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Abstract

Identification of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes from tumor related antigens is a promising approach for malignant tumor immunotherapy. TC2N, a recently identified tumor associated antigen from human glioblastoma, is regarded as a promising target of tumor-specific immunotherapy. As one of the most widely used histocompatibility molecules in Chinese is HLA-A*0201, we were able to identify the TC2N peptides that are provided by this molecular type. A panel of antigenic peptides produced from TC2N were predicted by using a computer tool. The binding affinities of three peptides with the highest predicted score to the HLA-A*0201 molecule were evaluated after synthesis. In vitro and in vivo stimulation of the main T-cell response against the predicted peptides. The results demonstrated that TC2N (152-160) was able to release IFN-γ and lyse U251 cells in vitro as well as in vivo by eliciting peptide-specific CTLs. Our results indicated that peptide TC2N (152-160) (RLYGSVCDL) was a novel HLA-A2.1-restricted CTL epitope capable of inducing TC2N specific CTLs in vitro. As TC2N might qualify as a viable target for immunotherapeutic approaches for patients with GBM, we speculated that the newly identified epitope RLYGSVCDL would be of potential use in peptide-based, cancer-specific immunotherapy against GBM.

Open access
Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
I. Tahiri
,
S. de Paz-Cantos
,
A. González-Marrón
,
À. Cartanyà-Hueso
,
E.M. Navarrete-Muñoz
,
J.C. Martín-Sánchez
,
C. Lidón-Moyano
,
H. Pérez-Martín
, and
J.M. Martínez-Sánchez

Abstract

The aim of this study was to assess the association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and daily leisure screen time. We carried out a cross-sectional study using a representative sample of the Spanish population aged from 3 to 14 years recruited for the 2017 Spanish National Health Survey (n = 4,633). We derived the adherence to the Mediterranean diet according to a modified Mediterranean Diet Score and computed daily leisure screen time. We estimated crude and adjusted prevalence ratios, and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of high versus low, high versus medium and medium versus low adherence to the Mediterranean diet, according to categories of daily leisure screen time, using Poisson regression models. We found that the adjusted probabilities of having high adherence to the Mediterranean diet, versus low and medium adherence, were 23% (aPR 0.77; 95% CI 0.69, 0.86) and 14% (aPR 0.86; 95% CI 0.76, 0.97) lower, respectively, in children spending at least 180 minutes of daily leisure screen time in comparison with children spending less than one hour of daily screen time. This association was also observed when stratifying by age, except for children 12–14 years. In conclusion, high leisure screen time may be associated with lower adherence to the Mediterranean diet.

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Abstract

Autophagy is a cellular stress-induced intracellular process, through which damaged cellular components are decomposed via lysosomal degradation. This process plays important roles in host innate immunity, particularly the elimination of intracellular pathogens inside host macrophages. A more detailed understanding of the roles of autophagic events in the effective manifestation of macrophagic antimycobacterial activity is needed. Furthermore, the effects of medicinal plants on macrophagic autophagy response to mycobacterial infection need to be clarified. We herein examined the significance of autophagic events in the manifestation of host immunity during mycobacterial infection, by performing a literature search using PubMed. Recent studies demonstrated that autophagy up-regulated macrophage functions related to the intracellular killing of mycobacteria, even when pathogens were residing within the cytoplasm of macrophages. The majority of medicinal plants potentiated macrophagic autophagy, thereby enhancing their antimycobacterial functions. In contrast, most medicinal plants down-regulate the development and activation of the Th17 cell population, which reduces macrophage antimycobacterial activity. These opposing effects of medicinal plants on macrophage autophagy (enhancement) and Th17 cell functions (inhibition) may provide a plausible explanation for the clinical observation of their modest efficacy in the treatment of mycobacterial infections.

Open access

Abstract

Benzoic acid naturally exists in a variety of plants and fermented foods, and jujube contains natural benzoic acid. This study scrutinises the content of benzoic acid in diverse jujube cultivars, and its modulation by variables such as harvest timing, product types, and drying techniques. The methodology encompasses tracking the progressive augmentation of benzoic acid throughout the maturation process of jujube, with the apex content being 144.4 mg kg−1 in the Junzao cultivar. It further investigates the substantial fluctuations in benzoic acid content in jujube powder under disparate processing conditions, with the zenith content observed in drum-dried jujube powder at 127.6 mg kg−1, and an unexpectedly elevated level of 66.2 mg kg−1 in freeze-dried jujube powder. As long as it is not consumed excessively, it will not cause harm to the human body. The conclusion drawn from this research posits can be employed to resolve consumer grievances, or as a benchmark for testing services for product quality control.

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Abstract

Dietary iron intake causes the elevation of ferritin levels, and higher iron intake might improve insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between dietary iron intake and serum ferritin levels, insulin resistance, and nutritional status in patients with cardiovascular disease. Health information of individuals were obtained with a questionnaire form. There were a total of 103 patients, 59 male (57.3%) and 44 female (42.7%). Patients also filled a questionnaire on dietary habits, a 3-day food record. There was a statistically significant difference between ferritin quartiles and total cholesterol, HDL-C, non-HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, and TG/HDL-C ratio (P < 0.05). Study data show that dietary iron intake was associated with the elevation of serum ferritin levels (P < 0.05) and this difference was significant in Q1 and Q4 groups in post-hoc analysis. There was a negative correlation between serum ferritin levels and total cholesterol and HDL-C in patients with insulin resistance (r = −0.384, P < 0.05; r = −0.520, P < 0.05). In conclusion we found a strong association between serum ferritin levels and inflammation, causing an oxidative stress, atherosclerosis, and bringing along cardiometabolic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and type 2 DM.

Open access

Abstract

Staphylococcus aureus infections have already presented a substantial public health challenge, encompassing different clinical manifestations, ranging from bacteremia to sepsis and multi-organ failures. Among these infections, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is particularly alarming due to its well-documented resistance to multiple classes of antibiotics, contributing significantly to global mortality rates. Consequently, the urgent need for effective treatment options has prompted a growing interest in exploring phage therapy as a potential non-antibiotic treatment against MRSA infections. Phages represent a class of highly specific bacterial viruses known for their ability to infect certain bacterial strains. This review paper explores the clinical potential of phages as a treatment for MRSA infections due to their low toxicity and auto-dosing capabilities. The paper also discusses the synergistic effect of phage-antibiotic combination (PAC) and the promising results from in vitro and animal model studies, which could lead to extensive human clinical trials. However, clinicians need to establish and adhere to standard protocols governing phage administration and implementation. Prominent clinical trials are needed to develop and advance phage therapy as a non-antibiotic therapy intervention, meeting regulatory guidelines, logistical requirements, and ethical considerations, potentially revolutionizing the treatment of MRSA infections.

Open access

Abstract

Agastache rugosa (Fisch. et Mey.) O. Ktze, also known as “Suhuoxiang” (SHX), has been cultivated for more than three hundred years as a valuable aromatic edible and medicinal plant in Jiangsu Province, China. The volatile compounds of SHX from various habitats were investigated by HS-SPME-GC-MS, detecting sixty-five chemical constituents with menthone, pulegone, and estragole being the major volatile compounds. Their relative contents showed various accumulation tendencies in different growth months by GC-MS, with the relative content of menthone gradually increasing, pulegone content decreasing, as well as estragole content climbing initially before declining. This tendency was supported by quantitative experiments using samples from various habitats, which also revealed that the full-bloom stages exhibited the highest total concentrations of menthone and pulegone. The volatile composition of SHX in various plant organs differed, with palmitic acid being the main volatile component of stems, while menthone and pulegone being the core volatile components of leaves and spikes, implying that leaves and spikes should be separated from the stem to obtain higher drug contents. The current findings provide new information for SHX cultivation and applications.

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A talajspektrális könyvtárak nemzetközi jelentősége és hazai megalapozása

The international importance and national establishment of soil spectral libraries

Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors:
Ádám Csorba
,
Tamás Szegi
,
Gábor Várszegi
,
Gábor Nagy
, and
Erika Michéli

Napjainkban soha nem látott igény mutatkozik megfelelő mennyiségű és minőségű talajadatra és információra. Spektroszkópiai technológiák a hagyományos laboratóriumi módszerekkel együttesen, párhuzamosan alkalmazva lehetőséget kínálnak a talajfelvételezés idő- és költséghatékonyabbá, valamint környezetkímélőbbé tételére. Jelen munkában lokális, regionális és globális léptékű talajspektrális könyvtárak bemutatása mellett az első országos szintű, az Agrártechnológiai Nemzeti Laboratórium projekt keretében kidolgozásra kerülő, Magyarország talajtani változatosságát reprezentáló spektrális adatbázis létrehozásának koncepcióját mutatjuk be. A spektrális könyvtárak olyan speciális talajadatbázisoknak tekinthetőek, melyek tartalmazzák egy adott terület talajait reprezentáló talajminták hagyományos laboratóriumi módszerrel meghatározott paramétereit, valamint spektroszkópiai módszerrel rögzített spektrumait. A spektrális könyvtárakban tárolt adatok alapján elvégzett, spektroszkópiai kalibrációkra alapozott talajparaméter becslési eljárások lehetőséget kínálnak az adatbázisban szereplő talajminták fizikai-kémiai-ásványtani tulajdonságaihoz hasonló minták paramétereinek spektrális alapú megbízható megbecsléséhez. A hazai spektrális könyvtár alappillérét a Talajvédelmi Információs és Monitoring (TIM) rendszer mintavételezés kezdeti évében (1992-ben) gyűjtött, talajok genetikai szintjeiből vett talajmintákról felvett spektrumokra építjük. A spektrális adatbázist a középső-infravörös (middle-infrared, MIR), valamint a látható- és közeli infravörös (visible and near-infrared, VIS-NIR) tartományban, a Global Soil Laboratory Network (GLOSOLAN) iránymutatásai alapján rögzített spektrális adatokra építjük. A folyamatosan bővülő spektrális könyvtár, és az erre az adatbázisra épülő talajtulajdonság-becslő eljárás lehetőséget fog kínálni számos fizikai és kémiai paraméterének megbízható meghatározására, ezzel (számottevő többletköltség nélkül) nyújt lehetőséget a jelenlegi laboratóriumi kapacitás növelésére.

Open access

Abstract

Background

Doxycycline-based prevention of bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) has been assessed in various studies and has been recommended by the European AIDS Clinical Society to be proposed to persons with repeated STIs on a case-by-case basis. However, while good preventive effects could be shown for Chlamydia trachomatis and Treponema pallidum in Europe, no reliable prevention against doxycycline resistance-affected bacterial causes of STIs like Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Mycoplasma genitalium was confirmed.

Methods

In a modelling-approach, we assessed potential beneficial effects even against the latter microorganisms in case of optimized adherence with doxycycline prevention. These effects were modelled for Germany in comparison to traditional prevention schemes like condom-based STI-prevention and testing-as-prevention.

Results

With estimated risk reduction in the ranges of 86% for N. gonorrhoeae and of 82% for Mycoplasma genitalium, expectable preventive efficacy similar to alternative preventive approaches could be calculated in case of optimized adherence with doxycycline prevention. In case of repeated risk exposure, the preventive potential of condom-based prevention was decreased compared to both optimized doxycycline prevention and testing-as-prevention.

Conclusions

As suggested by the applied modelling, the preventive effect of optimized doxycycline prevention against bacterial STIs is in a similar range, like other common prevention strategies.

Open access

Abstract

Soil cultivation techniques can change the physical properties of soil and have the potential to influence the growth and productivity of crops. In the 2022 season, a research study was carried out on Gypsfreous soil in the College of Agriculture fields at Tikrit University. The purpose of the study was to investigate how the physical properties of the soil are influenced by three different plow types and varying plowing speeds. The study was planned using split plots within a Complete Randomized Blocks Design, with three types of plows (moldboard plow, disc plow, and chisel plow) and three tractor speeds (3.8, 5.8, and 7.6 km h−1) as the experimental treatments.

The experiment's findings indicated that the moldboard plow resulted in a greater reduction in bulk density compared to the disc plow. Consequently, the soil's bulk density decreased, and the percentage of porosity increased. On the other hand, the chisel plow had the lowest soil-specific resistance value and the highest soil volume disturbed value. The speed of operation above 3.8 km h−1 proved to be the most effective in reducing bulk soil density, increasing soil porosity, and reducing specific soil resistance. However, at a speed of 7.6 km h−1, the soil volume disturbed was significantly higher than at other speeds. Additionally, the experiment's findings demonstrated that the moldboard plow, operating at a speed of 3.8 km h−1, was significantly more effective than other methods in decreasing the soil's bulk density, increasing the porosity percentage, and reducing the specific soil resistance. Conversely, the chisel plow, working at a speed of 7.6 km h−1, had a significant advantage in achieving the highest value for the volume of soil disturbed.

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