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Abstract

Our results introduce the preferences and attitudes of farmers and the internet-orientated population regarding renewable energy sources (RES) in Kosovo. The research included 243 internet-orientated participants and 30 farmers. The data was gathered through questionnaires (in both groups) and deep interviews (just in farmers). The results showed that the awareness of RES was high for especially solar, wind and hydro energy, the relationship among them was very strong. It was justified that firewood was typically used by respondents with low income, but not considered as renewable energy source, similarly to Hungary and the USA. A special feature of Kosovo is that electricity has very high importance for the man in the street, even for heating. Better education, higher income and environmental-consciousness definitely support better knowledge of RES, similarly to international tendencies. Males and employed participants had more knowledge about RES than females, or unemployed ones. Moreover, the results showed that the participants prefer environment rather than convenience, which is also typical of less wealthy countries. Our results might be useful as a typical less developed country case study for international comparison and helps to eliminate the unknown willingness in RES for the development of future agricultural strategies in Kosovo.

Open access

Abstract

The research is dedicated to determine one of the most important mechanical properties which is the Young's modulus. Its value is crucial for clearly explaining and understanding the results of any mechanical loading experiment. Three cylindrical samples of 15 mm height and 7.5 mm diameter were designed using SpaceClaim application in the ANSYS Software and then 3D printed using Direct Metal Laser Sintering via EOS M 290 3D printer. The specimens were then tested under compression in order to determine the value of the Young's modulus for titanium alloy of grade 23 (Ti, Al, V, O, N, C, H, Fe, Y). The finite element method was executed using ANSYS mechanical to run a comparison between laboratory results with nominal results of the Young's modulus. Young's modulus value is affected by the 3D printing accuracy and quality, the material's quality as well; however, the deviation is within 10%.

Open access

Abstract

The need to decrease energy use represents a challenge particularly in developing countries, including Kosovo, considering the unsustainable, insufficient, and inconsistent energy supply. This contribution presents a simplified yet comprehensive approach to evaluate the energy performance improvement potential of three selected multi-family residential buildings using building energy models generated from calibrated and simplified input parameters. To this end, alternative retrofit measures were tested via a simulation-based parametric study. The energy benefit of each retrofit alternative was estimated and analyzed. Results are expected to provide valuable information towards outlining design guidelines for energy-efficient residential buildings in Kosovo.

Restricted access
Pollack Periodica
Authors:
Humam Kareem Jalghaf
,
Ali Habeeb Askar
,
Hazim Albedran
,
Endre Kovács
, and
Károly Jármai

Abstract

The paper compares different metaheuristics for using heat exchangers as a benchmark to estimate the best design parameter values using optimization efficient algorithms. Many MATLAB algorithms are used in this study. Also, an engineering equation solver, which is commercial software, is used to solve the issue. The design calculates three variables, which are the length, and inner and outer pipe diameter of the heat exchanger. The results showed that the best algorithms are particle swarm optimization, and when using this algorithm, the optimal design of the double pipe heat exchanger is as follows: the pipe length is 5.6734·10−1 m, the pipe inner diameter is 8.0203·10−3 m, and the pipe outer diameter is 2.2439·10−2 m.

Open access

Abstract

Application of leaf extracts in alkyd extract primer (AEP) to inhibit corrosion of mild steel was compared with performance of alkyd conventional primer (ACP) containing zinc phosphate and zinc chromate as inhibitors. The investigations were carried out through Gasometric technique in 5 °C steps of temperature increase from 25 to 50 °C in 1.0 M HCl as corrodent. The AEP of 34.24 percent actives compared with ACP of 56.57 percent actives gave the same inhibition efficiencies of 76.5%. Extract primer of lower percent active compared with conventional primer were cost effective and more potent than conventional primer.

Open access
Pollack Periodica
Authors:
Peter Kapalo
,
Nadiia Spodyniuk
,
Orest Voznyak
,
Olena Savchenko
,
Oleksandr Donii
,
Olena Shelimanova
, and
Anatoliy Mishchenko

Abstract

The air temperature in school buildings significantly affects the ability of students and teachers to focus on the educational process. Students usually begin to feel an increase the temperature in room. The purpose of this study is to find the limit of the temperature rise in the classroom when people no longer feel the temperature rise in the room. For this reason, several experimental measurements of indoor air parameters were carried out: air temperature, relative humidity and carbon dioxide concentration. Measured temperature differences and individual subjective ratings of audiences determined the dependence using mathematical statistics, from which can be determined the critical level of increase in air temperature at which people no longer perceive the change in air temperature.

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Abstract

The design of pollution-free energy recovery systems has become an important goal by researchers as renewable energy is an alternative to traditional energy that depends on fossil fuels. In this work, a multifunctional electromechanical speed bump was invented to be used on the streets to generate clean, sustainable energy by utilizing and investing the kinetic energy of vehicles passing on the roads. The current model was designed to perform three functions simultaneously.

To measure the performance of the innovative speed bump system, a (simplified) prototype was made that simulates the work of the multifunctional bump. The results showed that the proposed initial speed bump model is a promising technology that can be applied as a clean, renewable energy source that can be easily applied in crowded streets.

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Abstract

Multilevel inverters performance enhancement is a major topic, which has attracted the attention of most of the researchers, to evolve with newer topologies and modulation strategies. In this manuscript, two novel hybrid bidirectional multilevel inverter structures, which are suitable for bidirectional loads, are proposed. An enhancement in the voltage levels and reduction of the component count are achieved for these newly introduced structures. Modular expansion and series cascading are suggested systems for extension of the voltage levels. The prime requirement in most of the industrial drives is a controlled output. VSI fed induction motor drive satisfies this requirement. The Multicarrier PWM technique has been applied to the basic bidirectional seven level models and nine level model and its performance with induction motor as load has been analyzed for various modulation indices. The simulated results of the proposed structures are verified using MATLAB/SIMULINK platform. The characteristics such as stator current, rotor current speed and torque plots achieved as above model affirm that its performance is good. By then, the tracking time of the proposed work during reference speed change, load change and constant reference change is 0.185, 1.094 and 1.5 s. The tracking time of the VSI during reference speed change, load change and constant reference change is 0.5 s, 3.8 and 3.5 s. The tracking time of the MLI during reference speed change, load change and constant reference change is 0.2 s, 1.8 and 2 s.

Open access

Abstract

Owing to their elevated absorption coefficient, superior resistance to radiation and reduced effective electron mass, gallium antimonide (GaSb) semiconductors were documented to be suitable for photovoltaic systems applications. However, they were found to suffer from low efficiency. This work has been dedicated to enhance the design of GaSb based single-junction solar cells having window and back surface field made from AlGaAsSb material. The purpose is to maximize their electrical performance by considering doping and thickness of layers as design variables. A methodology of optimization was proposed. It is based on computer aided design through simulations performed under SILVACO-ATLAS software and a numerical procedure that was developed to achieve optimal design of this particular solar cell. The approach encompasses analysis of variance and derivation of response surface models to get explicit expression of the objective function corresponding to efficiency. The obtained results have shown an efficiency which is higher than all the previous known values established in literature.

Open access
Pollack Periodica
Authors:
Teuta Jashari Kajtazi
,
Ardita Byci Jakupi
, and
Ilir Gjinolli

Abstract

The demand for community involvement during the planning process is growing. Kosovo, to be in step with global development trends in the field of planning, has developed various projects in the name of public participation. The pilot project for the Brekoci informal settlement in Gjakova is an example of community-based planning. The purpose of this paper is to show the way of community involvement through unique methods explicitly designed for this community, as the tool “Express”, “Mark” and “Vote” and how the data obtained from these tools through spatial systems as Geographical Information System and DepthMapX, have generated the community's vision, which has resulted in the drafting of the urban regulatory plan. This plan represents a reflection of the local cultural context.

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