvatski) metajezik gramatike, donošenje netočnih pravila te na njezino, po sudu određenih kritičara, nesustavno oblikovanje, a samom se Bojničiću zamjerala nedostatna filološka naobrazba. Upravo ju stoga ti kritičari između ostaloga opisuju kao priručnik neprikladan za nastavnu uporabu. Od navedenih četiriju izdanja gramatike – iako konzultirani hrvatski i mađarski izvori ustvari ne donose nedvosmislen podatak o tome koliko je točno izdanja gramatika doživjela – spomenutoj je filološkoj ocjeni također podlegnulo samo prvo, a autor je poneke ispravke uklopio u kasnija izdanja svoga gramatičkoga priručnika.

U ovom se radu uspoređuju četiri izdanja Bojničićeve gramatike, utvrđuju se jezične, nazivoslovne i leksičke mijene njezina polaznoga (hrvatskog) jezika te se propituje u kojoj su mjeri potaknute objavljenim kritikama te koliki je odraz smjene filoloških škola vidljiv u pojedinim izdanjima. U sklopu tumačenja mijena što ih izdanja gramatike sadrže, posebice se ističu jezične osobitosti svojstvene normi zagrebačke filološke škole, čime se pak nastoji potkrijepiti činjenica kako je riječ o obilježjima koja su prisutna u svim četirima izdanjima gramatike neovisno o vremenu njihova izdavanja te jezično-političkim okolnostima i utjecajima pod kojima su nastala.

U konačnici se nastoji potvrditi (ne)opravdanost negativne recepcije koju je gramatika imala u dijelu filološke javnosti svojega vremena. Drugim riječima nastoji se dati odgovor na pitanje valja li Bojničiću pridružiti epitet autora čiji rad – pa tako ni njegova gramatika – u odgovarajućoj mjeri nije stručno potkovan ili mu pak, bez obzira na njegovu naobrazbu i upućene kritike, valja odati priznanje zbog neospornih prinosa što ih je dao u području hrvatsko-mađarske gramatikografije.

In the shadow of Bojničić’s work marked by exceptional contributions to Croatian cultural history and auxiliary historical sciences remained the Hungarian Grammar (1888, 1896, 1905, 1912), which at the turn of the century, at the time of change of philological schools (Zagreb philological school was supplanted by the school of Croatian Vukovians), saw several modified editions. This grammar book (to be exact, its first edition) was approved as a textbook by the Royal Hungarian Ministry of Worship and Education and awarded by the same institution in 1889. Eventually, the grammar was nevertheless negatively reviewed in Nastavni vjesnik, the official gazette of the same Ministry, which had previously awarded the grammar, and was almost equally evaluated by some Hungarian sources at the beginning of the 20th century.

The criticism mostly concerns the grammar’s metalanguage (Croatian), deriving incorrect rules, and its unsystematic format (according to certain critics), and Bojničić himself was criticized for his deficient philological education. This is exactly the reason why those critics, amongst other things, describe it as a handbook inadequate for school use. Of the four above-mentioned editions of the grammar – although the consulted Croatian and Hungarian sources do not explicitly state exactly how many editions the grammar had – only the first edition received the above-mentioned philological evaluation, and the author made some corrections in the later editions of his grammar book.

This paper compares the four editions of Bojničić’s grammar, identifies linguistic, terminological, and lexical changes in its source language (Croatian), and examines the extent to which they had been motivated by the published criticism and the extent to which the change of philological schools is reflected in individual editions. Within the interpretation of the changes made in the different editions, linguistic features characteristic of the norm of the Zagreb philological school are highlighted, in an attempt to corroborate the fact that these features are present in all four editions of the grammar irrespective of the time of their publication as well as the linguistic-political circumstances and influences under which they came into existence.

Ultimately, the present paper seeks to confirm the (un)justification of the negative reception the grammar had in a part of the philological public of its time. In other words, we seek to answer the question of whether Bojničić is to be given the epithet of an author whose work – including his grammar – is to a certain extent not professionally grounded, or, regardless of his education and the criticism toward his work, he has to be given credit for his indisputable contribution to the field of Croatian–Hungarian grammaticography.

Open access
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