Rye is an important raw material of bread due to tradition and its favourable nutritional and technological qualities. Despite the beneficial fibre composition, a special group of short-chain carbohydrates, the so called FODMAPs (fermentable oligo-, di-, monosaccharides and polyols) may cause problems for patients with irritable bowel syndrome. The aim of our work was to investigate the non-starch carbohydrate (dietary fibre compounds, short-chain carbohydrates) composition of rye varieties, and of their novel milling fractions obtained from industrial milling trials and test loaves made from them. Regarding fibre and short chain carbohydrate composition, rye varieties did not show significant differences. In new subfractions, fibre and FODMAP composition were described, among profiles most of them differ from commonly used flours, independently from variety. The yeast fermentation and baking caused a decrease in water-extractable arabinoxylan content, at the same time increased the substitution pattern of water-extractable arabinoxylans. Furthermore, breadmaking process decreased the fructan content, and therefore increased the fructose level, thus modifying the short-chain carbohydrate composition. Based on our knowledge, this research is among the first ones investigating the fibre and short-chain composition of rye from the seeds to the consumable final products.
Coatings of rice flour (RF), reinforced or not with rosemary essential oil (ROS), were used to evaluate changes in the internal quality of quail eggs stored at room temperature. Quality parameters [egg weight loss (EWL, %), Haugh unit (HU), yolk index (YI), albumen and yolk pH], microbiological (counts of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae) and sensory (colour, aroma, odour, texture, taste, and general acceptability) parameters were evaluated during the experiment. Compared to the number of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria on the shell of uncoated eggs (2.02 ± 0.49; 1.78 ± 0.20 log10 CFU mL−1), RF/ROS exhibited significant inhibition effects for these bacteria on 0. (1.16 ± 0.25 log10 CFU mL−1) and 21. (0.84 ± 0.11 log10 CFU mL−1) days of storage at room temperature. On days 7, 14, and 21, RF had no effect on HU (P > 0.05), but eggs coated with RF/ROS had significantly higher HU (P < 0.05) than uncoated eggs from day 14, maintaining grade AA (73.88 ± 2.67) on day 21, while uncoated eggs had grade A (68.90 ± 1.55) at that time. The RF coating reinforced with ROS was a bioactive, efficient, and safe formulation for application based on internal quality, microbiological and sensorial aspects of quail eggs.
The present study evaluated the effect of winemaking technologies on the concentration of different biogenic amines in Chardonnay wines. Wines produced from sedimented, inoculated must with active dry yeast without malolactic fermentation were compared with wine produced from nonsedimented must spontaneously fermented with malolactic fermentation. Histamine and putrescine concentrations were not significantly different in either variant. The highest concentration of histamine was 0.055 mg L−1, and the highest concentration of putrescine was 1.6 mg L−1 in both variants. Statistically significantly higher values of cadaverine (from 0.06 to 0.07 mg L−1), spermidine (from 0.8 to 1.4 mg L−1), spermine (from 0.15 to 0.25 mg L−1), and isoamylamine (from 0.40 to 0.46 mg L−1) were found in the variant made from nonsedimented must, in which spontaneous malolactic fermentation was performed. The higher concentration of biogenic amines in this variant may be due to the different composition of lactic bacteria during the spontaneous malolactic fermentation. A simplified, unpublished HILIC method of chromatographic separation of biogenic amines without prior deprivation with MS-MS detection was used to determine individual biogenic amines.
To explore the effect of sesamol on the cognition of APP/PS1 mice, 8-week-old APP/PS1 and wild-type male mice were divided into AD model group, AD + sesamol (50 mg kg−1 bw) group, and Control group. Sesamol was orally administered once a day for 5 months. Morris water maze was used to evaluate the learning and memory ability of mice. The number of synapses in the hippocampal neurons was detected by Golgi staining. Nissl staining was used to observe the changes of Nissl bodies in CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus. Western blotting was used to detect the expression of Aβ, SIRT1, BDNF, and p-CREB/CREB in the hippocampus and cortex. Compared with the model group, sesamol decreased the latency period of APP/PS1 mice (P < 0.05) and increased the total number of neuronal dendritic spines in the hippocampal CA3 region, as well as increased the number of Nissl bodies (P < 0.05). Western blotting results showed that sesamol significantly reduced Aβ protein expression in the hippocampus and cortex, increased SIRT1 expression in the cortex, and increased BDNF expression in the hippocampus (P < 0.05). Sesamol improved the learning and memory abilities of APP/PS1 mice probably through increasing the density of neuronal dendritic spines and upregulating the levels of SIRT1 and BDNF.
The rapid technological development that is still taking place today, with increasingly interconnected IT tools, is introducing dramatic changes. The development of computer programs is rapidly transforming traditional processes and the systems that support them. It is therefore natural that the fourth industrial revolution (Industry 4.0) and its impact on Hungarian companies is one of the key topics of our time. We conducted an exploratory quantitative survey, asking 140 managers of Hungarian small, medium and large enterprises about their current situation in the context of Industry 4.0. We sought to find out to what extent the specific R&D and innovation potential of Industry 4.0 is accepted, and whether it has already been introduced in the companies. On a qualitative side, 2 case studies and 3 interviews were conducted, in which structured interviews were used to further explore the issue. We aimed to find out where SMEs stood in terms of digital preparedness and what advantages, possible disadvantages, and goals they managed to identify. Our research showed that an increasing number of companies have already decided to take the first steps towards industrial digitalisation, which will completely transform their internal processes.
Production and consumption of chicken meat has increased considerably with the increasing world population, and will continue to increase, due to its health benefits and its economic value. Chicken meat is a sensitive food due to its characteristics and microbiological load. Traceability is very important to increase food safety and biosecurity. Freshness indicators are often used to monitor the presence of metabolites produced by microorganisms, mostly functioning through the colour change of the indicator. A developed natural, edible, biodegradable, purple coloured pH sensitive sensory pad was put inside a chicken meat package to observe the chicken meat spoilage with colour change due to pH changes in the meat.
In the present study, antibiotic resistance profiles and biofilm forming abilities of 9 Listeria monocytogenes isolates obtained from out of 30 retail meat samples were determined, and the effect of commercial white vinegar on these virulence factors in isolates exposed to subMIC concentrations were investigated. All isolates were found to be resistant to cefotixin and oxacillin, 8 isolates (26.6%) to clindamycin, 1 isolate (3.3%) to rifampicin, and 1 (3.3%) isolate was found to show intermediate resistance against clindamycin. Biofilm formation was determined for all the isolates at 22 °C and 37 °C (24 h, 48 h and 72 h). MIC values of white vinegar samples were determined at 3.12% for all isolates. MIC/2 and MIC/4 concentrations of white vinegar increased the biofilm forming capacity of the isolates by 21.2% and 17.1%, respectively. After exposure to MIC/2 concentration of white vinegar for seven days, the antibiotic resistance status of the isolates to tetracycline, rifampicin, and clindamycin changed, and the biofilm forming abilities significantly decreased at 4 °C and 37 °C for 48 h and at 37 °C for 72 h (P < 0.05). The results showed that the use of subMIC concentrations of white vinegar should be avoided in routine sanitation applications.
Present study aimed to optimise stabiliser concentration and swelling time of oat in the production of oat milk using response surface methodology. The effects of independent variables (stabiliser concentration, swelling time) on dependent variables (rheological and sensory properties) were studied using a central composite rotatable design of experiments. Physico-chemical properties and colour values of samples were not significantly (P > 0.05) correlated to stabiliser concentration and swelling time. While stabiliser concentration affected the consistency index (P < 0.05), swelling time had no effect on the rheological properties. The stabiliser ratio affected the sensory texture of samples (P < 0.05). The sensory scores did not increase with increasing K value, on the contrary, the samples with the highest K value had lower sensory scores (P < 0.05). Considering the K value and sensory scores, the optimum stabiliser concentration and swelling time were determined as 0.102%, and 51.2 min, respectively.
The aims of the present study were to detect Escherichia coli in chicken distributed in Birjand, to investigate the prevalence of ESBL and AmpC beta-lactamases producers among them, and to identify their antibiotic resistance patterns. The study was conducted on 150 chicken samples, and the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined by the Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion method. Phenotypic identification of ESBL and AmpC was performed by the combined disk test (CDT). The specific genes of ESBL and AmpC beta-lactamases were detected using two multiplex PCR (m-PCR) assays. According to our results, 116 out of 150 chicken samples were contaminated with E. coli. Moreover, the highest resistance of E. coli isolates was observed to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (46%), ampicillin (40%), and amoxicillin (29.33%). In the molecular confirmation step, among 17 (11.33%) beta-lactamase producers, five samples contained the blaCTX-M14 gene (3.33%), two samples contained blaDHA (1.33%) and blaCTX-M3 gene (1.33%), and just one sample carried blaCMY-2 gene (0.66%). The blaSHV and blaTEM genes were not detected in any strains isolated from the chicken samples. This study showed the contamination of chicken with antibiotic-resistant E. coli. Therefore, it is recommended that veterinarians be more precautious in prescribing antibiotics.