Amaranth, buckwheat, quinoa, and less known, canihua are the most important pseudocereals. Their high nutritional value is well recognized and they are increasingly used for the development of a wide range of starch-based foods, which has been fostered by intensified research data performed in recent years. In addition to health driven motivations, also environmental aspects like the ongoing climate change are an important stimulus to increase agricultural biodiversity again. As pseudocereals are botanically classified as dicotyledonous plants their chemical, physical and processing properties differ significantly from the monocotyledonous cereals. Most important factors that need to be addressed for processing is their smaller seed kernel size, their specific starch structure and granule architecture, their gluten-free protein, but also their dietary fibre and secondary plant metabolites composition. This review gives a condensed overview of the recent developments and gained knowledge with special attention to the technological and food processing aspects of these pseudocereals.
Authors:S. Basay, A. Cimen, Y. Baba, A.B. Yildirim, and A.U. Turker
Interest in organic growing systems that means no harm to the environment, mankind, and the world’s natural ecosystem is increasing. This study evaluated the impact of organic versus conventional cultivation method on eggplants (Topan-374 and Pala-49), tomatoes (Rio Grande and Pink), and bell pepper (Kandil dolma) considering individual phenols, total phenol-flavonoid content, antioxidant capacity, and antibacterial potential. Peel and pulp of eggplants were evaluated separately. Organic cultivation enhanced trans-ferulic acid in the peels of both eggplant cultivars and the pulp of Pala-49. Organic Pala-49 had also higher amounts of cyanidin and caffeic acid in the peel, and only caffeic acid in the pulp. Chlorogenic acid was found in higher quantities in organic Rio Grande tomato and bell pepper. All organically grown vegetables in our study had significantly higher total phenol and flavonoid contents than conventional ones except Pink tomato. Organic farming significantly enhanced the antioxidant capacity of both eggplant cultivars. Only organic peel of Pala-49 eggplant cultivar had antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis. Organic cultivation has an advantage in terms of antioxidant potential and phenolic constituents, and it enhanced the nutraceutical potential of both cultivars of eggplant, Rio Grande tomato, and bell pepper.
Authors:Kovács Katalin, Horváth Márk, Halász Gábor, Takács Anita, Heltai György, Boros Norbert, Sipos Péter, and Győri Zoltán
Munkánk során potenciálisan toxikus fémek frakcióinak meghatározására alkalmazott analitikai módszereket kívántunk értékelni, azok talajféleségtől való függése alapján.
A talajféleségtől való függés mértéke döntően megszabja a módszer használhatóságát. Jelen dolgozat célja, hogy a Cu, a Zn, a Fe és a Ni környezeti mobilitása szempontjából értékelje a vizsgálatba vont egy- és többlépéses kioldásos módszereket.
Vizsgálatainkhoz a TIM adatbázisból származó négy, eltérő fizikai talajféleségű mintát választottunk (homok-, homokos vályog-, vályog- és agyag-talaj sorrendjében növekvő agyag- és humusztartalommal és pH-val).
Öt különböző kivonószerrel végzett egylépéses extrakciót és kétféle szekvens, azaz 3+1 lépéses egymás utáni extrakciós vizsgálatot végeztünk (BCR és McGrath módszerekkel).
Elvégeztük a minták Magyar Szabvány (MSZ 21470-50) szerinti, mikrohullámú kezeléssel egybekötött, H2O2+HNO3 eleggyel való roncsolását is. Az így megállapított elemtartalom környezetvédelmi szempontból teljes („összes”) elemtartalomnak tekinthető.
A mérési eredmények alapján megkíséreltük kiválasztani a vizsgálatba vont módszerek közül azokat, amelyek a talajból már biztonsággal meghatározható mennyiségű elemet vonnak ki, de a kivont mennyiség még nem a teljes elemtartalommal arányos.
A mikrohullámú feltárással kapott Zn-, Cu-, Fe- és Ni-tartalmak, a homok-, homokos vályog-, vályog- és agyag-talaj sorrendben, vagyis az agyag- és humusztartalmukkal, valamint pH-jukkal párhuzamosan nő. Egy olyan összetett rendszerben, mint a talaj, az egyes talajtulajdonságok, így az agyag- és humusztartalom, valamint a pH hatása vizsgálataink alapján nem különíthető el, de mint várható volt, a nagyobb agyag- és humusztartalmú és magasabb pH-jú talajok ezekből az elemekből többet halmoztak fel.
Mivel a kelátképzőket tartalmazó kivonószerek az összes réztartalomnak mintegy harmadát kivonták, a kivont mennyiség a réztartalommal volt arányos, vagyis a réztartalom növekedésével párhuzamosan nőtt.
Ezek a kivonószerek tehát Cu esetében kevésbé alkalmasak az egyes talajféleségek toxicitása közti különbségek kimutatására.
A rézzel ellentétben, a másik három elemnél az egyes talajféleségeknél kivont kis elemmennyiségek esetenként nagyságrendileg is különböztek, így az elméleti meggondolásunknak megfelelően feltételezhető, hogy az egyes talajféleségek toxicitása közti különbséget mutatják.
A két szekvens módszernél a vasnál kapott mérési eredményeket azok szórása miatt nem lehetett értékelni.
Megállapítható, hogy a BCR agresszívebb kivonószereket használ, mint a McGrath módszer, ennek megfelelően a BCR módszerrel a talajok átlagában az elemek 36, a McGrath módszerrel pedig csak 9%-át vontuk ki.
A BCR módszernél nincs vízszerű gyenge kivonószer, amiből a különböző talajok összes elemtartalmából felszabaduló ionok mennyiségére lehetne következtetni. Az ecetsav, a leggyengébb kivonószer, de a kicserélhető elemtartalom mellett kivonja a karbonátokhoz kötött, vagyis biztosan nem szabad ionos elemtartalmat is.
Mivel a BCR módszer minden kivonószerével sok elemet vonunk ki, nincs érdemi különbség az elemek egyes talajoknál mért kivonási százaléka között, ami figyelembe véve, hogy a talajok elemtartalma a homoktól az agyagtalajig nő, azt jelenti, hogy a kivont mennyiség az összes elemtartalommal arányos.
Lényegében ugyanezt mondhatjuk a McGrath módszer két agresszívebb kivonószeréről is, annak ellenére, hogy lényegesen kevesebb elemet vonnak ki. Ezzel szemben a módszer leírása szerint, a 0,1 mólos kalcium-kloridos kivonatból a vízoldható és kicserélhető elemtartalomra lehet következtetni, így minden bizonnyal a talajok toxicitását mutatja.
In this study, we aimed to evaluate some analytical methods used to determine the fractions of potentially toxic metals, based on their dependence on soil type.
The degree of dependence on soil type determines the applicability of the method. The aim of the present paper is to evaluate the single- and multi-step extraction methods included in the study in terms of the environmental mobility of Cu, Zn, Fe and Ni.
For the studies, we selected four samples with different physical soil types from the Soil Information and Monitoring System database.
In order to establish trends, soil samples were selected so that their clay and humus content, i.e., their adsorption capacity as well as their pH increased in the order of sand, sandy loam, loam and clay soils.
One-step extractions with five different extractants and two sequential extraction analyses including 3+1 steps were performed (BCR and McGrath methods).
We also performed the digestion of the samples with H2O2 + HNO3 solvent combined with microwave treatment according to the Hungarian Standard (MSZ 21470-50). The element content determined in this way can be considered as the "total" element content from the environmental point of view.
Based on the results of the analyses, we tried to select from the methods included in the study those that already extract a safe amount of elements from the soil, but the extracted amount is not yet proportional to the total element content.
The Zn, Cu, Fe and Ni contents resulting from microwave digestion increased in the order of sand, sandy loam, loam and clay soils, i.e. in parallel with the clay and humus content and pH of the soils.
As the extractants containing chelating agents extracted about one-third of the total copper content, the amount extracted was proportional to the copper content, i.e. it increased in parallel with the increase in copper content. Thus, in the case of copper, these extractants are less suitable for detecting differences in the toxicity of different soil types.
In contrast to copper, in the case of the other three elements, the small amounts extracted from each soil type also differed in order of magnitude, so according to our theoretical consideration, it can be assumed that they show a difference between the toxicity of each soil type.
The results obtained with iron using the two sequential methods could not be evaluated due to their standard deviation.
It can be stated that BCR uses more aggressive extractants than the McGrath method, accordingly, the BCR method extracted 36%, whereas the McGrath method only 9% of the elements on average of the soils.
The BCR method does not have an aqueous weak extractant, which would indicate the amount of ions released from the total element content of the different soils. Acetic acid is the weakest extractant, but in addition to the exchangeable element content, it also extracts the ionic element content bound to carbonates, which is certainly not free.
Because a large amount of elements is extracted with each extractant in the BCR method, there is no significant difference in the percentage of elements extracted for each soil, which, given that soil element content increases from sand to clay soil, means that the extracted amount is proportional to total element content.
Basically, the same can be said for the two more aggressive extractants of the McGrath method, despite the fact that they extract significantly less amount of elements. In contrast, as described in the method, the water-soluble and exchangeable element content can be inferred from the 0.1 M calcium chloride extract, thus it certainly indicates soil toxicity.
In this study, microbiological quality of 93 ready-to-eat food products was determined by enumeration of total aerobic bacteria and members of Enterobacteriaceae. Presence of Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes in the products were also investigated. Aerobic colony counts were between 1.9 × 102–3.4 × 108 CFU g−1 for 84.9% and Enterobacteriaceae counts were between 2 × 102 and 6.7 × 106 CFU g−1 for 43% of the samples. S. aureus was detected in 7.5% of the samples, but L. monocytogenes was not detected in any sample. 72.9% of the Enterobacteriaceae isolates showed resistance to at least one antibiotic tested, and 5 among the S. aureus isolates were found to be resistant to penicillin G and 2 against methicillin. Four S. aureus isolates produced only Staphylococcal enterotoxin A and 1 isolate produced both Staphylococcal enterotoxin A and B. Biofilm experiments revealed biofilm formation on polystyrene for 95.8%, 87.5%, and 91.6% of Enterobacteriaceae isolates at 4 °C, 22 °C, and 37 °C, respectively, whereas all S. aureus isolates formed biofilm at all temperatures.
Authors:A. Asha Monicka, T. Pandiarajan, and S. Ganapathy
The objective of this research is to develop a dehusked coconut grading machine for coconut cultivators and entrepreneurs. The basis of design is characterized by a tapered belt conveyor and sizing board with openings of increasing aperture which run along the edge of the belt conveyor. Dehusked coconuts are fed onto the tapered belt conveyor where the gravitational force pushes the nut towards the edge until it comes in contact with sizing board. Due to the tangential force, the nut reels along the sizing board, where dehusked coconuts are graded and allowed to fall through aperture according to their sizes. Performance tests indicated that the inclination angle and velocity of the belt significantly affected contamination ratio, grading efficiency and capacity at 5% significance level. The most efficient configuration for fully husked coconut and semi husked was a belt speed of 1.3 m/s with the inclination angle of 15° and belt speed of 1.5 m/s with the inclination angle of 15° respectively. The machine is acceptable by coconut growers and entrepreneurs.
Authors:M. Jafarian, H. Emami, and J. Baradaran Motie
Effect of coating with calcium nitrate in three concentrations (0.0, 0.5, and 1.0 wt%) on chemical and mechanical properties, and impact behaviour of two apple cultivars (Golden Delicious (GD) and Red Delicious (RD)) during time (0, 2, and 4 months) was studied. Moisture content, pH, titratable acidity, °Brix, organoleptic properties, modulus of elasticity (E), yield stress, yield strain, and toughness were measured. The effect of impact loads was determined by measuring bruise volume (BV) and bruise susceptibility (BS). The results showed that pH and °Brix significantly increased, while titratable acidity, E, yield strain, toughness, and BV decreased during storage time. As Ca(NO3)2 concentration increased, titratable acidity, E, yield strain and yield stress increased and pH decreased (P < 0.05). Highest and lowest values for °Brix were observed in GD treated with 1.0% Ca(NO3)2 after four months (13.31) and GD treated with 0.5% Ca(NO3)2 at the first day (10.65), respectively. Maximum E was obtained in GD treated with 1.0% Ca(NO3)2 on the first day (2130 kPa) and this sample also showed the lowest BS after four months of storage (2.82 mL J−1), while the uncoated GD had the highest BS on the first day (7.11 mL J−1).
Authors:B. Csehi, B. Salamon, T. Csurka, E. Szerdahelyi, L. Friedrich, and K. Pásztor-Huszár
Bovine blood samples were treated with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) to examine the changes that may occur in the blood related to its colour, microbiological characteristics, protein denaturation, and dynamic viscosity. Pressure treatments were carried out from 100 to 600 MPa in 100 MPa scale up, with 5 min holding time. The blood samples were treated with anticoagulant (EDTA) to eliminate the possible measurement distorting effects. We found that 2 log reduction in the microbial load could be achieved with a pressure treatment above 400 MPa. According to the protein denaturation measurements (DSC), blood proteins were resistant to pressure treatment, even at 300–400 MPa a substantial part of proteins remained in native state. The colour of the samples got darker with the rising pressure, however, visible colour change was observed only above 400 MPa. It can be established, that the HHP treatment was suitable to increase the microbiological stability of blood, without significantly changing its techno-functional properties.
The main purpose of this study was to determine the chemical composition of monofloral bee-collected pollen from the coffee (Coffea robusta) plant and its pellet morphology. According to the results coffee bee pollen (CBP) has a high nutritional value. It contains a large percentage of protein, reducing sugar, and lipid. Also, vitamins (B2 and E) and minerals (K, Ca, and P) were found in CBP. In addition, the results revealed that the total polyphenols content (TPC) was 10.62 mg GAE/g dry weight (DW) and antioxidant activity (AA) of CBP was 5.52 μmol TE/g DW. Some physical properties of CBP pellet were recorded such as moisture, relative diameter, sphericity, bulk density, and colour parameters. The pollen pellet exhibits shapes of colour from light to dark yellow. These results pointed out that CBP can be used as a remarkable source of compounds with antioxidant activity and health-protective capacity for humans.
Authors:D. Das, S. Tamuly, M. Das Purkayastha, B. Dutta, C. Barman, D.J. Kalita, R. Boro, and S. Agarwal
Green tea or its concentrated extract is coveted for its health promoting catechin-like polyphenols, especially epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). However, its amicable efficacy is now being doubted considering the recent occurrence of several cases of hepato- and nephrotoxicity, after the ingestion of EGCG-fortified (≥85–90%) nutritional supplements. Therefore, the current study was carried out to ascertain the effect of green tea leaves extract (GTE), having low EGCG content (73.8%), on liver and kidney functions of male Wistar rats using various in vivo experiments and in vitro radical scavenging activity. In terms of acute toxicity, GTE was observed to be safe when delivered at a dosage of 2000 mg kg−1 body weight (BW). Oral delivery of GTE for 28 days at a concentration of 200 mg kg−1 BW/day did not trigger sub-acute toxicity to the liver and kidneys, as per serum biochemical analyses and histopathological examination. In contrast, GTE counteracted the effects of carbon tetrachloride (a potent hepato-degenerative compound) on the liver. Furthermore, increase in high-density lipoprotein―cholesterol with concomitant lowering of serum triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein―cholesterol were noticed in GTE-treated rats. These findings suggest that low EGCG containing GTE, with appreciable antioxidant activity (IC50 = 53.18–71.28 μg mL−1), can serve as a hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic, and hypocholesterolemic ingredient.