Browse

You are looking at 61 - 70 of 2,758 items for :

  • Behavioral Sciences x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All

Disorders due to addictive behaviors: Further issues, debates, and controversies •

Commentary to the debate: “Behavioral addictions in the ICD-11”

Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Author:
Mark D. Griffiths

Abstract

Two recent papers in the Journal of Behavioral Addictions by Brand et al. (2022), and Sassover and Weinstein (2022) both make interesting additions to the place of behavioral addictions in the more general addictive behaviors field. This commentary discusses some of the further nuances in the debates surrounding whether problematic engagement in social networking, pornography, and buying/shopping should be considered as possible ‘disorders due to addictive behaviors’ in the ICD-11. Particular emphasis in this commentary is placed on social network use disorder and its delineation. While there is growing evidence that addictions to sex, pornography, social network sites, exercise, work, and buying/shopping may be genuine disorders among a minority of individuals, none of these behaviors is likely to be included in formal psychiatric manuals in the near future until there is more high-quality data on all research fronts (e.g., epidemiological, neurobiological, psychological, and clinical).

Open access

Abstract

After introduction of compulsive sexual behavior disorder (CSBD) in the ICD-11, many questions regarding etiology, classification and diagnostic criteria remain unanswered, providing rationale for further research. In this commentary, we critically review the ongoing discussion reflected in some relevant articles, and try to point out the risks of oversimplification of the broad clinical phenomenon, as well as attract attention to the neglected aspects, such as psychosexual development, intimacy disorder and the role of sexological expertise in the assessment and treatment of individuals presenting with out-of-control sexual behaviors. We also advocate for multimodal, transtheoretical approach and suggest that CSBD may be reconsidered as a condition related to sexual health.

Open access

Nosology of behavioral addictions: Intersections with philosophy of psychiatry •

Commentary to the debate: “Behavioral addictions in the ICD-11”

Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Dan J. Stein
and
Christine Lochner

Abstract

Writing in this journal, Brand and colleagues have proposed criteria for other specified disorders due to addictive behaviors. Their proposal intersects with key debates in philosophy of psychiatry, including how best to define mental disorders, to validate them, and to optimize their meta-structure. Review of these debates in the context of behavioral addictions suggests several conclusions. First, these debates involve “essentially contested” constructs that require ongoing consideration and judgment. Second, the complexity of psychopathology suggests multiple legitimate approaches to delineating traits and explicating mechanisms. Third, in optimizing meta-structure, non-psychobiological considerations are crucial - the overlapping public mental health approach to addictive disorders is paramount.

Open access

What does “Sexual” mean in compulsive sexual behavior disorder? •

Commentary to the debate: “Behavioral addictions in the ICD-11”

Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Peer Briken
and
Daniel Turner

Abstract

This paper comments three recent publications in the Journal of Behavioral Addictions (Brand et al., 2022; Gola et al., 2022; Sassover & Weinstein, 2022). It shortly discusses (1) the role of researcher biases and the significance of the naming of a disorder (here “sexual addiction” and “pornography use disorder”) for stigma and treatment, (2) the development and course of CSBD and its significance for research results, (3) the role of “Sexual” in CSBD. The paper concludes that the guidelines for CSBD give a precise description and the authors plea for an exchange between disciplines and a sex positive treatment approach.

Open access

What the grey literature can contribute to addictive behaviour disorder classification •

Commentary to the debate: “Behavioral addictions in the ICD-11”

Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Daria J. Kuss
and
Olatz Lopez-Fernandez

Abstract

This commentary examines the proposal made by Brand et al. (2022) regarding a framework outlining relevant criteria for considering possible behavioural addictions within the current World Health Organisation's International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) category of ‘other specified disorders due to addictive behaviours’. We agree with the framework as it highlights the clinical perspective requiring agreed-upon classifications and criteria to produce effective diagnostic procedures and efficacious treatments. Additionally, we propose to add the need of recognising potential addictive behaviour through the inclusion of a fourth meta-level criterion: ‘grey literature evidence’. Utilising non-academic evidence can provide validity in the social context where the behaviour takes place, and it can support authorities in taking action to prevent and treat the resultant behavioural problems. The inclusion of the proposed fourth criterion will aid comprehensibility of the current proposal and provide clarity, as indicated in the present commentary, which includes the fourth criterion analysis for problematic pornography use, shopping/buying and social networking site use.

Open access

Where to put Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder (CSBD)? Phenomenology matters •

Commentary to the debate: “Behavioral addictions in the ICD-11”

Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Hans-Jürgen Rumpf
and
Christian Montag

Abstract

In this commentary paper, it is discussed if Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder (CSBD) is best categorized as an Impulse Control Disorder, an Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder or in light of the overlap of characteristics with both Gaming and Gambling Disorder as an addictive behavior. The overlapping features are: loss of control over the respective excessive behavior, giving increasing priority to the excessive behavior under investigation and upholding such a behavior despite negative consequences. Besides empirical evidence regarding underlying mechanisms, phenomenology also plays an important role to correctly classify CSBD. The phenomenological aspects of CSBD clearly speak in favor of classifying CSBD under the umbrella of addictive behaviors.

Open access

Abstract

The Mosuo, arguably the last surviving matrilineal society in China, offers interesting insights into kinship practices that support reproduction. In particular, the modes of courtship and reproduction of the traditional Mosuo revolve around a practice known as walking marriages, which involves no contract or obligations, where the men do not use social status or resources to court women, women do not expect commitment from men, and multiple sexual relationships are permitted for both sexes and seldom incite conflict. Children borne from walking marriages are cared for not so much by fathers but rather their mothers' brothers, and wealth and property are controlled by women and passed on to daughters rather than to sons. By analyzing how familial and mating practices interact with evolved preferences and ecological affordances, we highlight the ways that traditional Mosuo practices facilitate reproductive success despite differing vastly from those familiar to modern, industrialized societies. We suggest that cases that appear like evolutionary exceptions, such as the traditional Mosuo, can bring into question the mating practices and preferences we take for granted as relatively universal and prompt a nuanced understanding of how environments, culture, and evolution mutually constrain and shape one another.

Open access

Abstract

Educational research studies show some significant contributions towards improving the quality and productivity of the education sector. With this paper, I would like to do the same by presenting the results of my pilot study on key elements of developing teacher educators' performance appraisal. This study explores a number of issues that can influence appraisal: purposes, setting standards, evaluation instruments, and implementation. The purpose of the study is to reveal what the influencing circumstances in developing teacher educators' performance appraisal are, and how teacher educators perceive the role of staff involvement in developing teacher educators' performance appraisal. In order to fulfil the above goals, semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten teacher educators, currently working at two Universities of Education in Myanmar. The interview results revealed that the acceptability of performance criteria is important and academic staff involvement in developing performance appraisal design should be encouraged. Effective leadership, trust, clear and equitable systems can lead to successful appraisal. Finally, the implications are discussed with a focus on designing teacher performance appraisal.

Open access
Journal of Adult Learning, Knowledge and Innovation
Authors:
Csaba Kálmán
,
Kata Csizér
,
János Gordon Győri
,
László Horváth
, and
Gábor Halász
Open access

Abstract

In today's world, education needs to empower students to become active global citizens who are prepared for 21st century challenges and who can solve local and global problems, thus, who are globally competent. To affect lasting change in our education systems, it seems urgent to incorporate the global perspective as early as in initial teacher training, and nurture globally competent teacher trainees. As essentially teachers decide on what and how they teach, it is worth examining how they develop the knowledge dimension of global competence, i.e., what content they teach for global competence development (GCD). The main aim of this study, involving five university tutors involved in EFL teacher training in Hungary, is to inquire into what topics they deal with for GCD, what attitudes they have towards dealing with these topics, and how they decide on the content in their first-year language development courses. Findings suggest that they deal with a variety of global and intercultural issues in their lessons; however, they tend to avoid certain local ones. Overall, they have a reasonably positive attitude towards these issues. Finally, the participants predominantly consider the connection to the syllabus, students' language level, and personal and student interest important when deciding on what topics to deal with in class.

Open access